Honors Chemistry I
Honors Chemistry I CEM 181H
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ladarius Rohan on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CEM 181H at Michigan State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/207706/cem-181h-michigan-state-university in Chemistry at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Macroscopic Phenomena Phases of Matter Characteristics degree afarder Phase shape volume compressible order Solid crystal Plastic crystal Liquid crystal Liquid Gas DJMumssey ZunB Variables for Gases Review of vaIiable quantities for gases Four vaIiables 7 P T V and amount n Notice that they are of Two types Intensive do not depend on size of system Extensive depend on size extent of system DJMumssey ZunB Pressure de nition TN Pressure is de ned as the force per unit area and the de nition comes directly from a simple experiment done by Tonicelli about 250 years ago Closed ended tubes lled with Hg were stuck into avat of Hg They found a balancing height of Hg independent of length diameter etc ofthe tube v F dawn FWF arm DJMumssey ZunB Pressure SI units PI0Hggh What is the height for one unit of pressure in SI units 1 Pressure of mercury column Pressure of atmosphere Height proportional to atmospheric pressure What is the number of SI units for atmospheric pressure DJMorrissey 2008 DJMorn39ssey 2008 Pressure units Table 92 Pressure Units SI unit pascal Pa 1 Pa 1 kg mq f2 1 N m12 Conventional unitsquot 1 bar 105 Pa 100 kPa 1 atm 1013 25 X 105 Pa 101325 kPa 1 atm 760 Torr 1 atm 147 lbinchlt2 psi Figures in boldface type are exact See inside back cover for more relations N newton 1 UNI Question Deepest Well with 21 Pump at top What is the deepest water well that will draw water with a pump at the top of the pipe DJMumssey ZunB ABCD Laws PampV Boyle Small volume high pressure Pressure P Large volume low pressure Volume V See Oxtoby Fig 94 DJMorrissey 2008 Pressure P Small volume high pressure Large volume low pressure 1Volume1V MICHIGAN STATE W Volume V a b See Oxtoby Fig 93 ABCD Laws VampT Charles High temperature large volume Volume V Low temperature small volume Temperature T See Oxtoby Fig 95 DJMorrissey 2008 2000 1000 Lmole Volume V Decreasing pressure p 390 300 Ar gas I I Temperature 8 C See Oxtoby Fig 96 ABCD Laws Extrapolation in T 2000 Temperature is de ned on a linear scale with two reference points or a point and a slope Volume V See omby Fig 94s D G FahrenheitPhil Trans London 33 78 1724 DJ39Morrissey 2008 ABCD Laws 11 Avagadro Ideal gas 2241 Hydrogen 2243 Atkins amp Jones Fig 414 Tr1ek 1ntroduee Molar Volume VmVn 17 We can apply this trick to any extensive quantity to generate a new intensive quantity These are sometimes called partial molar quantities DJMorrissey 2008 ABCD Laws Combination W P V constant V CC T V CC n TABLE 42 The Gas Constant R 8205 74 X 10 2 Latrr1Ilt1mol1 8314 47 X 10 2 LbarK 1mol1 8314 47 L39kPaK Lmol 1 PV 0C nT 8314 47 J1lt1m011 62364 L39TorrK mol 1 PVm 0c T 3 variables 1 equation The ideal gas law an equation of state Properties of an Ideal Gas Particles occupy no volume Particles don t interact with oneanother DJMorrissey 2008 Aside densities UIN The mass density mass per unit volume is another intensive vaIiable that is easily calculated from the Ideal Gas EoS P 11 N4 NA7 pnmber DJMumssey ZunB Question gas pressures A company is marketing nitrogenization of car tires The concept is to replace the air in tires with pure nitrogen and avoid degradation of the rubber Estimate the number of car tires that can be lled with one cylinder of nitrogen gas One lled cylinder holds SONL of gas at a pressure of 18 MPa one typical car tire has a volume of 30NL and is in ated to a pressure of 30 poundsinZ above atmospheric pressure or a total pressure of 447 psi What about degradation the rubber by air on the outside of the tire FYI a cylinder of gas costs NlO in bulk nl45 fur 3n p5 DJMumssey ZunB Question from the textbook used 2 years ago Hi 481 Photochemical smog is formed in part by the action of light on nitrogen dioxide followed by reaction with oxygen forming ozone The wavelength of light absorbed by N02 is 197 nm and the reactions are NOZhvaNOO ooZMaogM a Draw the Lewis structure for N02 and sketch the TE MO s b When 107 m of energy is absorbed by 25NL of air at 20C and 085 atm all the N02 molecules in the air are dissociated by this reaction Assuming each photon results in the dissociation of one molecule of N02 what is the proportion in parts per million of NO2 molecules in this sample assume ideal behavior DJMumssey ZunB ABCD Laws Partial Pressure Dalton PB P PA39I39 P3 06 atm 10 atm Consider a mixture of two ideal gases one is A mber and the other B lueberry PAnARTV PBnBRTV See Oxtoby Fig 99 DHVlorrissey 2008 ABCD Laws Partial Pressure Fractions PM PA P5 nAn5RTV PA n ART V n A Pram quotA quot5 RT V quotA quot5 PA P5 5 PTOml PTOIM DJMumssey ZunB Kinetic Theory of Gases We have a law describing macroscopic behavior We know about atoms amp molecules We need a theory based on microscopic behavior to predict the macroscopic law and other features such as average speed collision rate and distance between collisions Postulates for a microscopic theory of the behavior of gases Size ofparticles ltlt distance between particles Gas consists of particles in continuous motion Particles follow straightline paths no external forces Forces only act during collisions and are elastic we will show that the lntemal Energy is proportional to T DJMumssey ZunB FOne COZZiSiOn Amvx pone collision A A DJMorrissey 2008 Kinetic Theory of Gases Velocity W N T Y 1 l i Gaseous particles have a distribution of velocities 2 3 i 105 war1 l a 7 l Average velocity TE 39 5 39 50 gmoi1 Most probably velocity peak ump E i i I 39 I 50010 77 rm 7 7 Root mean squared veloc1ty ulms g 7 l H 7 E t 0005 j I t t mo391 I m 2 mu2 2k T 0 I I I I I I B 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 475 2 k T u 6 Speed ms391 7397 B See Oxtoby Fig 914 d uMP Efu0 Z fufmmu OO uRMS fu2fudu 0 DJMorrissey 2008
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