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SOCI 1101 Chapter 12 Notes: Introduction to Gender, Sex, and Sexuality

by: Mansi Mehta

SOCI 1101 Chapter 12 Notes: Introduction to Gender, Sex, and Sexuality SOCI 1101

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Sociology > SOCI 1101 > SOCI 1101 Chapter 12 Notes Introduction to Gender Sex and Sexuality
Mansi Mehta

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These notes cover chapter 12, for the week of 3/14/16. I hope this helps!! Let me know if you have any questions, comments, or suggestions. I upload notes every Monday. Email: mansimehta@ug...
Introductory Sociology
Dr. Jim Coverdill
Class Notes
sociology, chapter 12, sex, sexuality, Gender
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mansi Mehta on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Jim Coverdill in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 03/14/16
Chapter 12: Introduction to Gender, Sex, and Sexuality 12.1 : Sex and Gender A. Sex- the physical difference between a male and a female B. Gender- person’s deeply held internal perception of his or her gender C. Sex doesn't always correspond with gender D. Characteristics of sex does not vary between cultures A. All males are identified the same way B. All females will develop the same way as well, regardless of culture E. Characteristics of gender vary between societies A. Ex: in the westernized world, skirts are considered feminine, whereas in some Arab, Asian, African cultures, skirts are considered masculine Sexual Orientation A Sexual orientation- a person’s physical, mental, emotional, and sexual attraction to a particular sex F. 4 categories: A. heterosexuality- attraction to indiv. of the opposite sex B. homosexuality- attraction to people of the same sex C. bisexuality- attraction to people of either sex D. asexuality- attraction to no sex G. Heteronormative society- assumes sexual orientation is biologically determined and unambiguous H. People do not have to participate in sexual activity to know their sexual orientation I. people know their sexual orientation between middle childhood and early adolescence J. Kinsey scale of homosexuality- sexuality can be measured by more than just heterosexuality or homosexuality. There is a huge grey area between completely straight and completely gay. A Homosocial feelings- nonsexual regard for people of the same sex A. Females have more fluidity than males B. Men have more social disapproval for being physically close to other men vs females can hug/kiss/hold hands with other females, and it does not count as lesbian. C. Have you ever called your friend “gay” for showing physical affection toward another male? How about a girl doing the same thing? K. No scientific consensus as to what makes a person hetero/homo/bi sexual L. Homo/bisexuals are treated differently in society M. Much of this discrimination is based on stereotypes and misinformation N. Heterosexism- set of practices that give an advantage to heterosexuals over homosexuals O. Homophobia- fear of homosexuals P. Same sex marriage has been fought for and is now legal in most states Gender Roles A Gender role-society’s concept of how men and women are expected to look and behave Q. Male: strength, agression, and dominance R. Female: passivity, nurturing, and subordination S. Even today, our society is quick to outfit male infants in blue and girls in pink, even applying these color-coded gender labels while a baby is in the womb. T. Children learn gender roles through play A. Boys: trucks, cars, toy guns, superheros B. Girls: dolls, role-play, social proximity Gender Identity A Gender identity- person’s deeply held internal perception of his or her gender U. Individuals who identify with the role that is the different from their biological sex are called transgender. V. Transgender individuals who attempt to alter their bodies through surgery and hormonal therapy—so that their physical being is better aligned with gender identity—are called transsexuals. W. Not all transgender people choose to alter their bodies X. Cross-dressing does not mean you are transgender, but it is simply a form of expression Y. No single reason as to why a person is transgender Z. Gender Dysphoria is a condition of people whose gender at birth is contrary to the one they identify with. A. must be a marked difference between individual’s expressed gender and the one others would assign him or her with 12.2 Gender Gender and Socialization A. Aggression is acceptable in boys, almost considered unchangeable B. “boys will be boys” C. Socialization A. Children are aware of gender roles by age 2 or 3 B. Children acquire these roles through socialization C. Attitudes are based on stereotypes D. Gender stereotypes are based on sexism-prejudiced beliefs that value one sex over another. E. Girls are undervalued in parts of the world, denied health care and education F. Discrimination occurs on micro and macro levels G. Discrimination is institutional— integrated into social structure H. Gender socialization occurs through A. 1) family B. 2) education C. 3) peer groups D. 4) mass media A. Each group creates normative expectations for each gender B. Family is the 1st agent of socialization A. girls: A. more leeway to step out of their prescribed gender role B. limited by their expectation to be passive and nurturing, generally obedient C. assume many of the domestic responsibilities. B. boys: A. allowed more independence and autonomy at an earlier age than girls B. fewer restrictions on clothing, dating habits, or curfew. C. free from performing