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Date Created: 09/19/15
Homework assignment 3 PKG322 Fall 2013 1 Select the type of glue mostly used for paper labels 1 Acrylic Rubber Latex 2 Hot melt 3 Starch PVA and dextrin 2 What is the name of the style ofa standard paper grocery bag 3 In what order are the plies are commonly specified for MWB insideoutside or Outside to inside 4 Which printing process is used for High quality high resolution paperboard folding cartons 5 Which direction does the paper s machine direction run in a paper bag from top to bottom 6 Which way in general does the paperboard s MD run on a folding carton a Side to side b Topto bottom 8 Define PBOM 9 Define POSE 10 Estimate the cost of a multiwall bag with the following construction 4 mil LDPE 50 NK 50 NK 50 NK each ply measuring 20 ft2 if the transacted price for kraft paper is about 500ton and LDPE resin is 70 lb The average specific gravity of LDPE is 092 x 624 lbfts 11 Lay out below the blank of a POSE carton of dimensions 8quot X 4quot X 10quot with 12 flap overlap and 12quot manufacturer s glue joint showing the dimension in inches and calculating the number of square feet ofthe blank 12 Estimate the price ofthe box in Question above if It is made from recycled clay coated paperboard with a basis weight of 80 lbs thickness of 20 pts brightness of 80 and has 4color printing The market price of recycled boxboard is 580ton The upcharge for 4color printing is 10 1000 inz Show yourwork including all units Printing Regulated facts Color excitement Point of purchase motivation Point of use enjoyment and utility MKT segmentation Smart graphics for supply chain mgtauto purchasing High cost high value Line Text and line drawings Inexpensive Look at no gradation Ink is either printed or not Hal one Shading dimension illusion of continuous tone Optical illusion dots of varying sizes on evenly spaced centers Eye is fooled at gt133 lines per in or LPI Def 25LPI is very course 300 LPI lery ne Spot color Ink for e color Most presses only 47 colors Limited effects Increased changeover costs Pantone matching systemPMS many different ones Brand color like Kodak Kellogg Cheer Emphasis color Grid on glue tab for showing which colors are going on the PKG Process color Optical illusion Dots and solid fields Combine to form a range of colors Most color printing ie newspapers magazines posters billboards and pkgs Why process color works Color from light Eye sees RGB Light additive primaries RGY GBC BRM White paper re ects all light Black paperabsence of color light CMY subtractive primary colors Bright white substrate that re ects all colors is essential Need actual black for dense black Different orientation of grid color patterns Eye separates RGB Brand image CMYK spot colors CMY O en has faint CM cast people like them more Spotbrand usually More reliable than CMY combo Vivid colorshexachrome EX Kleenex ll station press CMYK orange and green Denser black tXt spot 2 varnishes Gold Pre press color control Color separation Plate for e color Register markalignment of graphic Overlapping poor dot sequencemoireappears as a water mark Process color Eye separates into RGB and recombines them to see a rainbow spectrum Label regulations Consumer protection Fair pkg and labeling act of 1966 Principal display panelPDP Pro duct id or ordinary name Net weight dual metric USlargest whole unit remainder Ingredients in order Manufacture contact information Font placement style regulated by the FDA FTC for non food Nutrition fact Drug facts Serving size controversial Supply chain MGT Bar codes Bars and spaces of light Minimize gain Precise printing in the press direction UCC assigns standard manufactures digits SSKU digits Quiet zone around it Scanner re ects red bars therefore the bars must be black or dark blue or green Supply chain MGT label elements RFID Antenna no line of sight Antenna can be printed with conductive ink Standards are being developed still in the future Ink Pigment organic colored powder gives color Black carbon black Cyan phthalocyanjn Pantone matching system for spot colors Vehicle liquid oil or resin binds pigments Solvent or water dissolves oils accelerating drying Solvent based VOC s have a smell problem Water based technology problems wicking distorting more heat for drying Used more for exo UV inks are not wet cured by light to hard polymer Higher cost faster drying Printing methods Gravure engraved Flexography exible Lithographic smooth Platelessdigital Fle xolarge pronounced Litho smooth Gravure 3its Impression cylinderink presses against like a table Flexo Like a rubber stamp FleX photopolymer plate Fountain roll anilox roll Some is offset Thin ink most water based Anilox roll is key to exo Picks up ink and transfers it to the plate with a controlled thickness Ceramic surface millions of tiny laser engraved cells Flexo Lowest quality Very new Usually plastic pkg but the quality is getting much better O set lithography stone Based on concept that Oil and water don t mix 200 years old Smooth plate Sharp lines low cost plates Paste like ink in a lm Finer dots sharp images Some color variability picks up lint Litho Most common printing but not for pkg Illustrations Cereal crackers candy drugs labels cans newspapers books cards posters Sheet fed Stiff paperboard labels 4 sheets t together Low cost for medium and short runs Slow drying ink Web fed Higher speed runs Less sticky Best quality images Stiff substrate w high surface strength Only paper Solvent based inksno water CompleXwaste ll to set up Labels Bags and Wraps Paper pkg Easy to print glue Clay coated usually and shaped square Any printable paper Digital no direct contact Label substrate factors Absorb Opacity Brightness Smoothness Ink adhesion strength between paper and ink Bleached ClS label 5060 lbs BW basis weight paperboard BW 10001102 paper BW 30001102 Laminated foil Plastic Label printing Black type Color printing 50 litho Small orders same sheet Flexo narrow web Gravure for very long runs gt3 million Wet glue label adhesion 50 of all labels use wet glue for adhesion Wet glue PVA most common also dextrin starch and soybean High volume high speed up to 100000 per hour Wet adhesive or hot melt strips spots on container MD goes around cylindrical pkg to prevent curling agging and to increase dimensional stability RH control is needed for ClS Wrapping Oldest paper labeling Art tsutsumi wrapping and folding Japanese culture Bags Oldest continuously used form of pkg Skins leaves fabrics plastics AKA sacks pouches envelopes grocery bags Shipping sacks for our cookies pet and lawn products There is an increased competition with plastics Bag bene ts Lower cost Flexible rugged Nearly in nite stack ability Wide range of graphic effects Simple ll and close Low weight for pkg and capable of carrying a lot of product Paper lets air escape Dis Paper bag Si ing from the seams Breakage Leakage Limited reclosablity Bag paper One ply CCKB clay coated Kra back NK natural Kra WSNK wet strength natural Kra higher amount of starchresin higher wet strength BK brown Kra CUK coated unbleached Kra Outer ply coated for Printing COF Water resistance Plastic for H20 barrierheat seal Coating or ply HDPE LDPE LLDPE OPP Grease barrierpet food Grease proof or glassine HDPE PP OPP Plastic may not be suitable for hot ll and mold growth Recycled paperboard CCNB clay coated news black brown and gray CCLB clay coated on light back gray on one side CCKB clay coated Kra back brown BC bending chip brown not coated Paper bag converting Outer ply printed rst most exo some gravure tuber folds MD top to bottom Glue combines plies cuts to length MD parallel to tube to increase process not strength Bag strength depends on the tubeseam Plies nest Bottomer glues or sews square at FF S form ll seal for high volume bags Bag terms Factory end closure squarepinch Field closure open mouthvalve Gussets for a block Lface width LWD Multiwall bags shipping seal gt25 lbs Industrial and institutional Resin pallets our sugar fertilizer cement feed 36 plies BW 4060 lbs e NK May have plastic liner PE PP Good impact and puncture resistance Stronger and more supple than a single heavy ply Printed outer ply SOM Sewn open mouth Stitches at tube gussets low tech low cost closure sew holed perforate weaken admits moisture insects may be taped over Chain stitch is easy to open if you know how Uses rices sugar our feed agricultural products chemicals PBOM pinch bottom open mouth Roll bottom open mouth Ends folded over and hot melt sealed liner can be individually sealed Positive closure is silt proof and minimizes infestation Able to seal yourself RBOM roll bottom open mouth Ends folded over SOS self opening square and satchel Grocery bag Pasted block bottom will stand alone at on pallets easy to erect Consumer bags SOS SOM Mostlt251bs Factory converted tube and bottom Max 3 walls ltl30 lbs basis weight total Bleached colored blue clay coated Multiwall style names SOS PBOMstands up for lling retail and for use can si SOM bumable charcoal Paste valve bag sack Perforated to allow venting Special multiwall bag features Easy opening rib string Heat sealable Barrier plies moisturepowder Perforated micro perforated and channel perforations to vent entrapped air Break away liner Anti skid coating COF print moisture insecticides Bag specifications Plies listed inside to outside 3 mil LLDPESO N1050 N1060 WSNK Outter ply brightness COF rub resistance Liner for WVTR Dimensions LWD always unfilled Wgussets Calc costs ofbag 1 find the number of layers amount of material Wgusset Heightdepth Llength Amount of material BWdimensionslbs for plastic liner Amount of merialthickness specific gravity LDPE spec gravityp92624 lb A3574 lb A3 2 Commodity price per ton or lb materialmaterial cost US Ton20001bs Kilogram ton10001bs 3 Conversion cost is roughly the same as the material so 2material costbag cost Example Estimate the cost 35 mil LDPE60 NK60NIG60NK basis weight of Natural Kra E ply measure 10 AZ Kra 500ton LDPE065lb Paper 3601b3000 0210 0261bs Plastic 101 00035 in 1 12 0926241b 030 17 lbs Paper06lbs50020001bs0l7llbs 065 lbs 0150108802588bag 025882517 cents total Bag cost structure Paper bag cost drivers raw materials mostly Bag sizing factors Bag volume net weightproduct density Speci cation dimensions do not equal volume include open end Becomes thicker and shorter and or narrower Substitutes for paper bags Plastic lm lamination woven PP shirt bag Plastic bene ts Barrier heat seal zipreclosablity handles micro perforations print quality Bag impact testing Free fall shock machine more repeatable tidier Minimum threshold vs comparison Weakest orientation butt drop CD girth linear seam TEA nesting adhesion side drop stresses ends liner at drop and little damage RCT Ring crush test BIburst index CNK coated natural kra Recycled paperboard is most common Cylinder42 Kra fourdrinier SBS 25 Whitefood SUS 18brownon food contact The MD orientation for a cylinder board folding carton reduce panel bulging warping and shrinking outweighs POP point of purchase billboard best print Low cost rigid pkg cheerios tide Kodak Production adv mechanical erecting lling up to 400min Contents only chemical pulping lt05 lbsboard 1518 pts 11 lb 2024 pts 2 lb2832 pts gt21bsmicro ute E or F not folding carton Carton converting Web or sheet feed Large