Visions of the Universe
Visions of the Universe ISP 205
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Ms. Adrian Buckridge
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This 40 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Mckenzie Labadie on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISP 205 at Michigan State University taught by C. Wrede in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/207717/isp-205-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Physical at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
REVIEW SESSION 4 Caitlin Brecklin O brecklinmsuedu REMEMBER 0 Today we re going over content that there were questions about or that were particularly important 0 Other topics might be covered on the exam 0 This should NOT be your only studying ROADMAP 0 Course Overview 0 Parts 14 Appx 10 minutes per section broad concepts 0 Part 5Midterm 4 0 Focus on chapters 1417 One concept per chapter PART 11 MIR EXPANMNG ERSPECTWE 2012 Pearson Educnhon Inc OUR PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE o What to take away we are small the universe is big and basically everything is rotating andor moving away Celestial address Observable universe Big Bangexpanding universe DISCOVERING THE UNIVERSE FOR YOURSELF 0 Think like a Greek imagine the sky as a north celestial ole 39 NWHHHIHEHSIHI39 quotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquotquot a We is ilmzjlV dllVP I failw IVUIri FUE VHI L 0 Stop thinking like a ZilliiiiiQEiil39 Greek complex phenomena have imam simple explanations l i i i i i l i i i 0 i i i 1 T is v uusIal wina 10 j is a pmEi39i mi m 0 S e a S O n S i i gm1b aquami mm lie scum L39Hih sil i pulp i nan SIJBLE m IiHl finMVF Failw scum celesna Sum7 PM pole O b This schematic diagram shows key features of the celestial sphere THE SCIENCE OF ASTRONOMY 0 Develop your scientific thinking how do things look and why do they look that way 0 Ptolemaic Model 0 Earth centered o Copernican Revolution 0 Sun centered o Kepler Planetary motion 0 Galileo o Disproving Aristotle THE SCIENCE CE ASTRONOMY CONT SCIENCE V NONSCIENCE o Explanations that rely solely on natural causes 0 Occam s Razor 0 Progresses through creation and testing of models Ideally this is objective 0 Models yield testable predictions the models are abandoned if the predictions don t hold up Verifiable observations QUESTWNS PART 2 KEY CQNCEPTS mm ASTRQNQMY m Ihe kzy ph lw pr study 1 aslranomy with exampls of mm may apply hum on Earlh am In space D tnnseNEHun 5 Enemy Ewgy m be EXAMPLES IN SPACE mm m mum MW mmm quotmm Mm mm m m Wm uvenemy 5mm ranserveu J Sachem 4 Cnuservalmn cl Wm Momma m M mmmum omumcham ameammavmommm I 39m sum DhPmmus mmemsver MN m marmach sma ev r59 mm v mmmmws hvmghxhgwc a chant s new m 01 gram between mu m m 9mm vmass gvamy Insuremj atij Evermcm lhepmduclul memesxs mva m nuswaav nudmanmhelwpen m mm u wanna Ra launn I 5799 0mm em 3 mm mmquot 5mm lhal zvcn s an hnmmsmmvumm Hanarnh acls m phnlmswm MHQM39 mmaqe PWW and am ramacan DY gmmnrvmansny m h wannng rsman 5 21 s nclmmlgnancspacwum Ugm s 5 WM 5 msemnrauy mam naym mam my mums m cairn mcvmvlwe hnrkgmund M rm mws mm Mnsnmya mm mm a vhpsnmswhum 590mm I gnmma my ummm mvurw ammn my x rays uhvawmln mama g 39 mum mums mi 1 CONSERVATION or ENERGY o Objects gain or lose energy only by exchanging it with other objects 0 Types of energy 0 Kinetic motion Radiative light 0 Potential stored a high up man when it is nearthe ground a m Mum Enum dan w CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM Angular momentum 2 m X v x rl is conserved as Earth orbits the Sun 0 al 31 mome ntum never Distance r Distance r S IS 619ch of IL r 5 smaller so veoo v 39 lssmalex 75533 0 Kepler 8 second law Not to scale GRAVITY o Newton s universal law of gravitation 0 Every mass attracts every other mass through the force called gravity The universal law