### Create a StudySoup account

#### Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

# Introductory Physics I PHY 231

MSU

GPA 3.67

### View Full Document

## 24

## 0

## Popular in Course

## Popular in Physics 2

This 53 page Class Notes was uploaded by Quinn Larkin on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHY 231 at Michigan State University taught by Filomena Nunes in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/207610/phy-231-michigan-state-university in Physics 2 at Michigan State University.

## Popular in Physics 2

## Reviews for Introductory Physics I

### What is Karma?

#### Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

#### You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/19/15

Chapter 1 introduction Dimensional analysis can be used to check equations Significant figures reliably known digit Units and conversions it is important to have consistent units Use International System whenever possible Components of a vector Chapter 2 Motion in 1D displacement szxf xi velocity Ax xf xl acceleration vz Z Av v v Ar zf zl a f z I I xfxi Al If ll why i t f i Av a 11m v 2 11m N90 At 1D motion with constant acceleration m Equations for Motion in a Straight Line Under Constant Acceleration U 1Jv0 at Axv0 vl 1 2 Ax v0t al 2 Equation Information Given by Equation Velocity as a function of time Displacement as a function of velocity and time Displacement as a function of time 7102 2a Ax Velocity as a function of displacement Note Motion is along the x axis At 1 0 the velocity of the particle is no 2003 Thomson BrooksCole Chapter 3 Motion in 2D displacement Ar rf r1 Average velocity Average acceleration 53 a N At InStantaneous VelOClt l Instantaneous acceleration a A17 A17 V 11m a 39 At 153 unlswp a Euiusiiqng nnoigt1uma mm 5mm quotalumniquot Projectile motion EIIt can be described as a superposition of two independent motions in the x and y directions EIProvided air resistance is negligible the horizontal component of velocity vx remains constant EIThe vertical component of the acceleration is equal to the free fall acceleration g EIThe vertical component of the velocity vV and the displacement in the y direction are identical to those of a freely falling body Projectile motion strategy El Select a coordinate system and sketch the path of the particle El Resolve the initial velocity in its x and y components El Treat the horizontal and vertical motion independently El Follow method for constant velocity to analyse x motion El Follow method for constant acceleration to analyse the y motion Chapter 4 Laws of motion CONCEPT OF FORCE IN E lKgmSz Net force the sum of all external forces 21 F1 F2 F3 Newton s Laws 15 If the net force exerted on an object is zero the object continues in its original state of motion an object at rest remains at rest an object moving with some velocity continues with that same velocity Newton s second law 2 The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass 2 max ZEJ may Remember concepts of mass inertia and weight 3 If two object interaction the force F12 exerted by object 1 on object 2 is equal in magnitude and opposite direction to the force F21 exerted by object 2 on object 1 Application of Laws of Newton 2F 0 2E 0 2F 2 max ZEJ may Equilibrium Acceleration Plus friction Application of newton s laws The leg and cast weigh 220 N W1 Determine the weight w2 and the angle needed so that no force is exerted on the hip joint by the leg plus the cast Forces of friction static and kinetic J y n I l5 F be i r c 2 w my ii l V W quotl 5mm quotw iai km W 7 a mu await a Publtlhmg l dimmer uthamian hurling Forces of friction example The hockey puck is given an initial speed of 200 m s on a frozen pond The puck remains on ice and slide 120 m before it comes to rest Determine the coefficient of kinetic friction puck and ice Motion Chapter 5 Energy D i39 ejVFcoslt9Ax444444 1512vmj The kinetic energy 1 K 2 Ez mv 2 When work is done by a net force on an object and the only change in the object is its speed the work done is equal to the change in the object s kinetic energy W KEf KEi2AKE net Conservation of Mechanical Energy In any isolated system of objects that interact only through conservative forces the total mechanical energy of the system the sum of the kinetic and potential energy remains constant KEf PEf KEZ PEZ Spring Potential energy Gravitational Potential energy 1 2 PEZEM PEzmg Energy Balance If there is a nonconservative force that is dissipative friction air resistance its work is negative and the mechanical energy of the system will reduce KEfPEf KEPE W iss If there is a nonconservative external force that is pumping energy into the system its work is positive and the mechanical energy of the system will