S sheets blanks interlock Printing in separate operation web for longer runs printing and cutting line paperboard pkg councilPPC carton cutting die cutting amp scoring at board or rotary die cutting amp creasing steel rules set in wood sponge along side cutters to hold board in place Score detail Score produces a raised ridge that goes inside of the ca1ton CD score quality on width to give bers space to fold MD score quality depends on depth to overcome elasticity deform Gluing Preglued Straight line gluer forms tube Working scores folded Non working scores pre broken Water based starch PVA poly vinyl acetate problem not water resistant for food Gluing qualityf1ber tear May not be glued until lling Standard folding ca1ton layout print side up POSE partial overlap sealed end FOSE lll overlap sealed end Size ofglue ap Dust ap first to be foldedno overlap Folding carton styles Tube end loading Be able to calc blank taller Tray top load puzzles atter POSE Glue joint may be pre glued Filled with product or bag lll of product no food contact for recycled board Dust aps inner outer Used for cereal crackers Kleenex FOSE maX height for apswidth Tuck end cartons Flaps tuck lock Friction lock re open Standard reverse tuck Blanks t together little waste Tuck end alt FRT has a clean edge Carton Specs Paperboard speci ed by Type SBS NK cost and strength CCBKclay coated unbleached Kra BW 74 lbs clay coated bleached Kra Pts 18 caliper Brightness 80 See notebook forLWD example Tube ll the top All dimensions bw score centers Score allowance o thickness added to panel Folding carton blanks are shippedstored KD or knocked down KD on edge erected by user blank side down w printed side up Glue ap on the le side shows relevant dimensions angels QC score bend print glue Corrugated ridge outside Paperboard inside See notebook example for calculating POSE price date 11211 Lowering the cost Possibly want zero OL to reduce cost Use inserts instead SRT standard reverse tuck two less Length aps therefore less area and less cost Cartoning End loading cartoner erects glues joint or opens Inserts tucks or glues closed Cereal cartons loaded with pre lled bags Traditional double pkg maker is less common Folds liner and carton together lls and seals Top loading trays erected by plunger walls pop up Machinablility depends on the paperboard properties Stiffness BW caliper thickness scores quality COF etc Score life 3 months COF separate sheet from stack smoothly Folding cartons substitutes Stand up pouch Fewer secondary pkg Paperboard has environmentalpolitical adv Set up boxes Earliest paste board box form Non bending chipboard 1660 pts Thick strong reusable attractive Puzzles board games valentine boxes and jewelry Cut and partial slice scores made in straight line not die cut Milk cartons Paper holding liquid lSt wax coated New SBSPE Flexo Gabletop ingenious Open or close Drink box Tetrapak Sweden Aseptic process lst used w UHT ultra high temp milk Fiber cans AKA composite cansfrozen foods ice creme Cheaper than metal but less strong 24 layers of Kra paperboard Pre printed integral label Barrier liner aluminum etc plastics SkinWlIh vacuum Blister no vacuum but with clay coated Fiber length 116Lh Third letter diameter 4024 and 216 Corro gated berboard High use in pkg Very strong Problem water Used for pallets CB corrugated board Industry Make containerboard Combine liners and medium Convert into boxes print score fold and glue 2 types ofcompanies Integrated does it all Independent buy sheets med liner from integrated 3 kinds of plants Corrugated plant combo sheetcorrugated board Box plant makes boxes from corrugated board Corrugatorsbox plant does both CB structure fourdrinier Engineering beam principle resists bending and pressure 2 at load bearing panels separated by rigid corrugated web Flutes run top to bottom Box wall stack One liner in tension utes act like columns and arches to resist at crush Trapped air insulates CB liner Natural kra so wood Virgin or recycled miX Higher of bers in CD to increase RCT ring crush test strength Bleach kra or mottled white top Layer for colored printclean look BW26 to 90 lbMSF 42 lbs BW is common Balanced BW liners to prevent warping Hardwood and or recycled Low tear and tensile but still and easily formed Mostly recycled used to be straw 26 lb BW is common 9 pts thickpaper3000 02 Paperboard3000 02 for greater than 12 pts CB adhesive Starch corn Cheap pump able high speed bond Problem h2o and insects Small amount needed Heat gelatinizes Gel point 140 to 147 fstops h2o penetration CB recycling CB 50 of all paper recycled highest rate bc of FBA infrastructure Over 70 of CB is recycled CB has high OCC content old corrugated containers Especially med Repeated recycling shortens bers and weakens the bonds after 24 times CB types Single face protective wrap Single wall most common Double and triple wallhigher strength Double 3 layers and 2 mediums CB utes thickness and TU take up factor A first good stacking strength cushioning stiffness poor scores too big 33 TU 154 Th316 01875 B second smaller better for printingscoring less stiffness 47 Tu132 Th18 0125 Cin bw AampB just right most common 39 Tu 143 Th532 0 15625 EFmicro utes competes with paperboard 80 and 129 Klargest 30 Nsmallest 185 Double and triple walls may have different utes or mixed utes ex B and C Higher Tulowered thickness Flutes Medium Flute Flutes per foot thickness N F 128 132 E 90 116 C 39 532 most used in the US B 47 18 A 33 316 K 30 Stiffness increases K A B C E F N Graphics lower the strength by 20 ECT32 lbs Take up factor Ratio of length of corrugated paper to the length of corrugated medium Tulengthlength medium 154 132 138154 129 125 115 Z TJD39JOUIJDgt Mediumhard woods dirty Glue starch 147 degrees F PVA Combining CB on corrugator Steam med and corrugated Glue peaks to pre heated single face liner Apply pressure CB specification BW of container boards eX 422642 Mullen burst has been most common ECT is becoming more common Could specify BW but tradition of carrier requirments favor tests Also ute type coating COFtan theta ECT umtslbs in Extreme CB specs ex UPS Good burst strength Stronger joints glue Weather resistant adhesive Water resistant WSNKW6I strength natural Kra Fire retardant treatment for ame spread Mmilitary ASTM V3cvweather proof WScWKater resistant Formerly gout standards CB tests Burst puncture and ber Mullen burst strength ForcelbsinA2 Too expensive ECT is cheaper Boxes ability to withstand forces and how the boxes will take rough handling Tests liner not material Pressure to pop a hole into a box Puncture test Units joules BTU Energy to puncture a box with sharp objects depends on BW liner and medium Minimum combined weight of facings How much the corrugate weights per lOOO AZ and determine if it is correct ECT forcein to crush the utes vertically or lb in No relationship bw ECT and mullen tests ECTxRCTL1TuRCTmRCTL2 Tu take up factor CS586ECTtpAl 2 ECT32 lbs LWD ECTlb in t hickness in inches pbox perimeter in inches Chapter 1 1How do basket shapes differ for different uses a Form follows function 2 For what kinds of products and distribution were wooden barrels used for over 2000 years a Permanent shipping all kids of things 3What are the advantages of barrels for material handling and transport a Easy to handle and transport 4What were the roles of the medieval coopers39 guild a They made barrels and were the first trade union and tradesmen 5Why did barrels lose market share with the coming of railroads and mechanized woodworking a Railroads favored square boxes and retail wanted consumer packages 6What wood material39s first widespread use was for tea chests a Planed wood later plywood 7 Upon what factors were the size and weight of tea chests based a 1001bs in 1800s 8What did tea chest symbolize in America What is there greatest reputation in the UK a Taxation without representation b Wealth and reused 9How is the use of wooden boxes tied to the history of railroads a Industrial rev railroads and boxcars created demand W11 10 Who invented paper When and Where a China 105 AD by T sai Lun 11 For the 17 centuries 1051850 after the invention of pap ermaking what was the primary source of fibers a Linen and cotton rages 12 Which was invented first the continuous web paper making machine or the method for pulping wood a Continuous web papermaking maching 13 What three key inventions in the early 1800s enabled the mass production of paper based packaging a Cylinder machine Shryock straw board lithography 14 What are the names of the two kinds of paper making machines and what is the difference Which one has a history of being used to make thick paperboard a Continuous paper and cylinder b Cylinder 15 Why wasn39t wood used in paper until after 1850 What advantages and disadvantages does it have compared to rags a They didn t know how to pulp the wood b Cost more things hardermore time 16 What paperbased packaging materials were made from straw a Newpaper wrapping paperboard later corrugated medium 17 Why was straw used to make packaginggrade papers What factors led to it being replaced by wood ber a Because ofits natural stiffness b Costs more than wood 18 For what purpose was the paper bag rst developed a Groceries 19 For what purpose was exography printing developed a More colors ashier 20 List some products that were wrapped in early paper based packaging a Cereal crackers 21 How was the process inspired for using a single die ruled for cutting and scoring a paperboard folding carton blank in a single impression a The ides resulted from a mistake in 1879 a rule had been set to high and had cut through and ruined 20000 seed bags 22 During which half century were processes invented for making pap er bags folding cartons and corrugated fiberboard a 19th century 23 Contruct an 18001960 timeline of paperbased packaging inventions 24 What contribution to packaging progress were made by the following people Ts39ai Lun Matthias Koop 5 George Shryock Aaron amp Andrew Dennison Stan Avery Robert Gair and Albert Jones a Ts ai Lun invented paper b Matthias Koop first produced strawpaper George Shryock Invented a special grooved roll built up windings of wet paper unti a board achieved the desired thickness Aaron amp Andrew Dennison commercialization of setup boxes Stan Avery Invented pressuresensitive price stickers led by the 1940s Robert Gair invented a mechanized method for cutting and scoring folding paperboard cartons in a single stroke g Albert Jones was granted the first patent issued for corrugated paper as a packaging material P 512 H 25 For what purpose was corrugated fiberboard rst used a DF boxes 26 During the early 19005 what kind of pulp was used to make corrugated linerboard and medium What kind is used now a Boiled wood and strawboard medium and jute board 27 What obstacles did corrugated fiberboard have to overcome in order to be accepted as a shipping container material a Industry association quality standards made you 28 What is the signi cance of the Pridham Decision in 1914 a Ship materials 29 Approximately what percentage of US packaging usage is represented by paper and paperboard Is this by value or by mass What percentage is wood Is this by value or by mass Why do they differ a Paperbased packaging which includes paper paperboard and corrugated fiberboard is by far the most