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Modern Nuclear Chemistry

by: Ladarius Rohan

Modern Nuclear Chemistry CEM 485

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Chemistry > CEM 485 > Modern Nuclear Chemistry
Ladarius Rohan
GPA 3.66

David Morrissey

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David Morrissey
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ladarius Rohan on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CEM 485 at Michigan State University taught by David Morrissey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/207689/cem-485-michigan-state-university in Chemistry at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Spring7 2010 Distributed Wed7 10 Feb 2010 Chemistry 485 Problem Set 4 Due Mon7 15 Feb 2010 10 points 1 F 9 The following questions consider the possibility of using decay heat from 238Pu a Calculate the speci c thermal energy content of a sample of pure 23813u that is7 calculate the power in Watts given off by the alpha decay per kg of pure rnaterial Calculate the mass in grams of 238Pu that would be needed to generate 470 W of thermal power in a radioisotope therrnal generator RTG to be used on a spacecraft A C7 V A O V Unfortunately the conversion of thermal power to electrical power is rather inef cient7 approximately 7 in most real devices Calculate the mass in grams of 238Pu needed to generate 470 W of electrical power for the spacecraft Calculate the classical turning point or distance of closest approach for an alpha particle at an energy of 54 MeV to a 2 U nucleus This is the radial distance7 r7 at which the kinetic energy of the alpha particle is equal to the Coulomb potential energy V0 Z1Z26247T60r What is the ratio of the classical turning point calculated above to the radius of a 2MU nucleus Spring7 2010 Distributed Wed7 14 Apr 2010 Chemistry 485 Problem Set 9 Due Mon7 19 Apr 2010 10 points The energy lost by a beam of charged particles that pass through a target generally goes into heating the target Use the Bethe Bloch equation for the rate of energy loss to answer the following questions 4 F 9 r 9 CT In preparation for the next step7 calculate the values of the relativistic param eters B and y for a 48Ca20 beam with an energy of 480 MeV7 or EA 100 MeV Calculate the rate of energy loss7 dEdx7 in MeVcrn of a 48Ca20 beam with an energy of 480 MeV in a berylliurn metal foil The textbook gives an expression for the average ionization potential I 7 12 gtk ZeVf0rZ lt 13 Calculate the amount of energy7 AB in MeV deposited by a single particle of a 48Ca20 at an energy of 480 MeV in a berylliurn metal foil that is 10 pm thick Calculate the rate of energy deposited in this same 10 pm foil7 AEAt7 by a beam of these calcium ions owing with an electrical current of 100 nA What is the power in Watts delivered to the metal from the energy deposited by this beam at a 100 nA current What is the rate of heating of the foil degreessec by this beam current if the heat capacity of berylliurn is 182 JgK The foil has an area of 5 cm by 25 cm Spring7 2010 Distributed Wed7 17 Mar 2010 Chemistry 485 Problem Set 6 Due Mon7 29 Mar 2010 10 points 1 F 9 Notice that alpha decay is an example of a nuclear reaction in which the Center of Mass system CMS coincides exactly with the Laboratory System 1 Cal culate the recoil energy of the decay of the rare isotope 2MU that decays with Qa4908 MeV 2 Calculate the Coulomb barriers for the reverse reaction in the CMS and in the Lab system Make a rough estimate of the reaction cross section in barns for the neutron capture reaction n77 on 235U at a neutron kinetic energy of 1 eV 3213 is a beta minus emitting nuclide that is used extensively in biological and biochemical studies This nuclide is made in nuclear reactors by the no reaction The target material for the production is usually ammonium chloride NH4Cl because it is a simple ionic solid Determine all of the nuclear reaction products from n77 and WHERE POSSIBLE no reactions on the six nuclei present in this sample Use the format of the following table to present your results for the six isotopes in the sample Table 1 Table of target nuclei and products for neutron irradiation of NH4Cl Nuclide lsotopic Nuclear Re action Half life Abundance Reaction Product 1H 99989 n77 2H stable 1H 99989 no NOT possible etc CM 485 562 zoto