Visions of the Universe
Visions of the Universe ISP 205
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Mckenzie Labadie on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISP 205 at Michigan State University taught by Gerard Voit in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/207719/isp-205-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Physical at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
ISP 205 Final Exam Review Age of The Universe How do we deTermine The oge of The universe LighT yeors is The disTonce lighT Trovels in one yeor Therefore we ore looking bock yeorsTime when we look of objecTs oT lorge disTonces so The oge of The universe con be deTermined by how for owoy objecTs ore from us WhoT is The opproximoTe oge of The universe 14 billion lighT yeors old Timeline of The Universe When wos mosT of The helium in The universe produced During The Big Bong When did phoTons firsT sTorT sTreoming freely ocross The universe 380000 yeors offer The Big Bong WhoT is The primory evidence in fovor of The Big Bong Theory T predicTs ThoT The rodioTion begon To sTreom ocross The universe of The end of The ero of nuclei should sTill be presenT Todoy The universe is filled wiTh cosmic microwove bockground which is The rodioTion lefT over from The Big Bong ApproximoTely when did The firsT goloxies form AbouT 13 billion yeors ogo This is deTermined by d goloxies lookbock Time which is direchy linked To iTs oge When did The solor sysTem form ApproximoTely 4 ond 12 billion yeors ogo How do we deTermine The oge of The solor sysTem RodiomeTric doTing relies on coreful meosuremenTs of The proporTions of vorious oToms ond isoTopes in The rock To deTermine The oge of 0 rock Conlenls of The Universe WhoT is The Typicol composiTion of sTors ond gos clouds in goloxies Solor nebulo primorin hydrogen ond helium How ore elemenTs heovier Thon hydrogen ond helium mode The crush of groviTy keeps iTs corbon core so hoT ThoT degenerocy pressure comes inTo ploy ond Therefore noThing holTs The conTrocTion of iTs inerT corbon bore before if geTs hoT enough for fusion in high moss sTors WhoT is The evidence for dork moTTer Moss in The Milky Woy is spreod ouT over or Iorger region Thon The sTors From orbiToI properTies of on objecT we con deTermine iTs moTTer The visible porTion of o goloxy ies deep in The heorT of o Iorge holo of dork moTTer WhoT is The evidence for dork energy Dork energy hos been hypoThesized To eXisT in order To eXpIoin observoTions suggesTing The eXponsion of The universe is occeleroTing Measuring DisTances in The Universe How do we deTermine The disTonces To sTors STeIIor porollox onnuol shifTs in o sTors opporenT posiTion coused by EorTh s moTion oround The sun If we know The precise omounT of shifT we know The porollox ongle Lower disTonT sTors hove smoller porollox ongles How do we deTermine The disTonces To goloxies Rodor ronging in which rodio woves ore TronsmiTTed from EorTh ond bounced off Time for The rodor signols To Tell us on objecTs disTonce from EorTh Porollox ongles ore olso used You con olso use opporenT brigthess ond uminosiTy of The goloxy To deTermine iTs disTonce STrucTure of The Universe WhoT ore The reloTive sizes of EorTh The Sun The solor sysTem our Iviilky Woy goloxy ond The observoble universe 0 EorTh 6378 km Sun 696000 km Solor SysTem Iviilky Woy goloxy 100000 ighT yeors Observoble universe 14 billion ighT yeors Propenies of Galaxies WhoT ore The moin differences beTween spirol eIIipTicol ond irregulor goloxies Spirol goloxies conToins sTors of 0H oges ond mony gos couds Irregulor goloxies sTor formoTion is currenle hoppening EIIipTicoI goloxies much more common in huge cusTers ond hove mony of The some chorocTerisTics os spirol goloxies How do we deTermine The moss of o goloxy The mosses of goloxies ore found from The