commonly used packaging material in the world It accounts for 55 of the mass and 49 of the value of all the packaging material used in the US 5 Chapter 2 1Where is the most productive forest land in the USA North South East or West a South 2What kind of trees are hardwoods and softwoods How do their wood and uses differ a Softwood Building Construction Packaging make paper crates boxes light duty pallets Easy to work with but has low strength i Conifers ii Pine iii Fir iv Cedar b Hardwood Furniture Packaging make pallets barrels boxes crates short fiber paper Harder to work with but stronger 39 Deciduous ii Oak iii Maple iv Birch v Walnut v39 Cherry 3 Name two common species of woods used in packaging a Oak Pine 4Which is most often used for reusable pallets Hardwood or softwood a Hardwood 5What is meant by nomial dimensions and what kind of wood does it refer to a 2X4 is actually quot15 X 35 round up b Softwood 6Whatis the difference between dimensional lumber and boards a Board lt 2 in Lumber 2Sin 7Wood less than how many inches thick called veneer a lt 38 8Would a 4quot X 4 X 839 piece oflumber be classi ed as timber board or dimensional lumber a Dimensional lumber 9How is wood seasoned a Dried by air or kiln 10 What special treatment is required for wood used in export packaging How hot for how long a Anti infestation 1330F for 30 mins 11 How many board feet are in a piece of wood with nominal dimensions 15 X 4 X 2039 a 15 X4X 20 120 BF b nominal 2 X4 X 20 160 BF 12 If pine sells for 3251000 board feet how much will the wood cost to make a pine crate consiting of4 pieces with nominal dimenstions measuring 4 X 4 X 539 and 12 pieces measuring 2 X 6 X 539 a Board Foot 44quotX 33 X 5 12 2 X 5 X 5 865 BF 1 3251000 X865 2808 13 If oak sells for 1board foot what is the cost for wood to make an oak pallet consisting of the following materials a 12 deckboars that measure 1 X 4 X 40 h 3 stringers measuring 1 X 4 X 48 c 121X33X40 31X33X4820592 14 If 1 X1 strip of wood are priced at 010 LF what is the equivalent price per BF 15 Which engineered wood products are used in packaging and what are they used for a Plywood Particle board used for panel boxes crate sheathing and pallet decks 16 Does plywood usually contain an odd or even number of layers Why Is the strength ofa sheet of 439 x 839 sheet of plywood greater along the 439 or the 839 direction a Odd number layers b It is stronger in both directions 17 Why is oriented strand board superior to types of board made from wood particles a Because it strands are purposefully aligned to make the panel stronger and stiffer only board that is considered structurally and rated by the APA Chapter 3 1What is the relative humidity relative to a The amount ofmoisture the air can hold 2What are the three major chemical constituents of wood Which one glues the other two together a Cellulose hemicellulose lignin b Lignin 3What is it about wood cell structures that make them good for papermaking a Papermaking frees the fibers from the intercellular lignin and rearranges them into another useful shape 4Which chemical constituent is removed in the chemical pulping process a Lignin 5Which chemical constituent causes paper that has been mechanically pulped to yellow a Lignin 6What part of the tree has the highest moisture content a Sap wood 7How is moisture content determined and calculated for wood Is this the same for paper a By the amount of dry wood MC 100 X WmWdWm b Different 8Ifa piece of wood weighing 351bs dried to 12 lbs in an oven what is its dry basis moisture content a 3512 12 x 100 19167 9What is the ber saturation point and why is it signi cant What percent moisture content is the ber saturation point weighs 301bs how much will it weigh when thoroughly dry a Significant for swelling and shrinking b 30 10 lfa board at the fiber saturation point weights 301bs how much will it weight when thoroughly dry a 15 loss so 251bs 11 lfa piece of wood is 10 wide in the tangential direction when its moisture content is 100 how wide will it be when the moisture content is 50 How wide will it be when it is completely dry a 10030 50y 5quot 12 A piece of green wood 100 percent MC measures 1 X 4 X 639 The 1 dimension is in the radial direction the 4 dimension is in the tangential direction an it is 639 long If the wood is seasoned dried to a moisture content of 10 estimate the nal dimensions a MC 3010 20 1 Radial 1 530x20 a X 333 1quot10333 9667 ii Tangential 1 1030y20 a y 667 4quot10667 37332 iii No shrink in length b Final dimensions are 9667 X 37332 X 6 13 What two assumptions are used in this chapter39s shrinkage estimation methods that are not absolutely accutate a 30 FSP is to assume 10 shrinkage tangentially b 5 radially 14 What is meant by quotchecksquot in wood and why do they occur a Wood shrinks more tangently than radially 15 What causes buckling and splitting of wood a Restrained 16 What factor most affects a board39s stiffness and bending strength a Moisture content 17 What strength property is measured by a wood species39 modulus of rupture a Bending strength 18 How do knots and cross grain affect wood39s bending strength a Reduces bending strength Chapter 4 10n what basis do ASTM and US Forest Products Laboratory further catergorize hard and soft woods a Soft light weight dense b Hard medium dense dense 2Where can military specifications for wooden containers be found a ASTM 3Which way should the wood grain run on a box horizontal or vertical Why a Horizontal stronger 4How is the size of nails traditionally designated a Penny d lbs pun d 1000 5What factors related to the wood affect nail withdrawal resistance a Force bigger length and diameter 6Why is it not desirable to connect wood boards by nailing into the end grain a Because it decreased WR 7What are the two most significant factors related to the nail that affect withdrawal resistance a Texture coating clinching b They increase 8What is the estimated force required to pull out an 8d common nail a 300x 8 24001bs 9What estimated weight can be carried by a panel that is 3Aquot thick nailed in place with 12 16d common nails a 300 X 12 X 75 X 16 768001bs 10 How many 10d common nails are required to hold a solid 12quot bottom on a box that holds 6001bs assume that the nails go into the walls side grain a 600 300 X X 5 X 10 4 11 The simpli ed withdrawal resistance estimation ignores the effect of other factors related to the nail and wood What are ve of these a Threaded ring shank clinching bending resistance angle 12 How can the surface ofa nail39s shank be modified to make it harder to remove a Texture coating clinching 13 What is the strongest way to make a woodenbox or crate corner Why a Ioin walls 3 way corner 14 What are cleats in a wooden box and why are they used What are battens a Cleats ends and battens are diagonal reinforce 15 What is the function of diagonal members in a wooden crate a Strength 16 What are quot staves and quot splints and what kinds of packages are made from them a Not sawn like lumber Barrels U 17 What is a bung and how is it used Ahole where stuffis put in SJ 18 What is the difference between a tight and slack barrel Oak amp Pine E 19 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using cork as a wine bottle closure a Light easy expensive limited supply Chapter 5 1What wooden form accounts for most of the wood used in packaging today a Wooden pallets 2When did pallets begin to be used commercially a WWII 3Whatis the top surface ofa pallet called What is the name for the boards on the top surface a Deckboards b Deck 4Why are the lead deckboards sometimes wider than the interior ones a To take abuse 5What is the advantage of using only a few deckboards with wide spaces between them What kind of problems can this cause a Lower cost but gaps cause damage 6What are stringers How many do most pallets have a A board most have 2 7Which pallet design in general is stronger stringer or block a Block 8 From how many sides can you pick up a pallet with a forklift a 4 sides 9Are softwoods or hardwoods used most commonly for pallets a Hardwood 10 How many times can a pallet be used a 19 trips 5 handlingstrip 10 trips before repair 11 What is done with a wooden pallet that is damaged a Repaired then recycled 12 What is the difference between pallet remanufacturing and repair a Repair replace deck boards and stringers until cost exceeds value b Remanufacture dissembled parts 13 Can pallets be recycled For what uses a Recycled for mulch fuel paper composites 14 In the pallet industry to what do the following acronyms refer NWPCA GMA a National wooden pallet and container association b Grocery Manufactures association 15 Upon what factors are the dimensions of pallets based a Vehicle sizes product dimensions 16 What is the size ofa GMA pallet a 48 X40 17 What is meant by a pallet utilization of 80 What extra costs are incurred for poor pallet utilization a 20 wasted space transport and palletization costs 18 What are the methods for improving palletloid stability a Stretch wrap interlocking 19 From what materials other than wood can pallets be made a Thermoform plastic structural foam metal corrugated 20 What are the advantages of using wood for pallets a Strong cheap reuse repair recycle renewable resource 21 What are some methods for handling unit loads using no pallets at all a Shipsheets clamp handling baseloid 22 How are pallets statically and dynamically tested a Bending compression joint strength impact sling hoist lift fork tip friction and wear vibration 23 What special treatment is required for export pallets Heat treat 560C 9 13 20F for 30mins E Chapter 6 1What advantages and disadvantages does wood have compared to other pap ermaking raw materials a Disadvantages pulping wood is energy intensive and uses a lot of trees b Advantages fiber source in places where forests are abundant reforestation is practiced and energy is inexpensive 2Why must the bark be removed before making pulp a Contains dark pigments little fibers and hard to bleach used as fuel 3What are the advantages and disadvantages of softwood vs hardwood pulp Which produces stronger paper Why For what uses is one better than the other a Soft long silky fibers strong paper wcourse surface b Hard short stiff fibers weak paper wcourse surface 4How does ber length affect paper properties a Longer stronger 5Describe the difference between the mechanical and kraft processes for making pulp and give examples of how and why the resulting paper and end uses differ a Kraft is chemically brown paper mechanical is good for printing 6Which pulping process has the highest yield Which pulping process results in the strongest paper a Mechanical b Kraft makes strong paper 7Which wood and pulping process is used to make each of the following corrugated linerboard corrugated medium and glassine How does the process affect the properties a CMCL NSSC higher yield output good properties Hardwoods b Glassine Hardwood Kraft sulfite or processes high yield 8What combination of wood type pulping method and re ning time produces the strongest pulp a Strong pulp Softwood b Method Chemical c Time longest time better output quality 9What is the sequence of operations involved in making pulp a It frees the cellulosic wood fibers from the chips by breaking down the wood s intercellular lignin glue using a mechanical chemical