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Directed Studies

by: Quinn Larkin

Directed Studies PHY 405

Quinn Larkin
GPA 3.67


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Class Notes
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This 59 page Class Notes was uploaded by Quinn Larkin on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHY 405 at Michigan State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see /class/207628/phy-405-michigan-state-university in Physics 2 at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
What is energy The ability to do work But how does a photon do work Or how does coal do work This de nition is OK for mechanics but energy is more than mechanics U Field energy U f 52 5 5143x Fnerm of a photon EX A Energy is a mathematical concept It is defined by equations heat More generally there could be chemical or nuclear reaction are fossil fuels coal petroleum and natural gas he past science did not know the origins of coal petroleum and natural gas There were two competing theories biological organic origins versus geological quot c origins Today biological origins are the accepted theory ie fossil fuels The theory of quotabiotic formation of natural gas is pretty well discredited Geochemical processes The two main uses of malt as the primary fuel in as coke for making fc 1 Cooling tower 2 Cooling waterpump 3 Transmission line 3phase Unit transformer 3phase 5 Electric generator 3phase 6 Low pressure turbine 7 Boiler feed pump 8 Condenser 9 lntennediate pressure turbine 10 Steam governor valve 19 Superheater 11 High pressure turbine 12 Deaerator 13 Feed heater 14 Coal conveyor 21 Reheater 22 Airintake 15 Coal hopper 16 Pulven39zed fuel mill 17 Boiler drum 18 Ash hopper How is coal used in making steel energy content MJkg 14 20 sub bituminous coal 20 28 bituminous coal 3O anthracite coal 30 removed by electrostatic precipitator 0 sulfur dioxide makes acid rain 0 nitrogen oxides NOX make acid rain 0 mercury poisons the biosphere 405 F2 1 Sallrrmmlionp lm mraugh UN 3588 atmphnru Incamum r zu aliin nn 343 Wall 21m l39 Alumsnug Mnlw InUlWhJ l In Wm Iii m 5 Sum al39 U11 liITrmij radinl39mn i ahwrmd Ind mama tl39ll 1m gramme gas moleemai The diam ilkcl is Lh warmll l ul 1h un t urixn nnm u mamn Su sm slim more mm and A ll rirod ndlallon ll nmlmd again madam m5 L Willemturth lnbo Mal Hush 163 mm pap m quotK m Ell Innywuvn Illnlumcfl m9 MI m 111 ilmasphm 41 77 5 4 Salarnneawluh mum MMHMH ml P r zo Maiaxiv p fw39w emf 544 ah y gm gigB Aw zajl 4Wya gms 3144 Qw P eedn39c 351 i 1141 W 75 yupmode a It mask M 1 Sbrgj dam M dc 03977 2 N1 02 i i okw r MM amw Lam sV V T 130M120 MENM a Ahfxi K mkfx39h IL39I3 M z A gc V 11 em m is s 239 nal divVble mama A7 El n 1 gt m mme Aha 7L JeJMaQa M ffk 62473 s nj 405 E3 3 Yam14 7 5371 39 1 7103 H 2 I We 4W 39 quot tn 15M 4111 my 7e 4 pant th 5447 Lu 201496 ava 59quot 