orbiToI moTions of Their sTors sTors in o more mossive goloxy wi orbiT fosTer Thon Those in or lower moss groviTy becouse of greoTer groviTy force Whol ore lhe consequences of collisions belween goloxies When lwo spirol goloxies collide lhey con creole on elliplicol goloxy Properlies of slurs How do we meosure lhe properlies of slors o Luminosily omounl of power or slor rodioles energy per second 0 Apporenl brighlness omounl of slorlighl lhol reoches eorlh energy per second per second brighlness luminosily4139rdislonce2 o Porollox meosured by comporing snopshols lollten ol differenl limes ond meosuring lhe shifl in ongle lo lhe slor 0 Moss meosured using grovily How do lhe properlies of o slor correspond lo ils locolion on on H R diogrom An H R diogrom lells us lhe luminosily ond lemperolure of slors Holler slorls emil more blue lighl ond cooler slors emil more red lighl How does or slor chonge os il reoches lhe end of ils life 0 Low moss slors end lheir lives by ejecling o plonelory nebulo ond becoming while dworfs 0 High moss slors end lheir lives by exploding os supernovoe How do we delermine lhe oges of slor cluslers Globulor cluslers o oround in lhe holo ond hos slors omong lhe oldesl in lhe universe 0 Up lo 0 million or more slors in o dense boll o Slors ore bound logelher by grovily 0 So densely pocked lhey con collide ond merge Open cluslers o cluslers ore found in lhe disk of lhe goloxy ond lhey hove younger slors o or few lhousond loosely pocked slors Black Holes Whol is lhe definilion of or block hole An objecl whose grovily is so powerful lhol nol even lighl con escope il How con block holes be creoled The grovily in o slellor corpse becomes so slrong lhol nolhing con prevenl lhe corpse from collopsing under ils own weighl crushing ilself oul of eXislence ond forming or block hole Whol is lhe evidence lhol block holes eXisl Slors seem lo be orbiling somelhing mossive bul invisible orbils of slors indicole o moss of oboul 4 million Ivlsun Formalion of The Solar Syslem How do we Think The solqr sysTem formed Nebulqr Theory eXplqins The origins of our solqr sysTemOur solqr sysTem formed from d cloud of inTersTellqr gqs qnd dusT qs grqviTy forced The cloud To become smqller qnd spin quTer Why do TerresTriql plqneTs differ from joviqn plqneTs o Joviqn plqneTs qre que up of mosle hydrogen qnd helium compounds 0 All Joviqn plqneTs hqve swirling sTorms o Joviqn plqneTs become highly compressed when gqs is qdded How would 0 comeT or queroid impch qffecT Equh AfTer qn impch dusT qnd smollte qre efT in The quosphere quer impch which chqnges The Tempequure Prope ies of Planels How does 0 plqneT s quosphere qffecT iTs surche Tempequure The Thicllter The quosphere The hoTTer The plqneT 0 Venus hqs 0 Thick quosphere so The heqT is Trqpped in if 0 Ivlqrs used To hqve 0 very Thicllt quosphere buT now iT s much Thinner qnd cools off much quicker Thqn Equh thT is The evidence for liquid oner elsewhere in The solqr sysTem Ivlqrs coanins subsurche ice Todqy pocllteTs of liquid oner mighT persisT undergroundwhere sources of volcqnic heqT thT evidence indiches Tth humqns qre cqusing globql worming Humqn chiviTy on Equh hqs cqused qn increqse in quospheric concenTquion which hqs cqused qn increqse in greenhouse gqs concenTquion which con cquse globql worming To occur Life in The Universe thT deTermines The size of The hqbiTqble zone ground 0 qur The likely hood of finding hqbiTqble plqneTs is The size of The qur s hqbiTqble zone The hqbiTqble zone is The region in which 0 TerresTriql plqneT of The righT size could hqve 0 surche Tempequure Tth mighT qllow for liquid oner qnd life How do we look for signs of life on oTher plqneTs ScienTisTs qre chively working on Technologies Tth mqy provide quq wiTh imqges or specTrq To deTermine wheTher plqneTs reqlly qre hqbiTqble or hqve life