increase KEf PEf KE PE W F ext Strategy applying energy conservation El define your system El select a location for the zero gravitational potential energy El determine whether all forces are conservative El define the initial and final point to consider El if mechanical energy is conserved write down the initial mechanical energy and the final mechanical energy and solve for the unknown El if there is a nonconservative force calculate the work done by it and write down the energy balance equation Energy conservation example A powerful grasshopper launchs itselfat an angle 450 above the horizontal and rises vertically about 10 m With what speed v does it leave the ground Neglect air rsistance Tum II Zero level nl gravitational porenlial eneigyV Energy conservation example The hockey puck is given an initial speed of 200 ms mm WquotMWquot quot quotquot quotquot on a frozen pond l The puck remains on ice and slide 120 m before it comes to rest Determine f l the coefficient of 1 73 V 3 Motion kinetic friction puck and ice Fg mg Power Power is the time rate of energy transfer SI Units 1W1Js Conversion 1hp746 W Chapter 6 linear momentum Impulse of a force area under the forcetime graph Linear momentum I F pzmv lKgmf1 E le The impulse of the force acting on an object equals the change in momentum of the object FAt Afa 11 Conservation of momentum If there are no external forces acting on the system consisting of two objects that collide the total momentum of the system is conserved gt plf p2f 171139 1721 In inelastic collisions the momentum is conserved but the energy is not In elastic collisions both energy and momentum are conserved Strategy for collisions El set up the coordinate system and define the velocities align one of the axis with an initial velocity El sketch the collision draw all velocities with labels El determine momenta of each object before and after the collision El write down the total momentum before and after the collision El if the collision is inelastic solve the equation for conserving momentum and nd the unknown quan es El if the collision is elastic the kinetic energy is also conserved Write down both conservation equations and solve for the unknowns 12 Chapter 7 circular motion Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis with Constant Acceleration Linear Motion with Constant Acceleration oozoaioct vviat A6 OJ t i lOCt2 2 AX v t lat2 2 032 oi2 2ocA6 v2 vf 2an Linear and angular quantities Ae r V a r a a r Centripetal and tangential acceleration When the trajectory is not in a straight line we can decompose the acceleration into centripetal and tangential centripetal in the radial direction responsible for the change in direction of the velocity vector 2 V 2 Centripetal ac CO 7quot force Fc mac 7quot Tangential tangent to the trajectory responsible for the change in magnitude of the velocity vector Av a At Strategy for rotational motion El draw freebody diagram showing forces El choose a coordinate system where one axis is perpendicular to the circular path El find the net force toward the center of the circular path El write down Newton s second law along the tangent and the centripetal directions El solve for the unknowns 14 Newton s law of universal gravitation m m 1 2 F g G 2 r m G6673X103911 N mZkg2 Gravitiational Potential Energy At the surface of the earth we defined the gravitational potential energy as PEg mgh At an arbitrary height this expression is not valid as it assumes constant acceleration Instead we will define g7 REMi r PE 7 MEm MEm nmmm mucou Where zero potential energy is at infinity Kepler s laws 1 All planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun Sun at one of the focal 1 Points A gtSl B a r 2 A line drawn from x the Sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas a n u a V V 39 in equal time intervals 3 The square of the orbital period ofany planet is proportional to the cube of the average distance from the planet to the Sun Chapter 8 Torque The tendency of a force to rotate an object about some agtltis 39 d b t39 ll dt is measure y a quan ity ca e orque T Fd Units 1 Nm r F s1n r m Two conditions for dynamics of a rigid body Translation the acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force applied gt F net 22131mc i Rotation the angular acceleration of an object is proportional to the net torque applied rm 2 271 Ia Rotational kinetic energy Even if the center of gravity of the object is at rest a rotating object has kinetic energy The total kinetic energy of the object is the sum of the translational and the rotational kinetic energies KE lat KEI KEr lmv2 l1a2 2 2 17 Angular momentum of a rigid object The angular momentum of a rigid object is proportional to its moment of inertia and the