or hybrid process b Fibers are suspended in water slurry bleached and refined once separated from each other 10 How does pulp beating refining time affect the tensile tearing and burst properties of paper What kinds of paper are most highly refined a They improve with some refining with low levels of refining the improvement in hydrogen bonding increases all three kinds of strength 11 What are the bene ts of recycling paper based packaging How does recycled fiber affect the properties of paper How can packages be designed for recycling a b 12 Recycling has increased markedly worldwide since the late 1980s and environmental Corporate has led to increased specified recycled content in their packages Coating inks and adhesives that would contaminate the recycled fiber are avoided to make packages able to be recycled What is the purpose of adding the following additives to the pulp furnish filler binder wet strength E b P 13 Fillers to fill in the gaps between fibers Binders to enhance interfiber bonding and thus increase the strength of the paper Wet strength resin increase wet strength What is the purpose of sizing added to the pulp From what is it made What is the difference between board sized and slack sized paper a b c 14 UN 15 Sizing agents increase the liquid resistance of paper Made from pine Slack has little or no ability to resist liquid What are the most common filler and binder White clay is the most common filler Starch is the most common binder Why is nonwood based pulp more commonly used in Asia than the US E 16 Because of the abundant resources of timber energy water and technology What are some of the nonwood materials used to make pulp a Other fibrous crops Chapter 7 1Define the following terms and explain their significance on a fourdriner machine a saw Headbox pressurized to maintain adequate ow clean pulp is collected Wire alternative to head box slurry fed 2 wires Couch roll dandy roll a cylinder wrapped with wire cloth with about half the mesh count of the fourdrinier wire that rides on top of the paper sucks and pushes water out of the sheet Couch suction of the wet press section of the machine Weend presses eliminates lumps and shapes the paper Dryend presses drier carrier ashed off Dryer section hot srums drys and hot air further evaporate the water make water content 5 in the paper Calender stack to smooth and compress the paper to a uniform thickness rafts 02 2Whatis the difference between the felt side and the wire side of paper made in a fourdriner machine How does it affect the properties of each side Which side better for printing a Felt side is softer than wire side b One settles faster than the other 3What is a twin gap wire former and what are its advantages over the fourdriner headbox and wire a Dewatering in gaps cause supension to move at speed of wires 4What is meant by the machine direction Why do paper properties differ in the MD vs the CD a The direction the corrugation goes orients fibers 5 For a given piece ofpaper which has the higher tensile strength MD or CD Why a MD is stronger more dimensionally stable 6Which papermaking process is used most often for the multi ply recycled paperb card used in cereal cartons a Cylinder former 7Which papermaking process is used most for newspapers and kraft paper a Fourdriner Process 8Under what conditions is the fourdrinier machine used to make paperboard a Multiply fourdrinier and cylinder 9Which two operations on a fourdrinier machine most affect the paper thickness a Thinner paper or thin multiply with high kraft Virgin fiber 10 How does calendaring after paper properties a Compress smoothness 11 What is the purpose of external sizing How does it differ from internal sizing discussed in Chapter 6 a External sizing is for water resistance and internal is rosin sizing in pulp 12 Which papermaking process orients the fibers more in the machine direction fourdrinier or cylinder a Cylinder 13 How do the outer and inner layer of multiply paperboard contribute to its stiffness a Outer contribute more to stiffness 14 What are the purposes of using clay and starch in the pulping and papermaking processes a Glossy white printing surface and improves print colors and minimizes ink usage 15 What is the purpose of clay coating on paper and paperboard a Clay improves printing 16 What is meant by C18 and C28 and to which material does it generally refer a Coated 1 side coated 2 side b Refers to clay coating 17 What is the most common plastic used for coating paper What benefits dose it add a LDPE b Water resistance heat sealability drink boxes and milk cartons Chapter 8 1What is the difference material tests and packaging performance tests How does their use differ a Material specs b Packaging development 2What do these acronyms mean TAPPI ASTM ISO a TAPPI Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry b ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials c ISO International Standards Organization 3What standards organization is the most important source of tests for the properties of paper and paperboard a ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials 4What is the principal difference between ASTM and ISO a The difference between material tests and packaging performance tests 1 Material tests thickness or tensile strength ii Packaging performance tests the performance ofa filled package in distribution 5What is the difference between repeatability and reproducibility in test standards a Repeatable by the same person in the same lab b Reproducibility between two different labs 6What is the difference between accuracy and precision What is bias a Accuracy measures the true value b Precision get the same results may not be quotaccuratequot but they are useful 1 Bias errors produced by procedure 7In general what is the thickness borderline between paper and paperboard a Paper by BW b Paperboard is by points 8How is paper caliper thickness expressed in US units vs metric units a US points 001 b Metric mm or microns 9How thick is 24 point board in mm How thick is 06mm board in points a 1point 0254mm 10 What is the range of thickness most common for paperboard a 1624point 11 Is it more common to specify paperboard by thickness or basis weight Which is more common for paper a Paperboard is more commonly specified by points thickness b Paper specified by basis weight 12 How many pounds is the basis for paper versus paperboard How many pound for containerboard the components of corrugated board a PP 1b3000ft2 b PB lbs1000ft2 13 A 8 X 10 piece of 56 point kraft paper for bags weighs 44 grams What is the basis weight What is the grammage a BW 44g1ft2 x 11b454gX 3000ft2 2907le BW b Grammage 44g1ft2 X 1ft20929m2 4736gm2 14 If 42 lb BW corrugated linerboard containerboard costs 3 50ton what is the weight of two liners for a box blank with the dimensions of 12 X 16 What is the cost for these two liner a Area 2 liners X 1 X 1 X 13 liner 23ft2 b Weight23ft2 x 421000ft2 028le c Cost 0281bs x 35020001bs 0049 15 What is relative humidity relative to a The amount ofmoisture in the air 16 Ifa piece of paper that weighs 5 grams is dried and the dried weight is 47 grams what was the original moisture content a 5g 47g5gX 100 6 17 Why is wood moisture content calculated on a dry basis and paper on a wet basis 18 What in general is the equilibrium moisture content of paper at 50 RH a About 5 19 What is the ideal range for the moisture content of paper Below what moisture content does paper become brittle Above what moisture content does it lose stiffness a 3 to Ifit falls below 3 then paper becomes brittle Above 7 moisture the fibers and therefore the paper lose stiffness and becomes mushy saw 20 What are standard TAPPI temperature and RH conditions and why are they used a 72 F and 50 RH b used because they need to become equilibrium with the atmosphere 21 Why should a paperbased sample be preconditioned in drier conditions rst 22 What are the temperature and RH for ASTM39s standard tropical conditions a 4ooc 14001 and 15 RH 23 How are tensile strength elongation at break stiffness and tear strength affected by an increase in moisture content 24 Which optical properties are most affected by aging a Whiteness and brightness 25 Which is more commonly specified in packaging Whiteness or brightness What is the difference a Brightness is common is packaging specification b Brightness the amount of bluewhite light that a paper re ects 26 What is the most common brightness value specified for 838 and clay coated paperboard a quot80 bright 27 What is meant by opacity and gloss a Opacity resistance to light b Gloss direction of re ected light 28 lfa dish covered with glassine and containing desiccant gains 6 grams of water in 16 hours and the exposed surface area of the barrier material is a 4quot diameter disc what is the WVTR a Area 314 X 4 2 X 254cmin X 1m100cm2 1595m i 6g1595m2 X 23days2508gm2 per day 29 Be able to use the following procedures to determine the MD and CD of samples ofpaper and paperboard a The aXis of curl procedure parallel to MD initial wet on one side after drying b The bend procedure two strips cut from each orentation diving board c The surface fiber procedure Viewing the paper with the light at an angle to the paper Tensile test procedure specimen is cut with its length parallel to the MD will have greater tensile strength and less stretch SD 30 Does paper have more ofa feathery appearance when torn parallel to the MD or CD In which direction will a paper wetted on one side curl which is the aXis and which side is out a CD has a more feathery look b Curl parallel to the MD 31 lfa 1 wide strip breaks at 13 lbs in the tensile test with an initial jaw separation of 7 and ending at 71 what is its tensile strength What is its elongation a Tensile Strength 13lbsin b elongation 17 X 100 143 32 Does paper have more tearing resistance in the MD or CD In which direction does it have higher tensile strength In which direction is it stiffer In which direction does it have the greatest fold endurance a Greater tear resistance in the CD b Tensile strength is greater in MD 33 When would a high tear resistance by a benefit When might it cause problems a Paper grocery bag b When you are trying to open something 34 Ifa paper has a slide angle result of 30 what is its static COF Is the kinetic COF higher or lower 35 If static and kinetic coef cients of friction are 4 and 3 respectively what angel does the sample begin to slide 36 When would a low COF be a bene t When might it cause problems a 37 To which property of corrugated berboard boxes is RCT related a Stacking strength 38 Which factor most affects the stiffness of paperboard a Thickness 39 What are the instruments39 units of measurement for the tearing and bending stiffness tests a TSUT taber stiffness units 40 What is a score bend ratio and when is it relevant a Ration of force required to bend scored is unscored samples 1 In carton machinery the industry likes 50 so the machines don ts jam may jam if too high and may be deformed if too low Chapter 9 1Why is it hard to print fine detail on natural Kraft paper a Because of the dark brown color 2What kind of paper is used to make grocery bags glassine and corrugated board a Grocery natural Kraft b Glassine parchmentgrease proof c Corrugated waxed paper 3What is meant by C18 and C28 To what kind of