7767 quotquotS39l Sp39hTMCfHZJ39 Ifatjt r Te So aim18 Ne 2s2zp mama 974 9 H ad eecfw m 13411269 1 a4 4 r m awaizll r Away J J 447 943 JD WK 6 M 7t l on Ne 9 a MoLe fa 39lFIUUVI KJ F 51 2024 Mero K W77 7 1 7 7 ZWXLZF11ZampI J fayex altow has 2 9e24 m w it W5 Wd 739 553 o s 2 zpquot 20 12 7 Zr zn zrz W W Pa I M 2 I 4quot Items 7 QV ar Abk r 49445 L amt 7 awn3 C 4905 k AVA Mr Isgt2zs2 2r3 1s 362 2k 217 M2 W W pm 3 al d vpf dyna oy 7 H 7 7 g iuoua NZ 7 7 ekofor ha 3 WI Law 49439 I39nao K W9 5 0a b V9015 hquot Ch w CWE B Eev R Emquot H2 1 5 0 07 LI F2 0142 0 N2 E s r 527s1zrz asquot 81 er7 czpy392pz C J2 ZEUW Of zmi W774quot I Iai Ca39r m Aux21 Jquot r 7 Burning hydrocarbons releases CO2 into the atmosphere Eg CH4202 gtC022H20 M1 M2 Weig 9 lt r gt W E gigquot Emum 5W 1 n Il arm91quot ar m W39M39 5 U ikx1 Alf 4 quot in Key gal425 k 5 W39Am rJ 3 A z 1quot tw j 1 wa lg laghiljfm ewgkrtv En quot Equot 1 t 4916 Emaquot 5quot 2 M Mug l4 6 69 76 M16 dz Ozo 536 at lt 3 w onTzs zevca I AG 2 Wu 12c it Zoo eVhm 10quot fVmwquot 3xi539xla e V A5 039 23 e V t r if 21212 p 239 xzda eVn 02 eV Trau kclvk n Vj raM M lt LC 4134th parf Z 2 Vevyza 57393463965393 ATE V 01 eV M 3 4 long 109tw la la Mam A N 552 See also BoekerampGrondee Figure 23 U Ultraviolet Visible NearAIH infrared FarInfrared Microwave 39 39 39 39 39 I 39 39 39 39I x 11 CI CI DZHCl urn vb J 1 D C 53 C 9 4 CL L C an 0 lt1 GD 2 am MT 10 I I 1E Wavelength microns 01 p m sauna spzc mALInaADIAMcEM E E E See a so BoekerampGro deHe gure 2 2 shun mmmuc owsm AmusFHERE g imn g 545mg zouu zsnu mu WAvtL u rmnmf 405 7 3 10 L i g 39 M Q 1 galquot rmhm I Quman win4 Multan Enough the mm quot33 quot atmpmim lnmmvng cinr vauln lnn 3131 A mll um Iquot ml Fquot m 5 Sum uf mammalv radinl39mn is awrw Ind mama M quotIn mammals an moment The dime Marl in lhu warnIqu DI 11m mrm unto amt lhn Uup lm Sudan guns mute rum and A ll39l l39il vd mmallnn II WNW again a j r 1 r 4 Scum mum In W by m quot lag l39l tanninrm IL and Imam In heal canning quot ml Wm W ma 1 m 1 lunnwuvn InnMl m nu ma nlmspm U Ultraviolet Visible NearAIH infrared FarInfrared Microwave 39 39 39 39 39 I 39 39 39 39I x OZO 1 11 CI CI fbi J 1 D C GD 2 553 C 9 4 CL L C an 0 lt1 U1 D L C CID 10 I I 1E Wavelength microns Absorpuon of mcommg sunhght saunmamnuc umsm AmasPHERE Mnmuc quum E soul SPECTRAL In S 1 n gamma g gum innn g zsnn 2 u WAVELErg39am nm 405 7 E4 3 U Ultraviolet Visible NearAIH infrared FarInfrared Microwave 39 39 39 39 39 I 39 39 39 39I x OZO 1 11 CI CI fbi J 1 D C GD 2 553 C 9 4 CL L C an 0 lt1 U1 D L C CID 10 I I 1E Wavelength microns Outgoing IR radiation from the surface of the Earth 155 quot1quoti Blackhody Radimim i I I K 1 NJquoti 5 310395 Lquot 1 1339quot EU am 1 MUI I39J39I CT on 345 IU El microns CO2 absorption lines mm microns antisymmetric stretch 1499 microns bending mode 405 E4 g 433 JAN r413 igg NPTM Nd Evt xom0mw3 VEQNN E Fwd 3 u wq 75 3mm