angular speed L I 0 The torque acting on an object is equal to the time rate of change of the object s angular momentum AL T At The angular momentum of a system is conserved when the net external torque acting on the system is zero L1 Lf 10 1fo Conservation of angular momentum question A student is playing with weights on a rotating stool Assume there is no friction If initially he has his arms stretched what happens when he brings them in a The angular speed decreases b The angular speed increases c The angular speed stays the same MUGswam uchIumnl o translation versus rotation psz Lzla Fzma gtTIa FAP At 1 KEI lMV2 KEV Ia2 2 2 AL 239 Al Chapter 9 Elasticity in length Tensile stress is the ratio of the magnitude of the external force per sectional area A Tensile strain is the ratio of the change of length to the original length Young39s modulus is the ratio of the tensile stress over the tensile strain force area AL L 0 FA FL0 YE ALLO ALA 19 Elasticity of Shape Shear stress is the ratio of F the parallel force to the area parallel A of the face being sheared area Shear strain is the ratio of Ax the distance sheared to the height h Shear modulus is the ratio F A h of the shear stress over the S E M 2 Parallel shear strain Axh Ax A Elasticity in volume Volume stress is the AF change in the applied force AP E per surface area Asuifm Volume strain is the ratio of the change of volume to the original volume AV Volume strain V Bulk modulus is the ratio of the volume stress over B E AFA i the volume strain AVV AVV Variation of pressure with depth The average pressure in F fp i the uid at a certain depth P E is the force per area A All portions of the fluid must I be in static equilibrium F2 2F 1PM All points at the same depth must be at the same pressure p A 2 130A Mg Wii t P P0 pgh Pascal s principle A change in pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the container 21 Buoyant forces Archimides principle Any object completely or partially submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force whose magnitude is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object B uid W obj B mung Buoyant forces 1 Totally submerged object Fnet BWobj pobjVg L2 Partially submerged object F B Wobj p uidV uid poijobjg net We have equilibrium when Fnet0 p uidV ujd pobjlobj 22 Equation of continuity time interval The amount of fluid that enters one end of the tube in a given time interval equals the amount of fluid leaving the tube during the same Flow rate amount of uid passing a crosssectional ill f A area per second owralezVlev A 39 A A A1 7quot Ax c WM A1V1 A2V2 Bernoulli s Equation Energy conservation applied to a fluid the sum of the pressure the kinetic energy per unit volume and the potential energy per unit volume has the same value at all points along a streamline 1 1 P1 Epv1zpgh1zP2 3101 pgh2 Point 1 Ax 13A Point 2 23 Chapter 10 thermometers SICltllI puilli Hmquot 2V2quot E 2 4727315 g T 9 TF TC 32 g 5 a 7 5 Tc 3TF 7 32 Iu puim 0 quot 32 39rklih I39lelirnllrll Kl39lVlll Thermal linear expansion in solids AL I aLOAT Coef cient of linear expansion AA 2 Coef cient of area expansion AV icient of volume expansion If expansion is the same in all directions 7 2 3 24 Ideal gas macroscopic description The pressure P the volume V the temperature T and the amount of gas n are related to each other through the equation of state Ideal gas Collection of atoms or molecules considered pointlike that move randomly and exert no longrange forces on each other Avogardo s number number of particle per mole NA 602x1023 Ideal gas equation of state The ideal gas law is PV R831JmolK lThe internal energy for a monoatomic gas is 3 J U nRT 2 Internal energy is associated with the microscopic components of a system kinetic and potential energies The larger the number of internal degrees of freedom of a system translation rotation or vibrations of molecules the larger the internal energy 25 Chapter 11 Heat and Specific Heat Heat is the mechanism by which there is energy transferred Q between a system and the environment because of a temperature gradient Specific heat the amount of energy per unit mass required to change the substance s temperature by 1 0C C E It is an intrinsic property of each 0 substance lJkg C Calorimetry The principle of energy conservation requires that the energy that leaves the warmer substance equals the energy that enters the colder one cold Qh0t How do we determine the specific heat of a substance mcCcTTc mhchTTh T T mh T Water is typically used for the cooling process h 26 Latent heat and phase change Sometimes a transfer of energy does not result in a temperature increase it may go into different forms of internal energy phase change Latent heat of fusion Lf is the energy