Unit Three-The Odyssey Notes and Assignment 3
Unit Three-The Odyssey Notes and Assignment 3 CLAS 220 001
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CLAS 220 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by BaylessK on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLAS 220 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Alexander Beecroft in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Classical Mythology in Classical Studies at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 03/14/16
Mythos: authoritative story about the world (true for greeks) marked as “not true” Logos: just one of many stories, not authoritative (powerless-gender or economic situation)-cant rely on it. Marked as “true” because its right not because it works George Washington and the cherry tree-the whole story was invented to create myth showing values he had The first thanksgiving-pilgrims and Indians didn’t get along and people wanted story to be true so we all retell it even tho it didn’t quite happen this way Variations of Little Red Riding Hood: each version is equally true The origins of myth: why does it rain? Natural features that we don’t understand easily, so we tell stories to make them make more sense Ritual: regularly recurring action, done for symbolic value, special places, times, words, objects, people, set apart from daily life Religion= myth + ritual Panhellenic (all greek) Greece is divided into many tiny city-states City state= “Polis” Athens, Sparta, etc Panhellenic elements: -olympic games, Delphic oracle, Homeric Epic -provided shared culture for all greek city states many different Gods, Olympian Gods were most important Olympian Gods important to local religion, Gods of places-springs, rivers, trees, mountains Important aspect of local religion: the Hero Contemporary Heros: doing good things in the world-firefighters, army, Ancient Heros: Oedipus-killed his father and married his mother. Blinds himself and not a very good man but he is a hero Medea: kills many people including her children and her brother, but warshiped by the greeks Polytheism vs Monothesim Monotheistic religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam) tend to see that god is omniscient, omnipotent, and good-often abstract Polytheistic religions, ancient Greek and Roman, see the world as being filled with divine forces of various kinds not at all benevolent Different Gods have different functions, division is not always simple More human in behavior, representation of the gods is important Creation is shown as the world turning from chaos to order, earth gives birth to creatures of heaven, love, etc… Gaia and Uranus: give birth to twelve titans. Youngest son: Cronus, rivals his father, and does so by castrating him, blood and seman is all over earth and form furies and giants Cronos and Rhea: marries his sister, and he doesn’t let his children grow up to surpass him, he eats his own children. Rhea is sympathetic and the youngest (Zeus), is saved and taken to Crete, and a group sing and dance when he cries so his father wont hear him. Zeus rescues his brothers and sisters out of his fathers stomach, become next evolution of gods. Rhea associated with the Great Mother goddess (Cybele), worshipped by dancers Children of Chronos and Rhea-generation of gods One more generation? Thetis was wooed by zeus and his brother Poseidon, but they heard that she would have kids greater than their father. They marry her off to a mortal man, Peleus, and they have a son Achilles, hero of the Illiad. (most powerful human) Greeks have stories of earlier gods-but Rhea is one of the only early gods to be worshipped, few temples, we don’t hear much about them Zeus (most important)-[Jupiter, Jove], son of cronos and rhea -king of gods -father of heroes and gods -god of clouds, thunder, lightning and rain (rain is most important) -god of oaths and councils (gov bodies) -god of victory and justice -god of hosts and guests -worshipped everywhere, especially Olympia (games) and Dodona (oracle) Poseidon (roman Neptune)- Brother of Zeus ( and Hera) -God of the Sea (fishermen) -Earthquakes, horses, bulls -Divides the universe with his brothers Zeus (heavens) and Hades (underworld) -Archenemy of Odysseus, Hero of the Odyssey Dionysus (roman Bacchus)- son of zeus, and mortal semele, born from Zeus’ thigh -God of wine, and its consequences -Young, Slightly effeminate, but powerful -Foreign, yet greek -Good worship-moderate drinking, theatre -bad worship-maenads, drinking heavily (greeks think barbaric) -myths about humans who deny him Apollo- Son of Zeus and mortal Leto, twin of Artemis -A very Greek ideal of young masculinity -god of the transition to manhood -sometimes connected to the sun -hunting, archery, plagues, and healing music -associated with prophecy, especially Delph (slays the python, takes over as god of Delphi) -hostile to the greeks Homer -“know yourself” gnothi seauton -“nothing in excess” meden agan Ares (roman mars)-god of war Son of Zeus and Hera -violent, moody, cowardly, whiny -few myths and little ritual -the dark side of war (victory and strategy-athena) Hephaestus (roman Vulcan)- Blacksmith god -Son of hera (alone or with zeus) -lame, target of divine laughter -married to Aphrodite or to Charis (grace) -special worship in Athens, where his near-rape of Athena is responsible for birth of Erichthonius, the founding king of Athens -worshipped also on the (originally non-Greek)-island of Lemnos -Makes armor for Achilles in the Illiad Hermes-son of Zeus and Maia -messenger, trickster, thief, herdsman -invents lyre and fire, steals cattle of Apollo -god of boundaries: between life and death, between properties (herms), and adolescent masculinity Hades (roman plutus)- King of the underworld -groom of Persephone -associated with wealth (mineral, vegetal) -rarely spoken of, sacrifice with face averted I chose Marilyn Monroe as my recently-deceased person that I think would make a great Greek hero. Marilyn was known for her indescribable beauty, and later in life became a sex icon, who helped form different attitudes about sexuality. While Marilyn Monroe was known to be a sexual woman, she still remained beautiful women to the public eye, mostly after her death. While she was alive and living, Marilyn Monroe received a lot of credit as well as a lot of criticism and hatred. After she died, her image shifted, and a lot of people started to see her for the good that she did while she was living, and the image that she left behind. Not only did Marilyn Monroe die young, like a lot of Greek heros do, but she also disliked by many people because of her extreme beauty and sexuality. Her life was not always glamorous and she did not always do good things, but she was remembered and recognized as a beautiful woman, role model, and worshipped because of the extremes in her life. Some could argue that Marilyn’s death led to more fame for her than she gained her entire life span. She was far more appreciated after her death, and today, she is mentioned in songs, referred to in movies, put up on posters, etc., to remind the world of her beauty and her efforts to change attitudes of sexuality.
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