afgra vitatian tel5 us the strength of the grevitatona attraction between the two objects M1 pg 2 G M M2 Strength of the A d gravitational force a V between two objects is M fend M are the masses of the two objects directly proportional to I d their masses d is the distance between the centers 0fthe two objects The strength Of the grav1ty between two objects decreases with the square of the distance between them THERMAL RADIATION The curve for a hatter 0086 is evelvvvhee above the curve for a cooler abject showHg that hotter Dbects emit more latfatten per unit SUfEiCE meal at every waveemail The peak meveengti l5 fatThar t0 the left for home lb8651 showHg that hette objects emt more of New ght at shatter wavelength Ivy7 energyl Q 15000 K star 5 108 quot 1 8 l the Sun 5800 K 8 106 i 5 3 3000 K star 0 3 104 H G E 5 E 102 i E 310 K human CD 1 00 I 1 I I 1 O1 1 O2 1 03 1 04 1 05 wavelength nm lt ultraviolet infrared gt 0 Every body does it o StefanBoltzmann law Every square meter of a hotter object s surface emits more light at all wavelengths o Wien s law Hotter objects emit photons with a higher average energy ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM The Electromagnetic Spectrum wavelength meters size of wavelength frequency hertz electron volts sources on Earth cosmlc SOUTCGS gamma rays 4 shorter 10quot2 hydrogen alom protein 4 higher 1020 105 radioactive elements gamma ray burst 2012 Pearson Educallcn me 10 8 10quot Xray machines 0 0 t39l black hole accretion disk 10 9 1o2 chromo sphere visible m crowaves longer gt 102 bacterium animal cell pinhead baseball foolball eld lower gt 10 0 10 10 2 102 9quot people radar microwave cosmic mlcrowave backgrou nd tl ansml er radio galaxy light bulb Sun planets starforming clouds ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM CONT The llyl bulb immmes lith Ufal Visible wavelehglhs 39 quotYE SUEL lliIlTl slmws a smanlh continuous rainliuw 11 lip1 lirahrs j a 39 ll gmph 0 the spawn Is also A quot V L Dllllllu ils notice that mensin vanes I g slightly at diffsem wave811th hot iighi ource prism wavelength Continuous Spectrum a 39 We 9126 might SWISSUN lines a SJEL39lflL The alums ill a wam gas cloud Emil lg11 Duly a SJEL39IfL l 39 wavelengtlislmlmsl but he amerllghl wavelengths calms dmaimmed by he a ands P mmpnsn n and mmperaiw x i V F r tux 3 V C H 2 f A J 5 line graph shuws an upwahl S ll i at I prism The wavelsliglh uf39ieach Emissmn ME I wavelength Emission Line Spectrum b if light mm a hm suLrL e passes thruugh a conHr gas We see dark absulpllun lines Wham alum alums m the cloud absurb llghtal wavelengths the clnud has ahsurbed light ul specific dsisrrnrh39ed by His ulnud s symposium anti temperature MVEEigilis ICUifs g The ga li sham a lip m mienxhy a1 7 r 5V 3 he WaVHlElyili a each absmpmm IlhE39 h cloud of H g hot Iigm 39 93 j I source prism wavelength Absorption Line Spectrum C 2012 Fearsmn Education Inc i a i i QUESTWNS PART 3 LEARNHNG E me THER W RLDS FORMATION OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS EARTH AND THE TERRESTRIAL WORLDS 0 Size is the major determinant of geological history 0 Earth geologically active Mercury Moon geologically dead 0 Mars loss of magnetic field 0 Distance from the Sun also plays a part Venus runaway greenhouse effect J OVIAN PLANET SYSTEMS o Planets o HampHeJSorH compounds U N layered over a rocky core 0 Dynamic weather 0 Moons Varying sizes 0 Some are geologically active tidal heating orbital resonance 0 Rings 0 Made of small particles 0 Dismantling of small moons ASTEROIDS COMETS PLANETS orbit of Oort cloud comet entering inner 39 solarsystem Neptune s orbit 0 0 39a r 0 KU Per belt rbit b met 0 Kuiper belt 4 39 Extends from about 30 55 AU 39 Contains about 70000 comets more than 100 km across 39 Comets orbit in the same plane and 39 direction as planets Oort cloud k Extends out to about 50000 AU Contains about a trillion