required to melt or freeze one unit mass of the substance Latent heat of vaporization Lv is the energy required to boil or condense one unit mass of the substance inmL Thermal Conduction A difference in temperature drives the flow of energy from a hot part of the system to the cold part Th the Rate of energy transfer is 39liigt 7 mullmon proportional to the crosssectional quot proportional to the thickness of the 7 slab 7 xi A PzgzkAah T At 1 L gt n gtl hi lt L gt V Energy now 1 Thermal conductivity 27 Radiation All objects radiate energy continously in form of electromagnetic waves egtlt light The rate at which an object radiates energy is known as Stephan s Law P O39AeT4 P power in Watts 0 constant 5669gtlt10 8 WmZK A surface area eemissivity varies from 0 to 1 T temperature in Kelvin ideal absorber black body eal reflector Chapter 12 thermodynamic processes The work done on a gas in a cylinder is directly proportional to the force and the displacement W FAy PAAy It can be also expressed in terms of the pressure egtltcerted by the piston and the variation in volume W PAV Compression work is positive Egtltpansion work is negative inommummawumm h PV diagrams P lt V C The work done on a gas when taking it from an initial thermodynamic state I to a final thermodynamic state f can be determined by the area below the P diagram First law of thermodynamics The change in internal energy of the system is the sum of the heat transferred to the system and the work done on the system AUEUf UiQW 29 First law of Thermodynamics Isolated systems WO and QO Uf 2 U1 Cyclic processes if the process ends up in the same thermodynamics state as it started there will be no change in its internal energy UfUi gtW Q First law of Thermodynamics Isothermal processes if the temperature is constant over the process 3 UEnRTHUfUi gtW Q env Vf W nRTln V l Adiabatic processes if the energy transferred by heat in a process is zero then AU W 30 Heat engines The heat engine is a device that converts internal energy into other useful forms of energy electrical mechanical etc In general it carries a working substance egtlt water through cycles 1 Energy is transferred from a hot reservoir 2 Work is done by the engine 3 Energy is expelled into a cold reservoir Hui reservoir m 391 er l7 7 L Thermal efficiency of Heat engines W mg g lel l Qhot l Thermal efficiency of the heat engine is the ratio of the work done by the engine to the energy absorbed from the hot reservoir in a cycle glQhrotlcholdl1choldl l QM l Second law of thermodynamics It is impossible to construct a heat engine with 100 efficiency 31 Carnot engine No real engine operating between two energy reservoirs can be made more efficient than a Carnot engine operating between the same reservoirs 81Tcold Th 0 Chapter 13 Simple Harmonic Motion Simple harmonic motion is the type of motion that results from a force that is proportional to the displacement but opposite direction It is periodic Amplitude A magnitude of the maximum position of the object relative to its equilibrium position In the simple harmonic motion the system will oscillate between A and A Period T the time it takes for the object to complete a full cycle If the system starts at the maximum gtltA a full cycle involves going all the way to gtltA and back to gtltA again Frequency f the number of cycles completed per unit time 32 Comparing SHM with UCM derivation The projection of the uniform circular motion UCM in one of the axes reproduces the pattern of the simple harmonic motion SHM i A III mg sin 9 i 111gcosf small angle approximation WWWmum quotif sin6 6 33 Waves P What is a wave Wk quot An oscillation that is gt5 both a function of A I J quot77 time and of A distance Snapshot I I l behaVIour With x l x Looking at one point only 39 39 l behaviour with t w mannmmw Wavelength The wavelength is the distance 1 between two maximum points of the wave Ax xi The wave speed Is v At T 34 Chapter 14 sound waves The intensity of a wave is the rate at which energy flows through a unit cross sectional area area A L 1010g10 IO 10x1o12 Wm2 The intensity level of sound is measured in Decibel a logarithmic scale p0wer AEAI A Logarithm properties logl 0 log10 1 loga X b log a log I log10N N Properties of the log function 1 N 1 N oglloj 35 Doppler Effect dectector moving When the detector is moving towards the source he detects an additional number of wave fronts A v U Source I Ob39e39ve39 l l p 0 2 501 1 T k vs f f V i S vvD l Doppler Effect detector moving When the detector is moving away from the source he detects an less number of wave fronts Source lt l gt l 1150 Observer 0 36 Chapter 1 introduction Dimensional analysis n an nasal UnlhulAnAJ39rlumr l39nlnaquotmdlku lmlivn Which formula is dimensionally