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Date Created: 09/07/14
9814 1211 AM Lecture 26 Embedded clauses refers to putting a whole clause inside of another sentence Cause a group of words that has its own subject and predicate Reative clauses modify nouns The boy WHO FELL was skating Compement clauses modify verbs He wanted TO WEAR A HAT Are verb arguments Finish the verb are required by the verb Ithought I Iwanted can be finite or nonfinite finite complements have subject and tensed verb I thought he went home subject he Non finite complements have un tensed verb ing doesn39t equal tense I wanted him to go home go isn39t tensed ACTOR but no subject no he there39s a him instead I like skiing untensed verb is the compliment verb Can often be replaced by a noun called nominal clauses Some forms of non finite learned before age 2 Catenatives semi modas are early reduced forms common in adult input I wanna go But mastered as late as 9 years old Is the woman easy to see Is the woman eager to see Frequent forms learned early but can be frozen Finite compliments are mastered by age 5 Children make simplication eros Asked to imitiate the bear said that the turtle tickled the horse They usually said The bear is tickling the horseone clause The bear said to tickle the horse nofinite The bear said the turtle tickled the horse 49 The bear said that the turle tickled the horse 52 each verb has its own rules what can come after it how the complement works finite or nonfinite must learn the rules item by item semantics only sort of helps X means no object marked Ernie wanted Xhim to wear a hat Ernie tried X to wear a hat Ernie said X to wear a hat Ernie told him to wear a hat each verb has its own rules what can come after it how the complement works must learn the rules item by item ernie wondered tht he wore a hat Ernie wondered what he wore MENTAL verbs take complements Know think remember forget wonder verbs of desire take complements want hope wish covet seek verbs of perception take complements see hear smell look verbs of communication take complements whisper say tell promise remind decide ALL OF THESE A DIETIC Are kids embedding for real I think Daddy is home I think Daddy is home but hes not Maybe daddy is home You know I like that one Hey I like that one You know but sally doesn39t that I like that one whats the verb means who is doing it Children who use these sentences corectly demonstrate understanding that They can think something different from someone else They can think something false People know different things THEROY OF MIND Understand that you have a mind different from my mind You have thoughts beliefs desiries different from mine Seeing is knowing Multiple mental representations False beliefs understand they can know something but it can be wrong Multiple mental representations Can hold more than one idea in mind at the same time false belief you can think something that39s wrong false appearance maynard the cat five or six can tell the cat is still a cat when its wearing a dog mask Smarties task fill it with something else besides smarties they think their friends will think its what they know it is Sally and anne task Sally has a basket ann has a box Sally puts a pebble in her basket Ann takes it Where will Sally look for the pebble Puppets three year pictures 6 years Age two they don39t complementize for real Children acquire false belief and complement clauses around the same age Directionality of this is unclear Happen around the same time Lecture 27 narrative language tightly tied to early literacy Children who tell better stories are better readers if you know how stories typically work you39ll probably read new stories easier Narrative types Recount o Descriptions of shared events what did we do today Did we go to grandmas today EARLIEST DEVLOPING SCAFFOLD BY ADULT Event cast 0 Descriptions of future events this weekend we are going to go to grandmas we are going to do blah blah blah 0 Tell eventcasts tend to be difficult to follow no sense of time Account o Descriptions of events not shared 0 Hey mom guess what happened at school today Story 0 Fictional narrative Scripts things that typically happen Go in the chair to go to McDonads WHOLE scripts Coherence macro structure 0 Story grammer how children organize elements in the story Settings 2 Charatecters in the story 2 Location activity andor habitual state or characteristic Intiating event ie event tht sets off the story39s events will cause the protagonist to respond in some way evokes an immediate response initial problem Action a event that is a part of the story but not listed below Internal response ir reaction of the protagonist to the initiating event It can be expressed in dialogue deals with emotions or thoughts Internal Plan ip of protagonist to deal with the IE may have multiple internal plans with attempts and outcomes in order to reach goal of internal plan Attempt Att to obtain the goalcarry out the IP Outcome OUT or consequence of the attempt Reaction R how the characters feel or think about the outcome or how they react physically run away 0 HEAPS 2 years old Set of unrelated statements about a central stimulus Consist of one sentence added to another No story line no cause and effect no sequencing May have similar grammatical structure for all sentences The doggie go woof woof The cow go moo moo o Centeringchaining equences 23 years old Events linked based on atirbutes or events Simple but meaningful focus for a story Organization is additive not temporal Cant reorganize and story still makes sense Frequently