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Greek and Roman Myth: Aphrodite, Artemis, Apollo, and Hermes

by: Erica Grant

Greek and Roman Myth: Aphrodite, Artemis, Apollo, and Hermes CLA 220

Marketplace > Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University > Classical Studies > CLA 220 > Greek and Roman Myth Aphrodite Artemis Apollo and Hermes
Erica Grant
Virginia Tech
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About this Document

These notes cover the first week of material for the second exam.
Ancient Greek Mythology
Christine Steer
Class Notes
Greek and Roman Myth, mythology, Virginia Tech, aphrodite, Artemis, Apollo, Hermes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Grant on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLA 220 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Christine Steer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Ancient Greek Mythology in Classical Studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


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Date Created: 03/14/16
02/22/2016 Aphrodite  In one version she was birthed from sea foam as Uranus’ male member was thrown into the sea  In this version she is depicted as the goddess of love and sex in addition to being wise.  In another version she is birthed from one diet “Dione”. Literally just the female version of Zeus.  In this version she is depicted as being solely the goddess of love and sex.  The Graces—attendants of Aphrodite that were  The Horae—attendants meaning “hours” of the day. They remind her that she is beautiful.  The Seasons—attendants that are also associated with time.  Priapus—son of Aphrodite. Deformed with a huge erect phallus. Male fertility god.  “Venus de Milo”— a statue that is one of the most famous depictions of Aphrodite. Believed to be based off of the “Aphrodite of Cnidus” which is the first ever naked statue in Greek culture.  She inspires art.  The Women of Cyprus—According to Ovid the women of Cyprus denied the divinity of Aphrodite. To punish them, she gave them “hard and stony hearts” and turned them into prostitutes.  Pygmalion—because many women became prostitutes, he made a statue depicting a perfect and virtuous woman. He fell in love with it and prayed to Aphrodite to make her real. She did.  Adonis—Myrrha, his mother, was turned into the Myrrh tree. He became the most handsome man. Aphrodite fell in love with him. He went hunting and was killed by a Boar. In some versions Eros sent the boar or actually was the boar.  “Venus and Adonis”—One of the earliest English operas by John Blow composed for king Charles II. Performed in 1680.  Cybele and Attis  Cybele—sprung from the earth, born with both make and female organs. She lost her male organs and an almond tree grew in its place.  Attis—castrated himself and died from the injury. In many versions, he was driven mad by Cybele and in others it was for love. Cybele felt sad and asked Aphrodite that his body would never decay.  Anchises—Zeus caused Aphrodite to fall in love with a mortal so that she knew what it was like. This is who she fell in love with.  Aeneas—The son of Aphrodite. He was a Trojan hero who rescued the survivors of the Trojan war. Eros  Said to be the either the son of Aphrodite or birthed straight from Chaos.  God of love. Cupid god.  Symposium—Aristophones said that man and woman was originally two headed and with two arm and two legs. The gods were displeased with the eveilness of man and separted them. So, every person searches their whole life for their other half.  Socrates in this play states that love is more than sex. It is about caring for ones country and life.  “Cupid and Psyche”—story by Apuleius in Metamorphosis. Psyche was a lovely girl, worshiped for her beauty, who could not find a husband. So, her parents consulted an oracle. Aphrodite told the oracle what to say. She told them that she had to marry an evil ugly monster. She then told Cupid to make her fall in love with the monster. Cupid (Eros) accidentally pricks himself when he sees her, and he takes her away on a breeze. Cupid takes her to a magical place where servants wait on her and Cupid visits. She gets her sisters to visit, and they tell her to kill him because he must be a horrible monster. She goes to do it and can’t, but some hot oil falls on him and he gets mad. He flies away and she gets sad. She goes to kill herself and sees Pan who tells her to do these tasks. He gives her a box of beauty and she opens it, and it put her in a deep sleep. Cupid finds her and begs Aphrodite to let them be together. She does, and they have a child named precious.  Sappho—a Greek poetess from Lesbos that wrote love poetry to women. Goddess of all love. Wrote to Aphrodite. Artemis  The goddess of nature, the moon, and childbirth  Has a twin brother, Apollo  Born of Leto before her twin, and because she is the goddess of childbirth, she helps Leto give birth to Apollo.  Niobe—queen of Thebes who refused to worship Leto because she had more children than her. The made Artemis angry, and she decided to kill 5 of her 7 children. Niobe still refused afterward, and so she then killed her last 2 children. Niobe then turned into a weeping stone.  Actaeon—a hunter that saw Artemis bathing in a pool and so he was turned into a stag and hunted by his own dogs.  