consistent with an Expression for velocity v a is acceleration a v ter 2 Motion in 1 1 D motion with constant acceleration Equations rot Malian in a snigm Line Under Constant AccelemLiun lul39nrnuunn rlnnn I lunumil ni u t s mannunnninmnn ulmiu 4 e mi A lm l will aux rum ni ilnn n1 21m i muum ul nliaplnccmcni in mm x r 7 im rlm in ul n Constant acceleration example Freely falling objects example 5 Find the peak er the acceleration as it speeds up from 45 Find its an e u e building is SD n m High and the stone Just misses the edge urine meren re Way down make a satin n n spiaeeme 2EIEI a 1 73m s Find the train s nispieeemenr from ten to 2EIEI s to 17m mih average acceleration m between n is i i i l n i inn m m z nu in an Chapter 3 Motion in D displacement Ar f a r Average velocity A Al Al Instantaneous velocity Average accelerat39 n V Instantaneous acceleration a 1 Ar 313 A Vectors example A hiker begins a trip by rst walking 250 km southeast from her base camp n e seoon ay she wal 400 m in the direction 600 degrees northeast at which point she discovers a forest ranger s tower ttktirl a groini displaceme will wiltgit m 44v tr K Relative velocity passenger at the rear of a train traveling at 15 ms relative m the Earth ws a baseball with a speed 15 ms in the direction opposim m the motion of the train what is the velocity of the baseball relative to the Earth v vballsearth vballstrain train earth Components of a vector Projectile motion example A basketball player 20 m mil wants to make a ba from a d39sbance of 100 m If he shooe the ball at 450 deg atwhat lspeed must he throw the ball so that it goes through the hoop without striking the badltboard r lollth Chapter 4 Laws of motion CONCEPT OF FORCE Net force the sum ofall external forces 2F F1 F3 Newton39s Laws 1139 If the net force exerted on an object is zero the object continus in is original state of motion an object at rat remains at rst n object i 39th some velocity continues with that same velocity m XV639503 41 W A5Jeu3 eagueqsew JO uoneluasuog A Jeua 5 Jaqdeqs 1mm onaum pue aneqs uonau JO 533105 umquntg uoqmaN JO sme l JO uoneanddv ME puoaas gumman Impulse ofa force and momentum ch6 Elastic collision ch6 lhlll lull Inelastic collision c 6 Rotational motion ch7 Two chlbs are placed ON a wheel The wheel state to rotate Wt cOhstaht angular acceleratlol l Whlch chlb slldes off St7 red because lt has largest momel lt of hema b blue because lt has smallest moment of hetua l c red because lt feels the smallest cehmtugal totce d blue because lt feels the latgestcehmmal totce npetal acceleration ch7 Gravitation ch7 ll hm l l c ll Mu lmlhh l lllll us ca T rque chS Center of mass chS The tent of mass ofe mm object rs always located Within the material ofthe obyact a TruE is False in nu mum HT x rm Moment of inertia and angular acceleration chS have the same mass and radius and roll down n m rnrvirrn irhllvlhiu m sum hollow cylinder b the 0le cylinder c both will have the same total kinetic energy Conservation of angular momentum chS Pressure Which of the a The pressure m A is larger than h r b The pressure m is smaller Chapter 12 The laws of Thermodynamics Hm reservoir at TA Immune ummumza The work done on a gas in a cylinder is directly proportional to the force and the displacement W FAy PAAy It can be also expressed in terms of the pressure egtltcerted by the piston and the variation in volume W PAV Compression work is positive Expansion work is negative Work questions A monoatomic gas is expanded from an initial state with volume V1 l to a final state 4V This process happens at constant pressure P1 atm Next the pressure on the gas V is increased at constant volume 4 1 The work done during the first process is a positive b negative c zero 2 The work done during the second process is a positive b negative c zero 3 What is the net work and sketch the processes in a graph of P versus V PV diagrams v C The work done on a gas when taking it from an initial thermodynamic state I to a final thermodynamic state f can be determined by the area below the P diagram PV diagrams mw all Wer h Isobaric process constant pressure Isovolumetric process constant volume The work depends not only on the initial and nal state but also on the path taken First law of thermodynamics The change in internal energy of the system is the sum of the heat transferred to the system and the work done on the system AUEUf Ul QW First law of Thermodynamics Isolated systems WO and QO Uf 2 U1 Cyclic processes if the process ends up in the same thermodynamics state as it started there will be no change in its internal energy UfUi gtW Q First law of Thermodynamics Isothermal processes if the temperature is constant over the process 3 UEnRTHUfUi gtW Q env Vf W nRTln V l