add gestures and sound effects I ate a hamburger Mommny threw a ball Like this Daddy took me swimming I had two sodas 0 Adult role Conversation scaffolds productions El El Adult provides structure and organization via ques ons Child responds briefly one two word response Two styles to adult scaffolding El Elaborative style questions help the child move the narrative forward Repetitive style questions repeat known information Elaborative styles leads to better narratives a year later 6 months to a year Elaborative El Did we see any big fishes What kinds of big fishes KID big big big and what39s their names K I don39t knowwhat was Michael39s favorite kind of fish Repetitive how did we get to Florida do you remember K yes Temporal narratives 35 years old El El El El Sequencing of events Can no longer reorder all setences Still no clear plot of cause and effect Adults may infer these but not clearly stated Likely based on underlying script Regular use of third person he she it and past tense begins Definite beginnings and ending Uses simple temporal conjunctions and thn We went to the parade Thers a big elephant and tanks The drum loud Theres a clown in a little car And I got a balloon We went home UNFOCUSED temporal chains Events lead from one to another while other elements shift eample characters and settingwithout warning Links between events are clear but focus of the story is not The man got in the boat He rowed A big storm knocked over the trees Whish boom The doggie had to swim The fishes jumped out of the water He had warm milk and went to bed 2 FOCUSED temporal events Events lead from one to another Focus on a main character who experiences a series of perceptually linked concrete events Starts to sound more like a true story about soemthinf specific Causal chains because so if since are rare The boy found a jelly bean His mom said not to eat it Ad he did And a tree growed out of his head 2 Primitive causal chains 24 Causality obberved earliest in the planscript Initially caseeffect is marked by and Requires use of words related perception physical states emotion needs thoughts and judgments Solve problem but unclear howuse of dream resolutions And there was this bad guy with a death ray And he was gonna blow up the city So the power rangers snuck into his house and stopped him The end They come up with a problem but cant find an end 2 Causal chains by 2quot grade Clear use of cause and effect to resolve problem 0 There was a girl named ann And she got lost in the city She was scared She looked and looked but couldn39t find her mommy and daddy She slept in a Written narratives Descriptive sequences like heaps o Descriptions of characters surrounding and habitual actions Action sequences like temporal chains 0 Chronological order for actions but not causal relations Minimal setting info little setting or problem WRITTEN narratives Reactions sequences 5 to 9 0 One change causes another change with no goal directed behaviors 0 There was a lady petting her cow And the cow kicked the light And the police came And the firetruck came And then a hook and ladder came And that39s the end WRITTEN narratives Abbreviated episodes 5 to 9 0 Contains an implicit or explicit goal Usually has a outcome or internal response o Require some attention to ordercause and effecttheory of mind There was a mommy and two kids And the kids baked a cake for the mommy39s birthday They forgot to turn on off the stove and they burned the cake And they went o the store and buyed a cake Complete episodes late school age 9 o Entire goal oriented sequence with an outcome consequence and two or more initiating events internal reactions or attempts at a goal 0 Must attend to motiviation cause and effect and temporal order 0 This man was a doctor S Made made a monster IE and it chase him around his house IE He run in his bedroom and he push the monster in a closet A393939 and the monster got away OUT that39s all S Complex episodes 9 o Expansion of a complete episode 0 Contains multiple complete episodes 1bears 2 goldilocks in house 3 bears 4 goldilocks bears 0 Interactive sequence 9 Characters have separate goals and actions that influence eachother Cinderella the prince is looking for a wife Causes Cinderella to talk to fairy god mother Intro rising a ction climax falling action ending Settingtime place characters point of view Cohesion micro structure Lecture 28 cohesion linguistic device How kids use language to move between these elements of story structure need to keep track of oldnew referents HOUHS incomplete tie refer without introducing referent ambiguous tie refer with introductions but multiple potential referents exist complete tie refer where reference is clear and previously mentioned the man got in the boat He rowed A big storm knocked over the trees The doggie incomplete had to swim Fishes jumped out of the water He had warm milk Then he went to sleep ambiguous contextualizing namesnouns o possessive pronouns her friend 0 relative clauses the one who had the airplane pronouns can be bad for starting stories like if you have two boys theres two different hes o unacceptable as first mention 0 acceptable if previously mentioned referent 0 need to have a clear referent definitie artices demonstratives o a and this introduce new things 0 the and that imply already introduced 0 another and the other if contrasting only comparatives tie together communicate judgements time sequence cause similarly uniquely further more second first as good most happy conjunctions tie clauses together additive and temporal then next now causal because