coating does it refer a C15 coated 1 sides C25 coated 2 sides b Refers to clay coating 4 Name two kinds of greaseresistant paper a Glassine and Parchment paper 5How does the production of glassine differ from the paper What are some uses a Differs from paper by supper calendar operations and semi transparent b Used for bags for fries and burger wraps 6Which is a better moisture barrier glassine or waxed paper a Waxed paper is a better moisture barrier 7Which feels waxier wet or dry waxed paper a Wet waxed paper feels more waxy 8How is cellophane made a Through extensive chemical treatment of wood that results in a transparent film 9What is the advantage of cellophane over PP a Stiffness and the ability to hold a quotdead fold 10 To what does the word containerboard refer a Thick paper used to make corrugated board the components 11 Explain mechanical adhesion What is the most common test for paper adhesion What is mean by ber tear and what is indicated by its absence a Mechanical adhesion is the force joining two materials due to interlocking mechanical materials b Most common test is seal peel test c Fiber tear is a good bond d Absence is the adhesive joint is the weak point in the structure 12 What is the difference between an adhesive and cohesive bond failure a Adhesive failure is the applied stress exceeds the adhesive strength of the bond between the adhesive and either of the substances b Cohesive failure applies stress exceeds the cohesive strength of either of the substances or of the adhesive itself 13 List the following adhesives in order of decreasing solids content starch dextrin hot melt and PVA emulsion What advantage is a high solids content a Starch 2030 b Dextrin 4050 c Hot melt 100 d PVA emulsion 5080 e Higher solids content the quicker it sets up 14 For what purpose is starch adhesive used a Combines corrugated board 15 What kinds of adhesives can be used for labels a Dextrin 16 What are some advantages of hot melt adhesive What are some disadvantages a Advantages bonds quickly water resistant thermoplastic wax wrap around containers b Disadvantages expensive repulping quotstickiesquot higher degree of maintenance 17 What happens if the open time in a laminating process exceeds the range of the adhesive a The open time exceeds range adhere will not happen Chapter 10 1What is a halftone and how does it differ from line art a Halftone tone and shading creating a pattern of dots b Line art straight lines and solid dark fields 2What is the difference between a spot color and a process color a Spot color one color or different ink for each other b Process color spectrum of colors re ecting other colors 3What three colors does the eye detect a Red Green Blue 4What are the four primary colors ofprocess color printing and how are three of them combined to make other colors Why are they called subtractive a Four primary colors ofprocess color printing Yellow Magenta Cyan Black b They are combined because the eye re ects amount of 3 colors and transmits to the brain combining the colors oflight i Dots combined from range c Subtractive filter light of colored ink 5How are the four colors separated a The colored negatives are converted to halftone dots electronically 6lf process colors require only 4 inks presses and most presses have more stations what may the other prink stations be used for a Spot color metallic color dull and gloss for 3D less expensive than embossing 7Why is a white surface necessary for good color printing a Because of the transparent inks and re ected light 8Whatis meant by a printing screen density of 133 lpi Is this fine or course Which process has the coarsest screen density a 133 lpi resolution standard for smooth clay coated paper and paperboard This is fine Flexography is the coarsest screen density saw 9What is the Pantone matching system What is the Hexachrome Matching System Which would be used to print a cereal carton with a fullcolor illustration with uorescent orange and green elements a Pantone matching system standard color formulas b Hexachrome matching system brighter uorescent new color system c Hexachrome matching system would be used to print a cereal carton 10 What are the five elements required by the US Fair Packaging and Labeling Act a Principle display panel product identity net weight name and place of business ingredients 11 What is the basis for bar code print and which aspects of the printing are critical a Bar codes are used to identify the product for checkout printing b Clean sharp printing is critical 12 What do the two 5digit numbers of he UPC code represent What is the purpose of the quiet zone a Left number of the UPC company b Right numbers of the UPC specific product c Quiet zone must be kept free of any other printing that the scanner might mistake for a code element 13 What three colors are recognized as a bar by a bar code scanner What three colors are recognized as a space What is the problem with using red ink to print a bar code a Black Dark Blue Dark Green are the 3 colors recognized by a bar code scanner Yellow Red and white are recognized as space If bars are red the scanner will not detect them my 14 What kind ofink would be needed to print the antennas necessary for RFID a Conductive inks 15 What are the three main ingredients in ink What is the purpose of each a Pigment organic colored powered gives color b Vehicle liquid oil or resin binds pigments c Solvent dissolves oils accelerates drying 16 What is the problem with solventbased inks What are the alternatives What are some problems with waterbased inks a Solvent based inks smell illness and detrimental to environment easily dissolve and carry the pigments b The alternatives are waterbased or UV c Water based inks dry slow and more heat to evaporate them 17 What are the three main printing Processes called litho exo and gravure a Flexo relief like a rubber stamp its exible b Litho offset at c Gravure engraved 18 Which printing process produces a halo around lines and has the most problem with gain Why What problems can this cause for barcode scannability a Flexography produces a halo around lines and has the most problem with grains because the ink is raised and the edges are darker Problems caused for bar coding are pressure is too light so it skips or misses spots 5 19 Which printing produces a sawtooth Which has the smoothest lines a Rotogravure produces a sawtooth b Lithography has the smoothest lines 20 What is the difference between the plate cylinder and the impression cylinder a The impression applies the force b Plate carries applies the ink 21 Which printing process has developed with the 20th century printing industry and has the broadest range of uses in packaging including exible plastic lms and paperbased packaging a Flexography 22 Which printing process is most commonly used for paper bags and corrugated board a Flexography 23 Which printing process is best known for reproducing illustrations a Lithography 24 How does an offset lithography press work What does the word offset mean a Lithography press works by the water goes on the nonimage area the plate rotates against inked rollers repels ink from nonimage area b Offset image transferred to rubber to paper 25 What are the following and which process uses them offset blanket cylinder anilox roll impression cylinder and central impression cylinder a Offset blanket cylinder litho takes ink off plate and applies it b Anilox roll exo c Impression exo litho gravere d Central impression exo 26 Why can39t waterbased inks be used for offset lithography a Because the water repels the ink 27 Which printing process is most commonly used for paperboard folding cartons Why a Lithography because it has at plates 28 What is the difference between a webfed and sheetfed process Which two kinds of packages are primarily printed in a sheetfed process a Sheetfed larger shape less waste books and cartons are primarily printed in a sheetfed process b Webfed more books speed 29 Which printing process is used only for very long repeated runs of cartons and labels a Rotogravure 30 What are some advantages and disadvantages of gravure printing a Advantages highest printing speed fast drying b Disadvantages high cost limited to volume high ragged or serrated edges 31 Which process is best for fine lines Which is best for large solid elds a Lithography for both 32 Which printing process is best for very short runs and can be customized from imprint to imprint a Digital Printing 33 What are some of the uses for proofs during the preprint process a Proof reading corrections verify colors communication 34 Why is it better to look at a digitally printed proof than viewing it on a computer screen What are the limitations of digital printed proof a It is better to look at a digitally printed proof because it can appear different b Limitations are CMYK inks and lines not dots 35 What are some of the devices used for checking the quality of print a Density densitometers b Color colorimeter c Narrow bands spectrophotometers Chapter 11 1What factors may cause labels not to lie at in the labeling machine What problems can this cause a Humidity which causes machines to jam 2ln which direction does a bottle label39s MD run Why a It goes around the cylinder because paper if wet curls in the CD so it prevents the label from curling off 3What kind ofprinting is most common for paper labels a Offset litho 4What is the acronym for labels that are self adhesive What is the acronym for labels that are claycoated on one side a Selfadhesive PS Pressure sensitive b Clay coated 1 sided C15 5What are the two basic methods for affixing paper labels What are the advantages of each a Wet glue quickest and cheapest b Heat seal or pressure sensitive permanent or removable 6What kind oflabel is always applied by a highspeed machine Which kind is used for manual application and in slower machines a Wet glue is used for highspeed machines b Pressure sensitive is used for slower machines 7What kinds of wet glue are most commonly used for paper labels a PVA waterbased dextrins 8Why are paper labels used less for plastic packages than for glass and metal What are some alternative labeling methods a They looked too tacked on to molded plastics b Plastic is an alternative 9Why are we in the US losing the art of wrapping a Because of the easy availability of fabricated bags cartons and boxes 10 Which direction does the paper39s machine direction run in a paper bag Why a Top to bottom because it is fed in from rolls 11 What are the two machines used to make paper bags a Tuber and bottomer 12 What are the bene ts of bags versus rigid packages What are the drawbacks a Benefits inexpensive exible rugged stackable wild range of graphics b Drawbacks sifting from seams breakage leaking limited reclosability 13 How high can bags be stacked a Almost infinitely stackable as long as they have a high coefficient of friction 14 What kind ofprinting is most common for paper bags a Flexo 15 What is the primary kind ofpaper used to make bags Why a Natural Kraft because it needs to be strong 16 Which is stronger a singleply Kraft bag or a multiwall sack with the same total basis weight Why a A multiwall because the plies work together each contributes to its individual stretch and tensile strength 17 Why is air evacuation such an important issue for bags