n MN TL TIL QHURO Vivi lettumm M II 33 4w 3 833 ts unswst 2amp3 93 Vega g a sluggequ E4 3 Q Am 36 1 3n n wd n5 22 n m1 I M quotIll g OI U l C Va m vuiuilhh va c Khuqxw T 9 3 mix 92 E meQS H hmh x xxxv NE x kw moquLS u Mluw U Aw u hmmm K H U N MW uh Q U g hw xum AG 9 31 a is JVQGQAXV gum DHU u 0 RN WN NHE eVu Ginsu Jw a MVGR VxAWXkNS g A wu C02 vibrations Bending Mode hv 00826 eV LY 1499 microns 939 6 00 Symmetric Stretch hv 0291 eV M 426 microns D CD M Q M 43 9 quotLPMa mg EqL um quot11 BEDyuuk lesmc H D TllE f 4 Mflli z Platm 2 C702 01 72 z I quot2quotquot hV7 1 SPECIAL REPORT GLOBAL WARMING u smmtwanm ok utsmum Munmmmm quotgGlolgal Warmmgls I AHoaxd N a or sadquer landed 1 nnymynm whasmlrmccmm uvnnvlmhmuL quotcm chmalcchnunc hmdcllucdumal quotml m a sumquot Etghy 1 405 7 E4 C Ef c WW 539 7 n t 75 cTs 7 01quot 5 x M masinjs TU 5101 ZVT SFNgtA9M 0 U VFWH cE 7 1414331 HZTE 152 Elm 35 162 Snip 7M4 3954 4 4611 1quot 9 M out C17r7quot SMPJM D M awn378 Cprra My I mq EfT L fxift gerQM jslg e A W 31 M 3 7 77 We V mll 0 ale 77 yr 15 I ka 7 WW gay in km ZNZJe 7 6 P llzsxlo f39lfsg 79 xIDm f7l 9W 47 MW 40 A 90111 L71wn ahe 14 39 Wave Power sec 443 405 F6 Energy Resource Type Original source of the energy Coal Fossil Fuel The Sun energy in sunlight was converted to molecular energy by photosynthesis in plants PetroleumNatural gas Fossil Fuel The Sun Wind Renewable The Sun weather patterns are driven by heating from solar radiation Flow of Water Renewable The Sun evaporation and precipitation are driven by solar radiation Ocean Waves Renewable The Sun waves are raised by wind due to friction between air and water Photovoltaics Renewable The Sun direct conversion of energy from sunlight to electricity Another possibility Nuclear Energy 40561 Naeear 131277 Ra 5 GA 4 Power ank Naeear 7L 04er Z 8amp4 loPW Qkl 34 8 2g6 MuJ O mk C Rx O A 240 01 L 2 234 U U gt X Y 4 U71 Slaw nzm39 7 lt 4 Oulev ltV72lf3 34 112 ij K V 2Mel i 73 Hel 4 A2 P 73 70 Hel Ha gt133 32 New 42 aw 9 Baa425quot Mel 2 er1 s z frw 72 palwant 1quot Arnold ZIFNKV 7944ch quot39 2019 3 MW even to W941 a a4 Z MSW I a ltvgt 39 244 Wki amp W5 WH J ZEzWa iyhy 40561 1531 gig oio f 1 3 wz 7 L i 7 iiiw gkj 774 Ccn l 1 f 5 1 9a 6 5 I n 77 I V i l I O r i fi 1 Ho vr h 7 I 1 i 39w 1 I K 3 I quot41777272 Copr 1 7 UQ IG m MWr filVL K K AMIw ag 1 m4 1 W quot1235 04 01133 He dm wi g SN 15 h 4 mid WW W MW Mwh4r 7 45 zal 7l 442 0k z kezgrzi l aek Ireno m mm PM 702 2 24 7 0225 wl 572 UTZZSV 92f w 7 i 1 3 s hq guman MEX 50113 1 f 3312 Mm were a 2541 K M 4MW4asa C 3W1M11gygamp9wi llt ALT quot 393 ID 495114 My ff barnx 1 T Ti 1 7 9 eV 17 57 2quotquot3 K f 7quot x 2 41quot 2 M A K T6 o Ki 01395 quot 1 ciid aw GI3 4 r 1 m Wxi n 27345414M 2m Hm magi ergTwang m 1 a e Mk7 lainJeri Zk W5 mwx vs m w me a 275 W 39h rt i 7 u 1 79 C Sofia 7e 1 Aisgr bh m Z 4rplt k yief 1 6574 rfz Hed rr a r sas w i l kg a4 MC haw 1 tfo ylirafdi i 1 