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by: Aurelia Tromp

Criminology CJ 220

Aurelia Tromp
GPA 3.66

Cedric Taylor

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Cedric Taylor
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aurelia Tromp on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 220 at Michigan State University taught by Cedric Taylor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see /class/207602/cj-220-michigan-state-university in Criminal Justice at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
Outline for Chapter 8 I Introduction A Social con ict theorists view crime as a function of social con ict and economic rivalry B Marxist criminologists or radical criminologists eld of study is called critical criminology C Con ict theorists goals 1 To explain crime within economic and social contexts 2 To express the connection between the nature of social class crime and social control D Con ict theorists are concerned with l The role government plays in creating a crimogenic environment 2 The relationship between personal or group power and the shaping of criminal law 3 The prevalence of bias in justice system operations 4 The relationship between a capitalist freeenterprise economy and crime rates 11 Marxist Thought A Karl Marx lived in atime of unrestrained capitalist expansion B Friedrich Engels 18201895 friend and collaborator of Marx C Marx and Engels joined the Communist League by 1847 D Productive Forces and Productive Relations 1 Marx published his famous manifesto in 1848 a Focused on the economic conditions perpetuated by the capitalist system b Development had turned workers into a dehumanized mass that merely existed at the mercy of the capitalist employers c Identified the economic structures in society that control all human relations 2 Production has two components a Productive forces technology energy and material sources b Productive relations relationships that exist among the people producing goods and services 3 Most important relations in industrial culture are between a Capitalist bourgeoisie owners of production b Proletariat people who do the actual work c Lumpen proletariat the bottom of society the fringe members who produce nothing and live off the work of others 4 Class does not refer to an attribute or characteristic of a person or group rather it denotes one s position in relation to others a Not necessary to have wealth or prestige to be part of capitalist class it is more important to have the power to exploit 5 Societies and their structures are not stable thus they can change through slow evolution or sudden violence E Surplus value 1 Marx held that the laboring class produces goods that exceed wages in value the theory of surplus value a Excess value goes to capitalists as pro t 2 Capitalists nd ways to produce cheaply a Pay workers lowest possible wages b Replace workers with laborsaving machines 3 Dialectic model of Hegelifor every idea or thesis there is an opposing argument or antithesis a synthesis is the merger of the two F Marx on Crime 1 Did not write a great deal on the subject of crime 2 Viewed crime as the product of law enforcement policies akin to a labeling process theory 3 Saw a connection between criminality and the inequities found in the capitalist system 111 Developing a Con ict Based Theory of Crime A Marx in uenced the development of social con ict thinking B The concept of social con ict was first applied to criminology by Bonger Dahrendorf and Vold C The Contribution of Willem Bonger 1 Born in 1876 in Holland and committed suicide in 1940 rather than submit to Nazi rule 2 Believed crime was of social origin and crime lay within the boundaries of normal human behavior 3 No act is naturally immoral or criminal 4 Society is divided into have and have not groups a In every society that is divided into the ruling class and an inferior class the penal law serves the will of the ruling class 5 The legal system discriminates against the poor by defending the actions of the wealthy and it is the proletariat who are deprived 6 Upperclass individuals will commit crime if a They have opportunity to make a financial gain b Their lack of moral sense enables them to violate social rules 7 When wealth is distributed unequally those who are poor will be crime prone 8 Concluded that crime will disappear if society progresses from competitive capitalism to monopoly capitalismirelatively few enterprises control the means of production D The Contribution of Ralf Dahrendorf 1 Argued that modern society is organized into imperatively coordinated associations a Those who posses authority and use it for domination and those who lack authority are dominated 2 Society is a plurality of competing interest groups 3 Wrote Class and Class Con ict in Industrial Society a Attempted to show how society changed since Marx s works b Argued that Marx did not foresee the changes occurring in the laboring classes c Workers were divided into unskilled skilled and semiskilled 4 Proposed a uni ed con ict theory of human behavior a Social change is everywhere all of the time b Social con ict is everywhere all of the time c Every element in society contributes to its disintegration and change d Others base every society on the coercion of some of its members E The Contribution of George Vold 1 Con ict theory actually adapted to criminology by Vold 2 Argued that crime can be explained by social con ict 3 Laws are created by politicallyoriented groups that seek the govemment s assistance to help them defend their rights and protect their interests 4 Criminal acts are a consequence of direct contact between forces struggling to control society IV Social Con ict Theory A Became prominent during the 1960s B Criminologists began to view the justice system as a mechanism to control the lower class and maintain the status quo C William Chambliss and Robert Seidman wrote Law Order and Power which documented how the justice system protects the rich and powerful I Described how the control of the political and economic systems affect how criminal justice is administered 2 Showed how the definitions of crime favor those who control the justice system 3 Analyzed the role of con ict in contemporary society D According to Richard Quinney and his social reality of crime laws represent the interests of those who hold power in society 1 Power the ability of persons and groups to determine and control the behavior of others and to shape public opinion to meet their personal needs 2 Unequal distribution of power causes con ict E Social Con ict Research 1 Comparing crime rates of members of powerless groups with those of members ofthe elite classes a Economic marginalization turns people to violent crime for survival b Examining the criminal justice system s operations i Studies show that the criminal justice system is quick to take action when the victim