so if adversative but however nevertheless Need cohesion and corherence for a good story Improvements in understanding listeners perspective cohesion o Developments in theory of mind 0 Provide appropriate background info 0 Help transition between episodes and characters Decrease in incomplete and ambigupus ties o Able to track referents from a listeners perspective 0 Uses resumptive pronouns the boy with the hat he deictic reference this that and nouns to maintain cohesion 0 Improved lexicon increases variety of conjunctions Increased length 0 Number of utterances and utterance length Decreased reliance on scripts Fewer unresolved probems unprepared resolutions 0 Increased reference to cause 0 Increased reference to mental states Addition of characters and episodes 0 Overt markings of changes in time and place 0 Better introduction of character information 0 Use of unrelated disconnected charactersepisodes that join at end 29 9814 1211 AM Narrative to literacy Decoding using metalingustic awareness print concept to bring meaning to text Comprehending understanding what text means Look at the whole word and know it means stop comprehending If you sounded it out that39s decoding DECODING Metalinguistic Phonological awareness don t confuse with underlying sound system awareness of syllabic structure 0 Onset rhyme awareness o Phoneme awareness Sound symbo correspondence Print concepts 0 Text concepts Direction of text 0 Word awareness Letter Word Phonological awareness Syllable awareness o Syllabification Onset rhyme other words that start with the same sound rabbit right 0 Starting sounds o Rhyming words time lime Phoneme awareness without this its hard to read and segment 0 Identity or phonemes and orthographs shape of R o Segmentation segment word to find different sounds and opposite go through ha series of phonemes and identify them and produce or blend 0 Blending Text concepts 0 Read left to right 0 Read top to bottom o Letterswords rent the only symbols wonder womens speech bubble like mcdonalds M 0 Pieces of print symbolically mean words Word awareness metalinguistic awareness 0 Words into Letters 0 Sentences into Words Decoding Children who approach reading with good print phonological and phoneme skills tend to become better readers in the long run 0 NOT that as adults we sound out many words when we read But skills to do so allow for sef teaching sounding out leads to word recognition and spelling we have mostly sight words we comprehend children who skip decoding struggle in the future comprehension reliant on 0 working memory o overall language comprehension skills bootstrapped by skills you already have that can help you 0 understanding of how stories work coherence cohesion OOOO 30 9814 1211 AM Later Morphological development Point of view of someone who loves literacy Everything up to third grade can be categorized as learning to read Totally language structure helps you become a reader Once you learn to read reading becomes a tool to learn BOUND morphemes Inflectional morphemes Change gender case number tense person Derivational morphemes Change part of speech 0 Comfort versus comfortable Lexical morphemes Change meaning 0 Uncomfortable o Heavily targeted in schools but we don39t know much about it Derivational morphemes acquired in older children better measures than lexical Morphemes forming adjectives Able latest Lar Ic Ful Less earliest 10 year ods 77 13 yearolds 90 Morphemes forming nominal Ment Ship Tion earliest Ness latest Ity 10 63 13 79 Morphemes forming adverbs 0 U 5 year olds 53 765 980 Why are some kids better at understanding non infectiona morphemes than others Lteracy In 6 grade 12 year olds children with high literacy use derivational morphemes to comprehend or learn words 74 of the time Children with low literacy use them 58 of the time This segement of morphology is useful for learning later words and sentence structures 31 9814 1211 AM Discourse Jokes Idioms How they talk in convo How they convince people that they are funny PRAGMATICS Part of socialization How do you learn the rule sfor talking in your language Physical rules Whats appropriate Whats funny Multitask convo most people don39t do this they think its rude Microculture social use of language different from others Pragmatics Has to be good at reading the room SUBJECTIVE Compare them to other kdis in class or fam Conversational skills Theory of mind presupposition understand what the person you are talking to already knows Ambiguous first mentions Focus and attention appropriate thing to talk about Topic choice maintain changes Body language changes a lot person to person use gestures in a va riety of ways 0 How close you stand 0 someone Joke telling Language play ages 4 Phonogical play 0 rhyming o alliteration joke telling lingusitis ambiguity o phonological seven ate nine 0 morphological is your fridge running 0 lexical metaphor topic linked to vechile on the basis of shared features 0 similarity I am leaf on the wind 0 proportionality the house was a box with non id special kinds of metaphors o metonymy linked based on spatial or temporal contiguity o simile linked using the wod like or as idiom o metaphor that has become frozen in the language raining cats and dogs children comprehend frozen metaphor idiom 80 accurate by 13 years unusual metaphor and word play only 65 accurate by 13 years sacasm 0 double meaning speakers purpose 8 yo understand double meaning 11 yo understand both Verbal aggression o dissing a form of metaphor reported primarily in teenagers 1418 becomes less socially acceptable in adult years El