comets Comet orbits have random tilts and eccentricmes 39 J AND DWARF o Asteroid Belt 0 Rocky leftovers of failed planet formation 0 Kuiper Belt lcy leftovers of solar nebula o Oort Cloud 0 lcy planetismals ejected from the Jovian region by gravitational encounters o Dwarf Planets Pluto Eris Sedna Orcus o Icerich elliptical orbits QUESTWNS PART 4 STARS STAR FORMATION 0 Molecular cloud contracts to the point Where the central object can maintain nuclear fusion 0 Conservation of energy 0 Brown dwarfs electron degenerate Brown dwad Mlt moan15W f MAIN SEQUENCE Thermal pressure comes mlo steady balance wim gravlly when we core becomes nm enough var hydrogen mm to replace me mermal energythe star radlales Vrom rts surface Sec cn IO 11 Mainsequence s a mg ileum bemoan175551112 amlgrawly 7ch nxallwmmslarln regulate the cm lampwamre r Lama rpnlyn l I more luminous How I mm vs 2012 Pearson Educallon 1m 0 Hydrogen core fusion 0 Solar thermostat inward pull of gravity is balanced by the outward push of pressure 0 Bigger stars live fast and die young SHELL FUSION Ba ance bemaenlherma pressure and gra n is m Grav y agam gains me upper hand over pressure ahar ma COVE Nahum 5 on Just as 3 Mom usnn s ops replacmg m Ihavmm energy leaving me Care The Cure thcruiore resumes comraming and healmg c a 5 Ex am up and nenum fusion begins m coul and lhn star becomes a H a 0 d h 03mquot w redder Section 12 2 Seclmn 22 Helium shell fusion star Hydrogen shall fusion slat Dauhle shen lusion star WNW m n 1 MW m nu Intum win 2012 Peavsun Educanun Inc Key Pressure gravny a 2m Pearson Enucnnun M mom Peavsun Educalmn Vnc Low MASS STARS 0 Stars like our sun 0 Star ejects outer layers in a planetary WhiledwarlMlt14MSun nebula o What remains is a White dwarf Supported by electron degeneracy pressure 2 Pearson Educal Inc HIGH MASS STARS 0 Onion skin structure 0 Iron peak n0 more Lsipznsgizazzsr core fUSiOD o Supernova explosion Section 123 0 Electron degenerate core collapses Energy released drives of the outer layers 0 Neutron star 0 Supported by neutron degeneracy 0 Black hole came natma 039 me 1 on ma ass of he vemaming cove Multiple shell fusion star Chamar 31 Black hole HIGHMASS 9 Neutron star Mlt mm HR DIAGRAMS o o o O Y 3X18 39 Lum1n0s1ty Masseson the Main Sequence sxeuarma murp e Limimes unlhe Main Sequence teHarlxleumes39 s may quoterWenpp r e mlhek rnqmunmg I m crummeupasnemu thlunlhs qu 33m o o mar hves beca y aus mew nudemqu oXaXis Temperature Spree Betelgeuse mmquot V increasing left OBAFGKM 0 Patterns 3 0 Mass decreases down Lacame 9352 a I f and to the right Barnard39s smr39 MSW I Ross l E 5 E c a a 0 E i w H 355 Size increases up and to the right 30000 10000 60 D 3000 lt mueasmg empemure surface empera ure Kenin decreasmq lemueramre gt 2072 Fesrsnrv Educanm Inc QUESTWNS PART 5 GALAXIES AND BE39WND CHAPTER M IUR GALAXY Galactic Recycling REMINDERS 0 Stars are born in the collapse of molecular clouds 0 Stars live for millionsbillions of years fusing lighter elements into heavier ones then die when they ve exhausted their fuel 0 Stars return their material to the intergalactic medium through supernovae and stellar winds STARGASSTAR CYCLE HOT BUBBLES o Supernova 9 high speed gas ejected 0 Shock wave sweeps up surrounding gas 0 Giant bubbles 9 blowout from the disk of the Milky Way STARGASSTAR CYCLE ATOMIC HYDROGEN CLOUDS 0 Much Of the gas in the Milky Way is atomic hydrogen gas 0 Radiates at the 21cm line 0 Slowly forms clumps and cools STARGASSTAR CYCLE MOLECULAR CLOUDS AIMripe Su 7emov7 ex 1090175 m 70 L 5 can a young Ste Wat rot ii We the halo glam bubble m the galactic disk 39 bubble can 000 o o 39 39 and form ClotIS 1quot quotH01gan Ul l39ll78 v a39 n 39 galactic disk I 0 As clouds cool even further hydrogen combines into molecules 0 Molecular clouds settle towards the central layers of the disk
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