of crime is wealthy white and male but is disinterested when the victim is poor black and female V Critical Criminology A 1968 British sociologists formed the national Deviancy Conference B 1973 Critical theory published in The New Criminology by Ian Taylor Paul Walton and Jock Young C Scholars in America started following a critical approach to criminology l Primarily at University of California at Berkeley D 1980s Left Realism School was started by scholars ofthe MiddleseX Polytechnic and the University of Edinburgh in Great Britain E Since the 1980s critical criminologists have been concerned with the conservative trend in American politics and the creation of an American empire 1 Have turned their attention to the threat of competitive capitalism to the working class F Fundamentals of critical Criminology 1 Critical criminologists view crime as a function of the capitalist mode of production and not the social con ict that might occur in any society 2 Critical criminology capitalism produces haves and have nots each engaging in a particular branch of criminality 3 In a capitalist society those with economic and political power control the definition of crime and the manner in which the criminal justice system enforces the law 4 Globalization refers to the process of creating transnational markets politics and legal systems creating a global economy G Instrumental versus Structural Theory 1 Instrumental critical theory views the criminal justice system as a method of controlling the poor havenot members of society the state and its agencies of control police courts corrections are the tools of the capitalists a The poor may or may not commit more crimes than the rich they are just arrested and punished more often b Demystify law and justice to unmask its true purpose 2 The structural view the relationship between law and capitalism is unidirectional not always working for the rich and against the poor a Law is used to maintain the longterm interests of the capitalist system b Law is used to control members of any class who pose a threat to its existence c Law is designed to keep the capitalist system working efficiently H Research on Critical Criminology l Mainstream research is designed to unmask the weak and powerless members of society so they can be better dealt with by the legal system 2 Critical research tends to be historical and analytical not quantitative and empirical a Macro level issues how the accumulation of wealth affects crime rates b Micro level issues the effect of criminal interactions on the lives of individuals living in a capitalist society 3 Crime the individual and the state a Crime and its control are a function of capitalism b The justice system is biased against the working class and favors upper class interests 4 Historical analysis a To show how changes in criminal law correspond to the development of capitalist economy and investigate the development of modern police agencies b 19 century research re forced convict labor I Critique of Critical Criminology 1 Great deal of criticism 2 Some charge that critical criminologists unfairly neglect the efforts of the capitalist system to regulate itself 3 Refuse to address the problems that exist in socialist countries VI Contemporary Forms of Critical Theory A Left Realism 1 Connected to British scholars John Lea and Jock Young 2 Relative deprivation equals discontent discontent plus lack of political solution equals crime 3 Crime protection a Preemptive deterrence efforts to prevent crime through community organization and youth involvement b Marginalized youth those who feel they are not part of society and have nothing to lose by committing crime B Critical feminist theory 1 A number of feminist writers have attempted to explain the cause of crime gender differences in the crime rate and the exploitation of female victims 2 Critical feminists view gender inequality as stemming from the unequal power of men and women in a capitalist society a Patriarchy or male supremacy continues to be supported by capitalists 3 Patriarchy and crime link criminal behavior patterns to the gender con ict created by the economic and social struggles common in post industrial societies a Double marginality argues that capitalist society is marked by both patriarchy and class con ict Capitalists control the labor of workers and men control women both economically and biologically b Females in a capitalist society commit fewer crimes than males they are isolated in families and have fewer opportunities than men c Doing gender dominating women to prove one s maleness d Female victimization should decline as women s place in society is elevated 4 Exploitation and criminality exploitation triggers the onset of female delinquency and deviant behavior 5 How the justice system penalizes women a Juvenile system views the majority of female delinquents as sexually precocious girls who have to be brought under control b Females more likely to be arrested for sexual misconduct than their male counterparts c Girls more likely to undergo physical exams than boys d Girls more likely to be sent to a detention facility before trial e Longer detention for girls than boys C PowerControl Theory 1 John Hagan and associates 2 Crime and delinquency are a function of a Class position power b Family functions control 3 Parents reproduce the power relationships they hold in the workplace 4 Patemalistic familiesifathers assume the traditional role of breadwinners while mothers tend to have menial jobs or remain at home to supervise domestic matters a Role exit behaviors desperate girls are likely to run away or commit suicide 5 Egalitarian familiesithe husband and wife share similar positions of power at home and in the workplace a Daughters gain a freedom that re ects reduced parental control 6 Evaluating powercontrol has received a great deal of attention a Not all research is supportive VII Postmodern Theory A Postmodemists or deconstructionists have embraced semiotics or deconstructionist analysis as a method of understanding all human relations including human behavior 1 Semiotics using language as signs or symbols beyond their literal meaning B Postmodemists believe that language is valueladen and can promote inequities that are present in the rest of the social structure C Peacemaking Theory 1 The main purpose of criminology is to promote a peaceful and just society 2 Peacemaking draws its inspiration from religious and philosophical teachings 3 Peacemakers view the efforts of the state to punish and control as crime encouraging rather than crime discouraging 4 Advocate policies such as mediation and con ict resolution rather than prison VIII Public Policy Implications of Social Con ict Theory Restorative Justice A Con ict causes crime B quot Justice r 39 ino v t has adopted and applied nonviolent methods


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