BSCI 201 Skeletal System Notes
BSCI 201 Skeletal System Notes BSCI 201
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Sullivan on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI 201 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Meredith Bohannon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biological Sciences at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 03/14/16
Skeletal System 3/14/16 11:42 AM Basic structure of the skeletal system - Axial and Appendicular Skeletal Systems - Mostly composed of bones and cartilage - Also contains extracellular matrix Bones considered organs - They contains different tissue types: bone, blood, cartilage, muscle, epithelial, connective The 7 major functions of bones - Support, protection, movement, mineral and growth factor storage, blood cell formation, fat storage, and hormone production The 4 types of bone shapes - Long, short, flat, irregular The 3 levels of structure and 2 types of bone tissue - Structure: gross, microscopic, chemical - Types: compact, spongy Gross Anatomy - Compact: the outer layer of bones that is smooth and dense; the smallest working unit is called the osteon - Spongy: inner material of bone that resembles a honeycomb; tube-like structures are called trabeculae - Long Bones: diaphysis, epiphyses, periosteum, endosteum, hollow shaft, spongy bones at ends, epiphyseal line - Short. Flat, and Irregular Bones: Diploe covered by compact bone; still have periosteum and endosteum Periosteum - Covers all external surface of bones, save for the joints - Outside is the fibrous layer, inside is the osteogenic layer - Connects with bone through Sharpey’s fibers - May be vascularized - Helps anchor tendons and ligaments Endosteum - Connective tissue on the inside of bones - covering of the trabeculae - Lines and canals of the bone Hemapoetic Properties of Bone Tissue - Red marrow is located within trabecular cavities in adults, but is located within the meduallary cavities of newborns - Most hematopoiesis occurs in the hips and the vertebrae - Yellow can be converted into red marrow if necessary Blood and Nerve Supply to Bones - Periosteal Arteries and veins: provide blood through periosteum - Nutrient Artery: supplies nutrients though the nutrient foramen - Epiphyseal Artery: supplies blood to epiphyses - Each artery has a vein and nerve as well Osteogenic Cells - Stem cell active in mitosis located in the periosteum and the edosteum - Become osteoblasts Osteoblasts - Bone making cells that secrete osteoid - Osteoid is composed of collagen and calcium-binding proteins - Active in mitosis Osteocytes - Mature bone cells - No longer active in mitosis - Located in lacunae of bones - Sense stress and strain on the bone and communicate that info to osteoblasts and osteoclasts to start bone remodeling Osteoclasts - Made from the same stem cells that macrophages are made from - Bone breaking cells (resorption) - The ruffles on the bottom of these cells increase the surface area of them and allow for more degradation of the bone per cell Bone Lining Cells - Flat cells on the surface of bones - Help maintain the bone matrix - When on the external surface they are call periosteal cells - When on the internal surface, they are called endosteal cells Osteon - Smallest unit of compact bone - Run parallel to axis of bone - Central canals run through the middle and house the blood vessels and nerves - Volkmann’s canals run at right angles to the central canals and form connective tunnels for the nerves and blood vessels of the periosteum, medullary cavity, and central canal - Lacunae are small housings for osteocytes - Canaliculi are the hair-like structures that stretch form each lacunae to connect lacunae to each other - Lamellae are the individual rings of each osteon and the collagen fibers on each one run in different directions to provide stability Spongy Bone - Made of trabeculae, which from along the stress lines of bones, adding strength where it is most needed Organic Components of Bone - Bone cells - Osteoid - Collagen Inorganic Components of Bone - Calcium Phosphate - Calcium Hydroxide - Hydroxyapatite - Calcium Carbonate - Mg2+, F-, K+ Functions of Inorganic Components - Strength - Mineral reservoir for body 3/14/16 11:42 AM 3/14/16 11:42 AM
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