Criminology CJ 220
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aurelia Tromp on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 220 at Michigan State University taught by Cedric Taylor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/207602/cj-220-michigan-state-university in Criminal Justice at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Outline for Chapter 2 I Primary Sources of Crime Data A Official Record Research 1 The Uniform Crime Report UCR a Includes crimes reported to local police departments and number of arrests made by police agencies b Index or Part I crimes murder and nonnegligent manslaughter forcible rape robbery aggravated assault burglary larceny arson and motor vehicle theft 2 Compiling the Uniform Crime Report a Monthly reports of known crime from law enforcement agencies b Monthly reports of crimes cleared c Three methods to express crime data i Number of crimes reported and arrests made ii Crime rates per 100000 iii Changes in the number and rate of crime over time 3 Validity of the UCR a Reporting practices i Not all crimes are reported ii Victim surveys indicate less than 40 are reported b Law enforcement practices c Methodological problems 4 NIBRS National Incident Based Reporting System a Collects data on each reported crime incident b Information provided on 46 specific offenses c Over twenty states have implemented NIBRS B Survey Research 1 Measures beliefs attitudes values characteristics and behavior a Sample a representative group b Population entire group from which a sample is taken c Crosssectional survey representative of all members of society 2 Selfreport surveys a Ask participants about their own criminal activity b Most focus on juvenile delinquency and youth crime c Also used with prison inmates and drug users 3 Monitoring the Future StudyiUniversity of Michigan 4 Validity of selfreports a Responses accurately re ect respondents true life experiences b Critics disagree c Missing cases phenomenon is a problem C The National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS 1 Designed to address nonreporting issue a 149000 people ages 12 and older b People report victimization experiences c High completion rate 2 Validity of the NCVS a Overreporting due to misinterpretation of events b Underreporting due to embarrassment fear or forgetfulness c Inability to record the personal criminal activity of those interviewed d Sampling errors II Secondary Sources of Crime Data A Cohort Research 1 Dif cult expensive and time consuming to follow a cohort over time quot 39 do r quot cohort studies B Experimental research 1 True experiments have three elements a Random selection of subjects b Control or comparison group c An experimental condition 2 Quasiexperimental design if it is impossible to randomly select subjects or manipulate conditions 3 Criminological experiments a Relatively rare because they are dif cult and expensive b Ethical and legal roadblocks to manipulating subjects lives c Require long followup to verify results C Observational and Interview Research D MetaAnalysis and Systematic Review 1 Metaanalysis a Gathers data from a number of previous studies b Compatible information and data are extracted and pooled 2 Systematic review a Collect ndings from previous studies addressing a particular problem b Appraise and synthesize evidence c Use collective evidence to address a particular scienti c question E Data Mining 1 Using computers to analyze large data sets from one or more sources F Crime Mapping 1 Creating graphic representations of the spatial geography of crime IV Crime Trends A Changes in Crime Trends Over Time 1 Reasons for Crime Trends a Age i Graying of America ii Declining birthrate b Economy c Social malaise d Abortion e Guns f Gangs g Drug use h Media i Medical technology j Justice policy k Crime opportunities B Trends in Violent Crime 1 Decrease in the numbers of murder rapes assaults robberies 2 Violence in the US has decreased 24 during the last decade 3 Between 1991 and 2004 murder rates dropped more than 40 C Trends in Property Crime 1 Drop in property crime rate larceny motor vehicle theft arson 2 Between 1995 and 2004 property crime rate declined 23 and declined an additional 21 between 2003 and 2004 D Trends in Victimization Data NCVS ndings con rm UCR s view of declining crime rates is accurate E Trends in SelfReporting 1 More stable than result indicated in UCR 2 Drugs and alcohol marked increase in the 1970s leveled off in the 1980s increased in mid1990s then declined V What the Future Holds A Fox predicts a signi cant increase in teen violence not all criminologists agree B Steffensmeier and Harer predict a moderate increase in crime C The Internet and ecommerce have created new classes of crime VI Crime Patterns A The Ecology of Crime 1 Day season and climate 2 Temperature 3 Regional differences B Use of Firearms 1 Play a dominant role in criminal activity C Social Class Socioeconomic Conditions and Crime 1 Crime is a lowerclass phenomenon a Instrumental crimes b Expressive crimes 2 Higher crime rates in innercity highpoverty areas 3 Prisoners were members of the lower class unemployed or underemployed before incarceration 4 Alternative explanation relationship between social class and crime may be a function of law enforcement practices a Police devote more resources to poor areas and apprehension rates are higher there b Police more likely to arrest and prosecute lower class citizens 5 Class and selfreports a Little support for idea that crime is primarily a lowerclass phenomenon b If only serious offenses are considered a signi cant association can be observed 6 ClassCrime Controversy a If crime is related to social class then economic and social factors cause crime b Possible that the association between social class and crime is more complex than a simple linear relationship D Age and Crime 1 Age is inversely related to criminality 2 Relationship has been stable since 1935 3 Aging out of crime a Crime peaks in adolescence then declines rapidly b Agnew teenage criminal activity can be linked to essential features of adolescence in modern industrial societies E Gender and Crime 1 Male crime rates are much higher than those for females 2 Males selfreport criminal behavior more than females but not to the degree suggested by official data 3 Explaining gender differences traits and temperament a Early criminologists pointed to emotional physical and psychological differences to explain crime rate differences b Masculinity hypothesis c Chivalry hypothesis 4 Explaining gender differences socialization and development a Girls socialized to avoid being violentaggressive b Girls supervised more closely c Girls develop moral values that strongly discourage antisocial behavior 5 Explaining gender differences cognitive differences a Girls superior to boys in verbal ability b Girls even at an early age more empathic than boys 6 Explaining gender differences feminist views a Liberal feminist theory b Selfreport studies seem to indicate that the pattern of female criminality is similar to that of male criminality 7 Is convergence likely a Female arrest rates seem to be increasing at a faster pace than males b Changes in police activity may explain differences in a1rest trends F Race and Crime 1 Minorities involved in a disproportionate share of criminal activity 2 Responsible for a disproportionate number of Part I and 11 arrests 3 Possible reasons a Data re ect racial differences in the crime rate b Data re ect police bias in the arrest process
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