Catillo— a nymph and follower of Artemis. Not interested in men. Zeus fell in love with her, and disguised himself as Artemis to seduce her. He got her pregnant, and because she was pregnant, Artemis cast her out. She was then turned into a bear by Juno, who was jealous.  Arcas—the son of Castillo. He did not recognize his mother as a bear when he was hunting. So, that he didn’t kill his mother, Zeus turned him into a bear too.  Orion—a warrior that was clearing an island of wild beasts and attempted to rape Artemis. She called upon another constellation, Scorpio, to kill him.  Arethusa—a nymph desired by Alpheus (a river god). Artemis turned her into a stream of water to preserve her virginity.  Associated with Hecate, the crone, goddess of magical skills and associated with the underworld and with cross roads.  Selene—moon goddess confused often with Artemis. Artemis is goddess of far more diverse range of things.  Artmeis of Ephesus—a Greek city of Anatolia devoted to Artemis had this statue of Artemis which has many gourds or bull testicles.  Misogyny and Misandry—the hatred of women and the hatred of men respectively. The followers of Artemis reflected this hatred of the opposite sex.  Hippolytus—the son of Theseus, king of Athens. An ardent follower of Artemis. He hates women. His step mother, Phaedra, falls in love with him. She tells her nurse, and her nurse tells Hippolytus. He rages against her and women in general. Phaedra kills herself, and tells her husband that it was because Hippolytus wanted to have sex with her. His father called upon Poseidon to kill Hippolytus. They reconcile, but it was too late. He died.  Immune to Aphrodite. Apollo  God of the sun, prophecy, poetry, medicine, science, and art  The only god that transforms to the Roman pantheon without change.  Augustus—the first Roman to take Apollo as his patron deity.  Leto—had to wander to find a place to give birth to Apollo because they were afraid of the wrath of Hera. The Island of Delos—sacred to Apollo accepted them.  Delphi—place that is most sacred to Apollo because it housed his oracle. The Pythian games were held here each year.  Pytho—the dragon that Apollo slayed under Mount Parnassus. This story is a metaphor for the worship of Apollo overtaking the previous worship in the area.  Omphalos—and egg shaped stone kept in Delphi thought to be the center of the world.  Apollo Delpinius—Apollo turned into a dolphin and went to gather his priests.  Pythia—the Apollo priestess who spoke prophecy from her seat on the tripod. ~ Oracles tell the future in ambiguous ways. ~ The fate that you are given, is the fate you are stuck with. ~ Gave answers in poetry. ~ Brought sacrifices to give to the oracle to get good prophecies.  The Cumaean Sibyl—the oracle in Cumae, Italy. Aeneas consulted with her when he landed in Italy. She received her power from Apollo. Apollo cursed her, after she denied his advances, to live a very long life, but she still got older and older.  Cassandra—Apollo gave her the gift of prophecy, but she denied his advances. So, he cursed her by making it so that no one believed her prophecies. She was given to Agamemnon as a war prize.  Marpessa—Apollo and Idas both loved her, and she was given the ability to choose who she would be with. She chose Idas because he was a mortal as she wanted to grow old with him.  Cyrene—a nymph that Apollo fell in love with.  Daphne—Ovid wrote of Apollo and Daphne in the time of Augustus. Eros was irritated with Apollo, and he shot Daphne with a hate arrow. He loved her and kept chasing her anyways. Her father turned her into a Laurel Tree.  Hyacinthus—a man that Apollo fell in love with. He died in Apollos arms because he was hit in the face with a discus. He turned into a flower.  Cyparissus—Male lover of Apollo. He was killed by a pet stag and turned into a Cyprus tree.  Coronis—a female impregnated by Apollo. She cheated on him, and killed.  Asclepius—Her son that became the god of medicine. His symbol is the medical snake on a stick.  Marsyas—a satyr that picked up the flute that Athena threw out. Bet that he was better than Apollo and challenged him. Apollo won a filleted him alive.  Pan—had a music competition with Apollo. Apollo won, but Mitus thought that Pan should of won, and so Apollo turned Mitus’ ears into the ears of a donkey. HERMES  Messenger of the gods.  Takes the souls of the living to the land of the dead.  Associated with Arcadia.  Son of Zeus and Maia, one of the Pleidas.  On the first day of his life, he made a lyre with a tortoise shell and stole some cattle form Apollo and sacrificed them to the gods. Apollo was at first angry and then charmed. To appease Apollo, Hermes gave him his lyre.  Has his Talaria (winged sandals)  Herms—statues of Hermes that are composed of a block with the head of a man and the male member. Alcibiades chopped the male members off of some herms which was a sin.  Occult—became associated with the Egyptian occult associated with Thoth.  His name means—He from the stone heap.  Hermaphroditus—the son of Hermes and Aphrodite. He was in a pool with a nymph. She hugs him and did not let him go. Their bodies merge. Where the term Hermaphrodite comes from.


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