R3quot 35Fij quotPavia 1 ogz 22 39 ZZR quot 2 12 gt q L 346 4mg W agt 39 E u i 1k 233 4 8 0 av bd Wadi E e z 2 4m mv 422 maxj 3 4 22 CH5 vcm 3253 2W5 x M33 marM quot w TM TW 1 2 110139 zz i g u 28 925 WV mg h 6127 1 235 0quotquot 39 KL 2392 amt 4 Z g 4440 LQ quotWV A I Zgt 25 quot quot 7A 48 lav 4 V I r N 392 1 13me quot 634 32 K5 2A3 quot quotZZZ aj quot 2 E zil k39 394 w Mrz3 4th Agar 4K M ZZGMD B luv 2ng I I V 3 26 5214142 p424 6 w ag v H J 4 0397 Z xto 47m 39 gt 2quot LGKHBQJ VI VH39L Z QE r a z 66263 l533 3 N 0 14 x an 4 I 4 Spring7 2010 Distributed Wed7 27 Jan 2010 Chemistry 485 Problem Set 2 Due Mon7 1 Feb 2010 10 points 1 F 9 7 The isotope 150 is used in some biological studies but it has to be prepared and used rapidly a Calculate the decay rate of a sample at the end of a 500 minute irradiation if the production rate from the nuclear reaction is 251X107s b Calculate the fractional gain in the sample decay rate if the irradiation is extended to a total of 600 minutes That is7 calculate the ratio AWt 6 A00 5A0t 5 Estimate the age of an organic sample that was found to have an activity due to 140 equal to 0022Bqg of carbon Estimate the age of another organic sample that was found to have a 14C content of 1210 lL0 atomsgram of carbon The data in the table below presents the concordance data for the RbSr dating of a series of rocks from Mount Bohemia in the UP of Michigan a Plot the data and determine the y intercept and slope b Use the information from a to determine the concordance age of the samples Table 1 Analytical data from Mount Bohemia7 Michigan 87Sr ch49 39 mew varmo i e a WIWV 7 g o AR ezt zz ZLZ z42 10 IZ ZZ HL M444 39 Vamp2 quot2 7 W2 PC M 9 7 A aim40 5 W 5 2wa 6538 A 5 25 x I A b WW 41444 My 24J zogur A isg 24355133 15111p 3 88il 7 I l 88 43quot Hp 01 47 z 73 MM M21 Wgc HV W A W Wat 2424 At quotaquot w Nagy g A l 5 f7 quot7 I dogg 7396 39 ma a uz At 573 lt 351 0732 t 5 f Chemistry 485 Spring 2010 Problem Set 7 Distributed Wed 31 Mar 2010 Due Mon 5 Apr 2010 10 points 1 The following news report was led by By Eartha Jane Melzer 121207 1036 AM in The Michigan Messenger quotRadioactive contamination has been detected in a recently installed monitoring well at the Palisades nuclear power plant which is located on the shore of Lake Michigan near the city of South Haven and is owned and operated by Entergy Groundwater samples taken Monday evening showed tritium contamination at a concentration of 22000 picoCuries per liter which is above the acceptable level according to a report led by the facility with the Nuclear Regulatory Commis sion Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen that combines with opygen to form tritiated water also known as super heavy water Tritiums half life the amount of time it takes for something to decay to half of its original value is 123 years The plant is required to report any tritium concentrations over 20000 picoC39uries per liter the Environmental Protection Agencys maximum allowable level for drinking water a The Palisades plant operates at a thermal power of approximately 2500 MW with a thermal ef ciency of approximately 30 to produce approxi mately 750 MWe Make an estimate of the number of ssion reactions per second in the operating reactor ifthe thermal energy output is 195 MeV ssion of 236U A plausible source of tritium from this nuclear power plant is neutron capture on natural deuterium Make an estimate of the time a 1 liter sample of natural water would have to be in the reactor core to reach this level of activity Assume that the neutron ux in the reactor core is 1x1013 neutronsscm2 The thermal neutron capture cross section for deuterium is 052 mb A C7 V A O V It is not likely that the one liter of well water came directly from the reactor coolant Subsequent investigation found that a pipe feeding external water storage tanks had developed leaks The leaked strongly contaminated water was diluted by percolation through the ground before reaching the well Make an estimate of this dilution factor with the assumption that the irradiated coolant water was in the reactor core for 10 days before it leaked out became diluted and 1 liter of the diluted water was measured Chemistry 485 Spring7 2010 Problem Set 8 Distributed Wed7 7 Apr 2010 Due Mon7 12 Apr 2010 10 points 1 Boron is used in nuclear reactor control rods and also in