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Introduction to Macroeconomics

by: Kareem Larkin PhD

Introduction to Macroeconomics EC 202

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Economcs > EC 202 > Introduction to Macroeconomics
Kareem Larkin PhD
GPA 3.81

Charles Ballard

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Charles Ballard
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kareem Larkin PhD on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EC 202 at Michigan State University taught by Charles Ballard in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/207653/ec-202-michigan-state-university in Economcs at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
LECTURE 2 Some Dimensions of Human Development 1 Types oflife events differential in uencesee diagram a Agegraded b Historygraded c Nonnormative 2 Conceptions of age see diagram CI Chronological CI Biological CI Psychological CI Social 3 Increases in ethnic minority populations Table 11 The Periods of Human Development Life Phase Approximate Ages Prenatal period Conception to birth Infancy includes toddler period from 23 years 03 years of age Preschool years 35 years of age Middle childhood 512 or 13 years of age the onset of puberty Early adolescence Approximately 12 or 13 the onset ofpuberty until 1718 years of age the high school years Later adolescence Approximately 1718 years of age the completion of high school until the person attains a sense of social identity in the early 205 Early adulthood Early 205 to middle 30 includes marriage beginning of child caring and high point of one39s vocational career Middle adulthood Middle 305 to middle 60s ends with completion of child caring and parenting roles Later adulthood Middle 605 until death includes grandparenting years and retirement 1Can later development be predicted by prior experiences a Such behaviors as aggression toward peers dominance with peers dependence on parents shyness and sociability with unfamiliar people are fairly stable traits from about 5yrs through adolescence b Group of extremely shywithdrawn boys 38 yrs interviewed 20 years later had taken jobs which minimized risk and competitiveness Kagan and Moss 1983 Although such results demonstrate some level of constancy over the lifespan there remains debate about such findings for several reasons There are few reliable longitudinal studies eg Caspi and Moffitt 2003 linked behavioral styles of 1000 3 year old with adult behaviors which have followed individuals from childhood through adulthood The assumption that early experience can irrevocably determine or predict later life has been challenged Research on resiliencysuccessful adult development in the face of objectively negative environments contexts and experiences eg Maya Angelou Oprah Winfrey Multiple paths of developmenteg Iohn Hinckley the attempted assassin of former president Ronald Reagen and his highly successful brother came from the same upper middle class family Concept of plasticityresearch points to the possibility of altering developmental outcomes at any point in the life trajectory Ford and Lerner 199 2due to the complex nature of the interaction of genes and environment see gene environment discussion below enabling opportunities for interventions over the life course 2 How is development in uenced by heredity and environment US I V a Most current research point to the integration ofboth genes and environment in human development with genetic factors contributing more to some outcomes than others CI Genes appear to largely determine such outcomes as hair color or eye color CI Genetics and environmental factors have a more complex pattern for personality traits or intelligence b NatureNurture debate has generated three primary positions Biological genetic determinism genes exert primary in uence in all outcomes eg sociobiology EW Wilson 1975 Cultural or environmental determinism CI DevelopmentalContextual perspectiveAlthough both genes and environment are involved in developmental outcomes neither act independently of one another in in uencing human development Genesand environment are coequalforces and function as completelyfused in life they are mutuaIbfacilitating


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