domestic duties such as cleaning or cooking and other household tasks that are considered feminine. A. Schools: A. girls: A. are encouraged to take home economics and humanities courses B. follow rules and be obedient C. companionship B. boys: A. are encouraged to take math and science B. compete against peers C. greater freedom of breaking rules B. When children do not conform to their gender role, they may face negative informal sanctions A. Ex: girls who take karate classes could be called a tomboy C. Mass media: A. girls: A. In tv, women have less significant roles B. portrayed as wives or mothers C. in ads that advertise cooking, cleaning, and housekeeping B. 9/10 main characters in children’s movies are male D. Social Stratification and Inequality A. gender stratification seen in economic realm B. men outnumber women in powerful positions C. women get paid .77 dollars for every 1 dollar a man makes D. women do majority of unpaid work at home E. double duty of women keep them in subordinate roles F. the same task is not assigned to men and women worldwide G. jobs given to men have greater prestige Theoretical Perspectives on Gender A Structural Functionalism B. Functionalists argue that gender roles were established well before modern society C. Women stayed in and tended to kids and men went out to hunt for food because women were physically less able to do a man’s job D. WWII: women had to assume the breadwinner positions because men went to war E. imbalance in society when men came back and wanted their jobs AA. Conflict Theory A. men= dominant group B. women = subordinate group C. social problems = when the dominant group exploits the subordinate group A. women’s suffrage movement D. Owner-worker relationship transfer to households, with the man being in power and the woman as the proletariat A. Women entirely dependent on men for financial stability B. when women get jobs, they have role strain of the domestic and worker burden AB. Feminist Theory A. Uses conflict approach to examine maintenance of gender roles and inequalities B. Patriarchal societies- more importance to man and his contributions C. Women’s viewpoints are seen as invalid and are silenced AC. Symbolic Interactionism A. When people perform tasks or possess characteristics based on the gender role assigned to them, they are said to be doing gender. B. meanings attached to words like “gay” have changed: happy —> homosexual —> careless/ bright showing C. Gender is something we DO , not something we ARE. D. social construction of sexuality -socially created definitions about the cultural appropriateness of sex- linked behavior = the way people see and experience sexuality. E. biological determinism- belief that men and women behave differently due to differences in their biology. 12.3 Sex and Sexuality A Sexuality- person’s capacity for sexual feelings AD. Sexual behavior is universal, but each society interprets sexuality differently AE. Different attitudes about premarital sex, age of sexual consent, homosexuality, and other sexual behaviors AF.Certain norms have been universal about sex: like incest is universally a taboo AG. Religion has been the most influence on sexual behavior AH. Sweden is considered to be the most liberal when it comes to attitudes about sex— has the lowest rates of teen pregnancy and STDs AI. Sexuality in the US A. Particularly restrictive when it comes to attitudes about women and sex B. Widely believed that men are more sexually active than women C. Double standard that men have the right to more sexual urges than women D. Prohibiting premarital sex for women but not for men E. = women are more likely to have less sexual partners than men AJ. Sex Education A. Sex ed is not required in all public schools B. Debate over the issue of abstinence C. Abstinence + protected sex Sociological Perspectives on Sex and Sexuality A Structural Functionalism D. functionalists stress the importance of regulating sexual behavior to ensure marital cohesion and family stability. E. identify family unit as most integral part of society F. promote activities that ensure familial preservation G. sexual activity within a marriage = intensify bond between couple = stable relationship = best possible chance for kids to grow up and be socialized in a stable family H. homosexuality cannot be promoted on a large-scale as an acceptable substitute for heterosexuality I. homosexuality = end of procreation = dysfunctional to society AK. Conflict A. Sexuality is another area where power differentials are set and a dominant and subordinate group exists B. Debate over legalization of gay marriage C. Dominant group = embrace traditional view of the nuclear family D. Subordinate group = argue that legal marriage is a fundamental right that cannot be denied based on sexual orientation E. Economic struggles as well over medical and life insurance, and social security benefits AL. Symbolic Interactionist A. Interactionists focus on the meanings associated with sexuality and sexual orientation B. heterosexuality has come to be counted as “normal” C. Constant exposure to derogatory labels, jokes, and pervasive homophobia would lead to a negative self- image AM. Queer Theory A. Queer theory- interdisciplinary approach to sexuality studies that identifies Western society’s rigid splitting of gender into male and female roles B. questions the manner in which we have been taught to think about sexual orientation. C. Focuses on mismatches between female/male, homo/heterosexual , gender, sex, and sexual orientation


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