neutron detectors because 10B has an extremely large cross section for the no reaction and does not make radioactive products For example7 the control rods77 are often plates of the ceramic B4C with a density of 25 gcm3 a Write a balanced nuclear reaction for this reaction b What is the fraction of 10B is converted to product in a 50 mm thick control rod that is exposed to a reactor ux of 2x1012 neutronscmZs for 100 hour7 if the total cross section for this reaction is 5580 b E0 3213 is a beta minus emitting nuclide that is used extensively in biological and biochemical studies This nuclide is made in nuclear reactors by the no reaction with a cross section of 80 mb on the appropriate target nucleus The target material for the production is usually ammonium chloride NH4Cl because it is a simple ionic solid Calculate the activity of a 500 g sample of natural NH4Cl that is uniformly irradiated for 30 minutes in a high ux reactor with a ux of 1x1014 neutronscmZs 3 Calculate the Q value for the net solar burning reaction show your work 41p a4 He 2 e4r 2V Q 4 Calculate the Q value for the net helium burning reaction show your work 34H82 lZ 06 Q 352 jig 4 142a72 f f 39 Af My 19 39exk aptzt H e A W 1W Maui 439 L HWW 8 P39 wp witlt if 1242quot xi 3 1 f 44 ca 4x 42 4 3f419 A358510c7mx355 w A 34Lyx ogA 17 31 7 3446 30 7 39f39 f If i quot 39 deem L Spring 2010 Distributed Wed 17 Feb 2010 Chemistry 485 Problem Set 5 Due Mon 22 Feb 2010 10 points 1 N Calculate the ratio of the wavelength of the 1332 MeV photon to the diameter of the emitting 60Ni nucleus formed by the beta decay of 60Co The 134Cs nucleus decays 70 of the time by a decay 4 T12206 yr to an excited state 4 in the daughter nucleus 1343a at 14006 MeV This state can decay to three lower lying states by gamma ray emission 1 to a 2 state at 1168 MeV 2 to a different 2 state at 06047 MeV or 3 to the 0 ground state at 00 MeV a What is the lowest multipolarity and character of the photon that would be emitted in a transition from the 4 excited state to each of the three possible lower energy states 7 b Calculate the three rate constants for photon emission A in s71 from the 4 excited state to each of the three possible lower energy states using the Weisskopf estimates 4 nn 23552 v4 134 555379 Qus2nax7 kEV4 Br 995199quot 7 in mm Lnun mu 33349 4 14am n33 sum 134 553 73 Chemistry 485 Spring7 2010 Problem Set 1 Distributed Wed7 20 Jan 10 Due Mon7 25 Jan 10 10 points 1 60Co is produced in nuclear ssion reactors and chemically separated for use in a number of irradiation machines a What is the atomic number of the most stable isotope with A60 predicted y the semiiempirical mass model b Write the balanced decay equation expected for this isotope based on your answer to the previous question c Calculate the Q Value for this decay in MeV Indicate the source of masses7 etc needed to calculate your answer 2 18F is an isotope that is massiproduced in small cyclotrons for use in PET scan ners The Radiology Department on campus runs their own cyclotron dedicated to producing this and related isotopes a Write a balanced decay equation for this isotope and calculate the Q Value for the decay of this isotope Note this isotope does not decay by electron capture b The 18F is often l into to make a cose FDG for brain scans because this molecule is rapidly consumed phosphorylated by brain cells What is the activity of a sample of 18F FDG that was initially 350 MBq 300 hours later Spring7 2010 Distributed Wed7 3 Feb 2010 Chemistry 485 Problem Set 3 Due Mon7 8 Feb 2010 10 points This question is based on a comparison of the two mirror nuclei 3113 and 318 H E0 00 r Use the semiempirical mass formula with the coef cients in the textbook p38 to calculate a theoretical total binding energy of each nucleus Use the measured mass values A31P 2444088 and A315 7190446 keV to calculate the experimental total binding energy of each nucleus Compare the difference in the total measured binding energies between these two nuclei to the difference between the calculated Coulomb potentials that were part of the calculation of the total binding energies in part a Use the single particle shell model to a identify the orbital occupied by the odd neutron in 318 and b the spin and parity of the ground state of the 3113 nucleus


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