How is air evacuation accomplished a The bags are more likely to burst and causes unstable pallet loads b Add tiny vent holes for air to escape 18 What are gussets What benefits do they add versus tube styles a Gussets reverse folds in the sides ofmost bags b They make the corners not pointed so they don t cause damage 19 What is the name of the style ofa standard paper grocery bag a SOS selfopening square 20 To what does the bag name SOS refer What are the advantages of an SOS bag a SOS pastedopenmouth selfopening square b Advantages better stacking and palletization benefit 21 What is the primary advantage of an SOM bag a Inexpensive and simple 22 What advantage does a PBOM bag offer over other styles a More protection because they are sift proof and closure is strong 23 How is an openmouth multiwall shipping sack closed a Sewn glued or preapplied hot melt adhesive is activated 24 How is a valve bag lled For what kinds ofproducts is a valve bag best a Valve bags are filled through a open corner spout built into the bag b Used for powdered products that have a tendency to dust 25 What are some kinds of products that are packed in multiwall bags What are some examples ofindustrial and institutional uses a Products Free owing granular products b Industrial and institutional uses are resin pellets sold to plastic factories our and sugar sold to food processors fertilizers and pesticides sold to farms and cement sand and mortar used in construction 26 What are some kinds ofproducts packed in consumer bags a Less than 251bs pet food lawn products sugar our and cookies 27 What is the biggest advantage ofincluding paper in a FFS bag structure a Low cost Also quality of forming operation which requires more expertise than filling a premade bag 28 In what order are the dimensions ofa bag conventionally specified In what order are the plies speci ed Is the D dimension measured with the bag lled or empty a L X W X D b Plies inside to outside c D is measured when empty 29 Upon what factors are bag dimensions chosen What is the most important rule for verifying bag size a Bag dimensions are chosen by product density and weight the geometry of the bag style standard tube widths freeboard and pallet pattern b Estimating the bag by filling it with customers product 30 Estimate the cost of a multiwall bag with the following construction 30 mil LDPE 50NK50NK60NK each ply measuring 10ft2 The transacted price for Kraft paper is about 500t0n pulp and paper week and LDPE resin is 065lb plastics News The average specific gravity of LDPE is 092 x 624 lbft2 31 What are some substitutes for paper bags a Plastic bags woven sewn shipping sacks and singlesheet plastic film bags 32 What kind of test best evaluates a bag39s strength In what drop orientation are most paper bags weakest in an impact test Why Which impact orientation puts most stress on a bag39s ends a Tests butt test b Butt drop tests bags are weakest in because it stresses the paper in its weakest crossmachine direction at its narrowest point in the bag c Most stress on the bag s end the side drop test Chapter 12 1What are the two greatest virtues ofpaperboard packages a Its at stiffness sharp creases and ability to dress its contents 2Is multiply bard made on a fourdrinier or cylinder machine a Cylinder 3How can recycled paperboard be identified by its color What is the source of the color a Recycles paperboard can be identified by color because it ranges between gray and grayish tan b The source of the color depends on the source of the secondary fiber 4What is the difference between bending and nonbending chipboard and how do their uses differ a Nonbending used for setup boxes that have taped edges instead of folded scores also backing stiffener for pads of paper b Bending folds into a score its used for folding cartons 5What type of board is typically used for frozen food and ice cream containers What type is used for cereal and cracker cartons What type is used for 12 can beverage carriers What type is used for setup boxes SBS is typically used for frozen foods Clay coated recycle board is used for cereal and cracker cartons CUK is used for 12can beverage carriers Nonbending chipboard is used for setup boxes anew 6In general how thick should recycles board be for a carton containing 1 lb of product a 1 lb cartons board is 2024 points 7Why is it necessary for a score to delaminate paperboard plies a Because in order to form the hinge you have to reduce the bonding strength between plies to make it more exible 8Which way in general does the paperboard39s MD run on a folding carton Why a MD runs horizontal to prevent distortion 9Is a separate score allowance specified for folding cartons How are the dimensions measured and speci ed Is this the same for corrugated fiberboard boxes a No They are figured into the design and layout b Length by the front panel and width by the side panel C No 10 Should the score39s raised ridge be on he inside or the outside ofa carton a Raised score goes on the inside of finished carton 11 What is meant by prebroken scores What is meant by knocked down KD What is the difference between working scores and nonworking scores a Prebroken bent past 900 and then returned to being at to make them easier to erect on the eventual cartooning line b KD fold the scores inward 1800 glue aps and right side panel together in the center to form the joint 12 How much is added to a folding carton blank to allow for scores a Adding the amount equal to the thickness of the board to each panel 13 Why are foam or cork pieces placed alongside the cutting blades on a carton die a To hold the paperboard in place as it is cut and to facilitate the efficient removal of scrap 14 What kinds of adhesive are used for folding cartons What factors can interfere with good adhesive bonds a Dextrin or PVA glue is used for folding cartons hotmelt can also be used Highly sized and clay coated board can be difficult because with waterbased adhesive the liquid will not penetrate also printing and varnish F 15 What feature differentiates the various tube styles of folding cartons a Ifthe end aps are fucked or sealed 16 What is the standard way to represent a tubestyle carton in a layout drawing in terms of which side printed or unprinted is up and the position of the glue ap a Printed is up b Glue ap is on the left side 17 What kinds of products are packed in tuckend vs sealedend cartons a Tuckend bottles ofperfume spark plugs toothpaste underwear b Sealed end cereal cake mix crackers 18 What does the folding carton designation POSE indicate and for what products is the POSE carton most popular POSE partial overlap seal end Products are ow able and dry like powders and crackers 5 93 19 What is double gluing and when is it used Double glued the minor aps are glued to the inner closure panel which is then glued to the outer panel Used to prevent sifting A F 20 Identify the dimensions on an unlabeled carton blank from the dimensions ofa box and vice versa 21 Which tuckstyle carton style is most economical to produce Why a Economy overlap seal end is the most economical to produce because it has less overlap so less materials needed 22 Why is an FRTstyle carton preferred by the perfume industry a The way the top aps tuck from the front to the rear giving the top of the principal display panel a more clean and finished appearance 23 Why is an SST style carton the most expensive tucked style a The ap placement will not permit interlocking and requires that more waste be trimmed away during die cutting 24 What is a slit lock a Slitlock cut at the edges of the tuck s score provides a more positive and secure closure which tears when the package is opened 25 What are some uses for traystyle cartons a Bakery cartons gift boxes display cartons open top showcases 26 What is the difference between a Beers tray and a Brightwood tray a Brightwood erected automatically or semi b Beer manually 27 Why are folded and glued tubestyle cartons shipped on edge a So they can spring easily into the box shape 28 What properties ofa carton affect its machinablility on a cartoner a Factors like stiffness score quality and bend ration coefficient of friction atness and gluing 29 What is a double package maker a Double package maker forms the bag and carton together around a mandrel fills the bag and then seals it and the carton 30 Lay out the blank for a POSE carton of dimensions 6 x 25 x 10 with 12quot ap overlap and 12 quot glue ap 31 Estimate the cost of the POSE carton in the previous question 4color printing 80bright 601b BW claycoated recycled board assume the market price is 580ton 32 How does a set up box differ from a folding carton What are some common uses for setup boxes a A set up box is made from nonbending board and have a disadvantage because they cannot be knocked down at for shipment b Some uses are board games jigsaw puzzles software stationery chocolates shoes and jewelry 33 What are the advantages and disadvantages of setup boxes a Advantages rigid and reusable b Disadvantages can t be knocked down for shipment slower and more costly to produce 34 What materials are laminated or extrusion coated onto paperboard to make it watertight a SBS with polyethylene PE extrusion coating 35 What is the name of the Swedish company that developed the drink box a Tetra Pak 36 What is the aseptic packaging concept a Aseptic Packaging is that sterilized milk or juice is filled into a sterile package in a sterile environment 37 From what three materials are most drink boxes made Whatis the purpose of each Howis the box sterilized before it is filled a SBScoated with LDPE to make it liquid tight b LDPE inner coating to improve heat seal ability c Aluminum to give a light and oxygen barrier d The box is sterilized by hot peroxide fog 38 By what printing process are most drink boxes and milk cartons printed a Flexography 39 How are composite can dimensions specified a The diameter and height are designated by three digit numbers designating whole inches and 116th fractions of an inch 40 Name and describe the two manufacturing process used to make composite can bodies Which is more common a Spiral winding The most popular material is fed in sequence at an angle to a cylindrical mandrel which temporarily supports structure until formed b Convolute each layer is glued on top of another as they are few in sequence straight onto an evolving mandrel c Linear drawing four webs come together and folds them around a mandrel with a longitudinal overlap seam 41 What is a mandrel Is it used for making convolute or spiral wound cans a Mandrel temporarily supports the structure as it is formed b Both spiral and convolute use a mandrel 42 Which contributes more to the strength ofa paper tube thickness or shape a Thickness 43 Why do beverage carries have more dramatic billboard like display potential than most other paperboard packages a In store billboard affect extends beyond the individual package a wall of color grouping of welldesigned paperboard beverage carriers can present a sticking point ofpurchase display 44 What is the difference between a blister package and a skin package a Blister preformed blister where the product is loosely held b Skin package is molded directly over the product 45 What plastic is most commonly used to form the blister in blister packaging What other