16 kr hr kn 4 MWM mm w 3 24o fw M V zss V l L1 a w AraM I C yiwwfg 21 haw quot 7 if P miw mm aumfw 3 wagMay If a o2399in wggquotquot4o 39g 7 9a 33 7 9 7 jokebu 45154441 527273 welsng in P liea z igquot7rz39smgzampwg 40561 GI 4 75 9am hacg 39m WAR 715 K 34 ew w W J 7 z 39 5V Dun2 75k AW 56 Nola 5N thr q MAIan 1773 JV A G39Msr39 42 5 M 1r39l 1amp2 J397 7 r L klagszzo Vzgs FAY GLSWL M 01 2gr S Mean 74 h he 2 a II 51562 Wki absorb 7quot Naqu 3 599 N 7Van 4m Magma L 515 SOLOV 39 aw 9 4 373 LN gt1 75 NW7z quotD w 539 7gt W224 6w A M969 DQW A as u MM Mr D Mfr 117 pr 2 rquot 04 Q 3344 4 D Vanna 405 61 19 Solar Radiation and the Temperature of the Earth Ts And R 63 7 x 10D m What is the temerature ofthe Earth7 Of course the temperature on Earth is highlv variable in both location and time What is meant by quotmean temperaturequot tion in til Take some location eg MI One speci c year W W Long tewvemge u u M Tmpnramrc E 150 200 250 300 350 Days aimr lanuary 1 Va ation in location South Pole equator North Pole 405 E2 GIoLJ Mean 71pm 2 5 27 79quot 39 39 y A L x V W fry 1 r 94 MAM um Global Temperatures Annual Average Fwe Year Average 0 0 gt m E a I lt1 2 E E n n E r 739 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 1d 41 I9 alum 7 yamw 4L am 39am inmm 13 04 B 39 Earn 1 1 lqum r 539 37 adml 6 6w 539 an wg 39 Pym may on Earn P 53951 1 W Max mu P 71on Albedo re ectivity fraction ofincidem radiation 1y re ected back into space do rec at 4 4 pure white Let a albe that gets di Note range 0 s a 5 pure bl k Over the surface of the Earth a varies wide y The global average is 03 PMquot mug e a P39 1 0P aaud az uw e P39 123xla397 w 39 7quot quotAM 7 m EM 1 rT wa Muu Mm in 4 mm were youquot i e zss39k Egg w H M a a x H ELK Mm r B u a x smut R Vii 2 a bx xi nary 712 5 31 r 35 xx a my 3 up w n liari 1 R 2 a hi it 0 r3 PFKahi P P e wc Newcomer I720 5754 lilaaw 072 g 405 F2 hgihe m turbine using heat from burning coal or from nuclear reactor car engine internal combustion Energy is conserved but entropy increases Energy is conserved Second law of thermodynamics Heftquot E7014 A0 0 W arcc in which it began Dia ram 0 a Re ri eratorC cle Rr ffan r m Gquot 1 nayKn age102mm W Wow quot Perfprmmvcc II g 89 2quot law 5175 QC 4 g A tkf itquot SIWLL 1v 2 LM nemww These exists a state function S with the property 52 S1 12 d Q for any reversible process 1 T e dQ where F is a reversible ath 5 Ssto Ir p 3 It is impossible for a process to have AS must include all entropies in the system lt0 tota AStotal O in a reversible process AStmal gt O in an irreversible process 77f amt clog 0 0 MEDIA v a w e an A 77Camot 1 Carnot cycle because the total change of entropy engine is O limited by the strength of the boiler to warm water pumped into the boiler from oling towers o39f39the efficiency l 92 lt Cw Ofmnk 058 5319 273k MomAha Wan mum


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