Adiabatic processes if the energy transferred by heat in a process is zero then AU W First law of thermodynamics question I cmmmn Emma Which of the following P Nt processes correspond to o aric Isothermal Isovolumetric Adiabatic First law of thermodynamics example An ideal monoatomic gas is con ned in a cylinder by a movable piston The gas stans at P100atm V500L and T300K An isovolumetric process raises the pressure to 3 atm Then an isothermal expansion brings the system back to 1atm Finally an isobaric compression at 1atm oomplets the cycle and return the gas to its original state mum l l u l v m r nu 1 Find the number of moles the temperature B and the volume of the gas at C First law of Thermodynamics example 2 Find the internal energy of the gas at A B and C List PVT U for the points AB and C Consider the process A to B B to C and C to A For each case determine the sign ofW and Calculate Q W and AU for each transition Tabulate WQ and AU for mum each transition and calculate the net effect of each 2quot 315 4 i u r M i m Heat engines The heat engine is a device that converts internal energy into other useful forms of energy electrical mechanical etc In general it carries a workin substance egtlt water through cyc es 1 Energy is transferred from a hot reservo39r 2 Work is done by the engine 39 7 3 Energy is expelled into a cold 3 reservoir Cold reservoir in 39r Heat engines Because the substance goes through a cycle its initial internal energy is the same as the final VVengine Qnef Wengine l Qhot l l Qcold l The work done by an engine for a cyclic process is the area enclosed in the curve of a P diagram mm quotmm P Thermal efficiency of Heat engines Thermal efficiency of the heat engine is the ratio of the work done by the engine to the energy absorbed from the hot reservoir in a cycle W 8 eng lthl 8 lQhot lchold l 1choldl lle lle Second law of thermodynamics It is impossible to construct a heat engine with 100 efficiency Reversible and Irreversible processes m mums E Sm id Reversible process the gt7 z system is taken through a path of states in equilibrium and can be returned to the original state along the same path Energy reservoir Most natural processes are quot 39 Carnot engine a zmThumsnnr mamam Carnot s theorem No real engine operating between two energy reservoirs can be made more efficient than a Carnot engine operating between the same reservoirs 7would T hot 821 All real engines operate irreversibly friction and cycles are short Carnot engine question time Three engines operate between reservoirs separated in temperature by 300 K The reservoir temperatures are Engine A operates between 1000K and 700K Engine B operates between 800K and 500K Engine C operates between 600K and 300K 1 Which one has the highest efficiency 2 Which one has the lowest ef ciency Heat engines example A car engine delivers 82 KJ of work per cycle a Before tuneup the efficiency is 25 Calculate per cycle the heat absorbed from combustion of fuel and the energy lost by the engine b After a tuneup the efficiency is 31 What are the new values of the quantities calculated in a when 82 KJ of work is delivered per cycle Human metabolism Ilmn ulnm39 1m h 2 A a l39aninuw mm mm r nm1ns exmmnmnmlmulcm The metabolic rate is AV proportional to the co 4 8 02 At Efficiency Human body as a machine The metabolic rate is rel the rate at which wor 39 heat if transferred Efficiency Human body as a machine TABLE 123 Metabolic It and Ef ciency for Differ t Ef vienzy e 0 l9 Pushing Inarlml r i 7 cars in a mine Sh 39 002 m Exln39mlmllr and Mia r A mmun 9 I7 IEHHI c 2003 quotmm Emakulcnil Entropy Entropy S is a measu of disorder of a system Second law of thermodynamics the entropy of the universe increases in all natural processes Entropy question time Which of the following 39 e for a reversible adiabatic path a AS0 b c ASlt0 Two gases A hot source at temperature T e the heat transferred to B t their change in entropy AS W absolute state of disorder

### BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.

### You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

## Why people love StudySoup

#### "I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

#### "I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

#### "I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

#### "Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

### Refund Policy

#### STUDYSOUP CANCELLATION POLICY

All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email support@studysoup.com

#### STUDYSOUP REFUND POLICY

StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here: support@studysoup.com

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to support@studysoup.com

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.