plastics are used a PVC is normally used but PET and PP can also be used 46 What plastic lm is most often used for skin packaging Why are claycoated boards not used in skin packaging and what disadvantage arises from this a LDPE is most commonly used or ionomer of surlyn b Clay coated is not generally used because it reduces porosity 47 How can postponing the packaging of pens on blister cards as part ofa global marketing strategy reduce transportation costs a It separates manufacturing from packaging by postponing b The products are shipped in bulk from most of their supply chain 48 What is the most common consumer complaint about carded packaging a Difficult to open Chapter 13 1What is the difference between an integrated and an independent corrugated board supply company a Integrated they make the containerboard combine it into corrugated board and cut out and print the boxes b Independent buy most of the containerboard combine it into corrugated board and cut out and print the boxes 2What is the difference between a sheet feeder plant and a sheet plant and what are the more descriptive names for these a Sheet feeder plant corrugator plant makes combined board b Sheet plant box plant only makes boxes 3 Linerboard is made in what kind of pulping and papermaking process What kind ofprocess is used to make medium Why a Linerboard is made by the pulping of sulfate pulping of softwood and is formed by the fourdrinier process b The medium is made from recycled corrugated board and Virgin hardwoods processed in neutral sulphite semichemical pulping because the fibers of hardwood are shorter so the undulations can be more easily formed in the machine direction without breaking the paper 4What kind of adhesive is generally used to combine corrugated board What is the signi cance of the adhesive gel point a Corrugated board is combined with watersoluble cornstarch based adhesive and some resin b Water resistant adhesives can be can be added 5 What is meant by the engineering beam principle and how does it apply to corrugated board a Engineering beam principle resists bending and pressure of tow at loadbearing panels separated by a structure in this case by a rigid corrugated web 6 List the ute letter designation in order ofincreasing ute size List them in order ofincreasing number of utes per inch a N F E B C A K h K A C B E F N 7Which is exurally stiffer A B C ute Why a A ute is exurally stiffer because of its thickness and good compression strength 8 How many liners are there in triple wall board a 4 liners 9Which side of the corrugated board is usually printed the first or second face applied in the corrugator Why a Second face to have a more uniform appearance and less glue lines 10 What is the role of steam in the process used to make corrugated board What is the role ofheat a The role of steam is its easily generated distributed and controlled source ofheat and moisture b The heat is used to balance the moisture content between the two liners 11 How can corrugated board be made more waterand weatherresistant Where can standards for water and weatherresistant board with names like V3c and W5c be found a More water and weather resistant by asphalt impregnation and rubber adhesives b The standards can be found in ASTM or the National Institute of Packaging Handing and Logistics Engineers wwwniphleorg 12 What is the difference between wax imp regnation curtain coating and cascading Which provides the most water resistance a Wax impregnation imparts a dry way treatment to containerboard during corrugating operations Curtain Coating applied to at blanks by passing the sheet horizontally through a thin continuous curtain of polymermodified wax which forms a film over the entire surface of the walls of the board Cascading applied to a box or blank passing vertically through multiple cascades of paraffin based wax with the objective of saturating the combined board through Also the most water resistant U P 13 Why is corrugated board the paper material with the highest recycling rate a Volume logistics 14 To what properties of the linerboard is the combined board Mullen burst test most closely related What is the effect of the medium in the Mullen test a The Mullen burst test is closely related with the tensile strength of the linerboards b The medium is unaffected by the tensile strength because of the slack the medium just unfolds as the linerboards stretch 15 What is meant by quot2001b test board a 42 26C 42 single wall corrugated fiberboard 16 Under what conditions is the Beach Puncture Test used instead of the Mullen Burst Test a Commonly used for heavier grades of corrugated board like triple wall because the Mullen diaphragm will not pop through the thicker boards 17 Are Beach Puncture Units a measure of force pressure energy or momentum a Beach units can be converted to joules a measure of mechanical energy 18 In which direction do the utes run in most boxes Why In which direction does the MD of the containerboard run in most boxes Why a Most boxes utes run top to bottom because they act like columns to support the stack above b Runs horizontal around the box because that s how its made 19 If and ECT sample 2quot x 15quot buckles at 64lbs what is the ECT a ECT WL 64lbZin 321bin 20 What purpose is served by waxing the edges of ECT samples a To stiffen and prevent the edges from crinkling or rolling over 21 What properties of containerboard and of converted boxes are related to ECT How can the papermaking process improve ECT a 22 What characteristics of corrugated board does the at crush test evaluate a Evaluates the rigidity of utes 23 Ifa 3 disk of C ute buckles in the at crush test at 140 lbs what is the at crush value a FCT FA F 1401b A 11 r2 11D24 113in2 m4 7069in2 b FCT 1401b7069in2 19805psi 24 What does the pin adhesion test evaluate a Glue Bond 25 How is the wet ply separation test performed a It requires submersion in water for 24 hours followed by a visual inspection and brushing a person s thumb across the cut edges to check for adhesion Guest Lecturer Ben Frank Packaging Corporation of America Fibers are oriented in MD Flutes are in CD because of the way CE is made Flues are vertical for compression strength but the CD fivers cannot assist RCT ring crush test values in the CD affects ECT edge crush test values of the board which in turn affects box compression strength ECT is how we specify corrugated board How to improve ECT Improve RCT by orienting more fibers in the CD Chapter 14 1What style of corrugated fiberboard box is most common Why a RSC Regular Slotted Container 2What 5 operations are performed by the exo foldergluer Prints Slots Scores Folds Glues 9999 3Which gives a higher production rate at or rotary die cutting a Rotary Die Cutting 4What are the limitations in printing natural kraft corrugated board a Difficult to get high quality printing b Lowtech low quality and one color 5What kind ofprinting process is most common for corrugated board How many colors are generally printed on corrugated boxes Describe what is meant by quotlitho labeling and quot preprint a Flexography Printing Process b 12 colors c Litho Labeling where a lithographed sheet is applied to single face board after the blank has been cut but before scoring and slotting Preprint a high quality print on the linerboard before affixing it in the double facer of the corrugator 6Why is there a trend to printing corrugated board with high quality processcolor graphics a The quality is much higher and eliminates the need for printing plates b The high quality print can be a powerful advertising when being used on POP displays 7What is meant by an SKU and how is it used a Stock keeping unit is the packers code for each product variation b Used to keep track ofinventory 8What information can be found on a box maker39s certificate a Box maker s name and location b List the minimum combined weight of facings and the minimum burst test or the ECT value for the combined board 9How are the dimensions ofa corrugated fiberboard box speci ed by the user How does this differ from how a paperboard carton39s dimensions are specified a The dimensions of paperboard carton includes the scores allowances where in corrugated the score is added separately 10 Are corrugated scores folded toward the groove or toward the ridge a Toward the groove 11 Approximately how much is added to a RSC39s L and W panel dimensions for a score allowance Why might this vary by panel As a general rule how much is added to the depth a Approximately between 316 in and 1A in b Because of the variation of utes of ute sizes c 1161n increments greater than the actual width 12 What is the inside dimensions ofa panel if the scores are 10 12 apart and the corrugated board is 532 thick a Inside 10 12 532 13 What circumstances make it desirable to have the manufacturer39s joint on the inside vs the outside of the box a Inside is more common because it gives a square dimension b Outside has the advantage of not interfering with automatic case packing equipment This can affect the alignment ofbox on a pallet and also result in snagging on conveyors and shelves 14 What are the four ways that a manufacturer39s joint can be attached Which method is the least expensive a Cold glue least expensive b Stitcher c Taper d Gluer 15 Estimate the cost of an RSC with dimensions 15 x 12 x 10 made from C ute tu 143 made from 422642 BW containerboards Assume that the market price for liners is 400ton and medium is 3 50ton Estimate the cost of the CSSC with the same dimensions and board a Blank 21521225 x 2510 1130 inquot2 1130inquot2x1ftquot2144inquot2 785 ftquot2 b Linerboards 2x785ftquot2x421bs1000ftquot2 6594 lbs Medium 143x785ftquot2x261bs1000ftquot2 2919 lbs c 6594X 40020001bs 2919 X 35020001bs 18 estimated material cost d 18 X 2 36 estimated cost ofbox 16 What is the most common style of corrugated fiberboard shipping container What are its virtues a RSC Regular Slotted Container b It s inexpensive yet strong and the most economical box style Also there is very little manufacturing scrap 17 What is the advantage of diecut boxes compared to slotted containers a It is more attractive and offers more of a presentation box look b Stronger box different shapes and makes angels 18 What differentiates the RSC CSSC OSC and FOL corrugated fiberboard box styles Provide a translation of the acronyms a RSC Regular Slotted Container 1 Flaps that meet are always closed second where they can be securely sealed b CSSC Center Special Slotted Container 1 All aps meet in center at top and bottom also more ofa squaredup style c OSC Overlap Slotted Container 1 Flaps all one length closed with staples and good for long products where there is a long gap between the inner aps d FOL Full Overlap Slotted Container 1 All aps same length as width ofbox strong box that stands up to rough handlingextra layers added for cushioning and good compression strength 19 What are the most economical proportions of an RSC What are the most economical dimensions for an RSC with a volume of 2 ft3 a The length width and depth 1 LWD 212 b LWD 212 L2W D2W VolumeLWD2WW2W 4Wquot3 2 W79L 2D2 20 What are the advantages of the CSSC style What is the chief disadvantage a Advantages i More bottom support due to having more material ii All aps meet good cushionprotection b Chief Disadvantage 1 Lot of extra material heavier 21 What is meant by a telescoping box style and why is it favored for reuse a Telescoping Box style box have a separate top that fits over the bottom b Reuse because they are strong and easy to open and close repeatedly 22 What is the difference between a 5panel folder and a wraparound box a 5panel folder fifth panel completely covers on side where in wrap around box fifth panel is replaced by a shorter manufacturer s joint 23 What is the two chief advantages ofa wraparound box over an RSC For what kind of products is a wrap around box appropriate a Less expensive and provide a tighter pack then RSC b Appropriate for cans and jars that provide enough strength on their own for stacking 24 How does a Bliss box differ from an RSC a Uses less board 25 What are the names of two manually erected corrugated fiberboard box styles a Selferecting and snap bottom boxes 26 What is a PCP display What are some design considerations a Pointof Purchase retail displays and powerful advertising attracting shoppers b Display trays and standalone POP displays 27 What are the advantages of produce trays that conform to a 60cm x 40cm footprint Where can you find standards for produce trays a Advantages i More tidy and standard mixed pallet loads and displays b Fiber Box Association and the European Federation of Corrugated Board Manufactures FEFCO 28 What is a quotGaylordquot a Boxlike with a separate cap that is held in place by a steel or plastic band 29 What are the 3 most common methods for sealing the aps on a corrugated fiberboard box Which is simpler for manual operations Which ones give the box more rigidity a Sealing Flaps 1 Cold glue PVA ii Holtmelt adhesive iii Tape b Tape c Glue Flaps 30 What are the most common substitutes for corrugated fiberboard shipping containers a Shrinkwrapping and stretchwrapping 31 What are slip sheets What are their advantages over pallets What systemic change do they require a Slipsheets a heavy hightensilestrength sheet of corrugated or solid fiberboard b Advantages 1 Less expensive then pallets ii Save cubic space in transportation c Systematic change to special equipment every place that loads are handled throughout the logistics network 32 What advantages does a corrugated pallet offer compared to a wooden one What are the advantages ofa wooden pallet compared to a corrugated one a Advantages of Corrugated Pallet i Lightweight used for lightweight loads ii Inexpensive disposable used only once and then recycled b Advantages of Wooden Pallet i More durable and vulnerable to water ii More beam strength and are able to be placed in rack without added support Chapter 15 1Comp ression strength is related to the board39s exural stiffness and what other two factors Upon what factors does corrugated fiberboard39s exural stiffness depend a ECT and Stacking Strength b ECT and the size of the box perimeter 2What proportion ofa box39s stacking strength is in its edges and corners vs side panels What is the effect of adding cut outs inserts or more corners a quot23 corners 13 sides b Cutouts reduce compression strength inserts and corners improve compression strength 3 Give 5 ways that poor quality box manufacturing can reduce compression strength a Crushed board Flutes are misaligned from scores improperly formed scores skewing a weak manufacturer s joint corner that are crushed or overslotted 4Is compression strength the same as stacking strength Why or why not a No they are not the same stacking strength is much lower as low as 10 percent of the laboratorymeasured compression strength when factors are used to account for the effect of real stacking conditions 5 Give four reasons why compression testing gives a much higher value than the actual stacking strength a Humidity time in supply chain stacking pattern on the pallet Pallet overhang and deckboard gaps all effect stacking strength 6What is the most significant factor in reducing a box39s stacking strength a Humidity 7 What 3 factors related to palletization affect stacking strength a Stacking pattern on the pallet pallet overhang and wide deckboard gaps if boxes are misaligned or an interlocking pallet pattern is used 8What is the average safetyenvironmental factor is used for longterm storage in high humidity a Factor 455 9What safetyenvironmental factor is used for longterm storage in high humidity a Factor of 8 10 How does the weightbearing ability of a box39s contents affect the required box compression strength a The contents of many boxes can be relied on carry at least some portions of the load 11 How can the safety factors in ASTM 4169 be used to account for the effect of the contents weight bearing ability a A lower set of factors when the contents totally support the load directly 12 Estimate the compression strength ofa 20quot x 15 x 20 box made from C ute 532quot thick with an ECT of 29lbs How much weight is carried in each panel In each edge a P 220quot 215quot 70quot i cs 587 x 29lbs X532 x 70quot 5631b b On the corneredge i 56323 375 lbs carried by the 4 edges 941bsedge c On the side i 56313 188 lbs is carried by 4 sides 47 lbsside 13 For the box in Questiong 12 what is the predicted stacking strength under the most severe conditions long term high humidity storage with interlocked palletloads using ASTM D4169 If each box weighs 451bs how high can they be stacked a 563lbs8 70 lbs stacking strength based on a factor of8 b 701bs 451bs 16 boxes can be stacked on top ofbottom box 1 so then 2 boxes high 14 What is the predicted stacking strength and acceptable stack height for this box in the best conditions short term dry storage in column stacks What about average conditions a 563lbs 3 188lbs stacking strength based on a factor of8 b 563lbs5 113lbs stacking strength based on a average factor of 5 15 If the contents of the box in the previous examples fully supports the load what is the stacking strength under average conditions How many high can they be stacked a 563 lbs2 282 lbs stacking strength b 282 451bs 63 i so 7 boxes high 16 What was the government authority behind the carriers39 Rule 41Item 222 Does this agency still exist a The 1914 Pridham Decision by the Interstate Commerce Comisssion The authority to makes quotrulesquot about corrugated fiberboard Rule 41 s bursting strength requirement became the standard for corrugated fiberboard boxes b They are no longer used 17 Which belongs to the railroads and which to the motor carriers Rule 41 or Item 222 a Rule 41 belongs to the railroads and Item 222 belongs to the motor carriers 18 What benefit was derived from the Rule 41Item 222 alliances between the railroads Motor carriers and the corrugated fiberboard box industry a Resulted in burst strength and ECT becoming the standard way to specify corrugated fiberboard in the United States today 19 Upon what two properties of corrugated berboard are the original Rule 41 and Item 222 based Whatis the alternative property specified in Rule 41 and Item 222 adopted in 1991 a The requirements for over 60 years were based on a combined material and board performance specification the board s burst strength and combined weight offacings b Edgecrush values 20 Upon what two aspects of the filled package are Rule 41 and Item 222 based What is meant by united inches a Box weight and size b United inches are L W D 21 What burst strength and facing basis weight of single wall board would meet the Item 222 Rule 41 requirement for a 48pound package measuring 20 x 15 x 20 What ECT would satisfy the requirement 22 Are there cases where Rule 41 and Item 222 lead to overor underpackaging a There are many cases where the corrugagated board recommended has too much to prevent damage 23 What is the difference between a common carrier and a contract carrier To which kind of carrier does the National Motor Freight Classi cation apply a Common carriers are liable for loss and damage at the goods full value and contract carriers aren t liable as the goods full value b Common Carriers are used 24 How did transport deregulation weaken the power of Rule 41 and Item 222 a The evidence that a different shipping container can provide a supply chain with a competitive advantage without increasing damage 25 Does the carrier ever own the freight a No they never own the freight although they do have liability for damage during transit 26 Why do manufacturers and their supply chains have more at stake in packaging decision than do carriers a They ensure the adequacy of shipping containers and controlling their form and coast 27 What are the tests required by Item 180 How are they different from a material test requirement a Compression vibration and impact of filled packages b They depend on not only the properties of the materials but also on how the package is closed and sealed and on the nature of the contents 28 What kind of shipping containers are regulated by the government What aspects are regulated a Those used for hazardous materials b The regulations classify the materials hazards and require more severe tests for packages for materials that are more hazardous 29 What are some functions of shipping containers that go beyond the properties of corrugated berboard a Performance based 30 How can shipping containers improve supply chain productivity and information system accuracy a Unitization increases the number ofvehicles that can be loadedhour cube and weight minimization reduces transport costs case count and configuration affect order picking efficiency case dimensions and identification affects crossdock efficiency identification affects the accuracy and timelines of supply chain information 31 What are five primary sources of damage that shipping containers are required to prevent 32 What are the three main categories of shipping container performance tests a Impact vibration and compression tests 33 What are the names of the three organizations that establish standards for shipping container performance tests a ASTM TAPPI and ISTA Chapter 16 1Assume a scenario in which the paper industry does not change its packaging products or productions methods over the next 50 years Present an argument supporting which segments of the market might first fall victim to competition from plastic and which might remain strong How could the paper industry defend against these threats a Wood supplies in NA are plentiful renewable biogradable BTU b Printing C Strong stiff hold a fold Cl Corrugated compression strength 2Imagine a paperbased packaging form that has not been discussed in this book What would need to happen to implement this creative package a Compression strength fibers types of corrugated board 3What are some ways that wood and paper based packaging materials and their production methods might change in the future Low cost strong stiff graphics Worldwide packaging demand increasing Improve quot ecological footprint Increase recycling wastetoenergy Ecological sustainable packaging sizeow 4Imagine ten speci c features that could be added to a paperboard carton andor paper bag to add value for a consumer How much more do you think that someone would be willing to pay for each a 5 From your current viewpoint imagine and describe a job that you might enjoy a job which deals with paperbased packaging What will be the most useful things from this text that you will need to know for that particular job