Visions of the Universe
Visions of the Universe ISP 205
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Ms. Adrian Buckridge
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Mckenzie Labadie on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISP 205 at Michigan State University taught by Jack Baldwin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/207720/isp-205-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Physical at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
The Giant Planets 10 Distance Period Diameter Mass Rotation Tilt yrs I 199 3quot Earth 1 1 1 1 240 23 Jupiter 52 119 112 318 99 3 Saturn 95 295 94 95 107 27 Uranus 192 841 40 14 172 98 Neptune 301 1648 39 17 161 29 Table 103 But again spacecraft Jupiter Saturn often the Pioneer 1011 197374 brightest stars in the sky Voyager 12 Grand Tours 1977 Galileo Jupiter orbiter Telescopes from Earth give a39mosPhenc pmbe39 1995 good Views CassiniHuygens orbiterprobe amve Saturn 2004 Density gcma Outer Sular Saturn Ne mne Sun Composmon of p Atmospheres By number atomsmolecules The Grand Tour of the Solar System late 1970 s Determining the interior structure 393 Jupiter 3x more massive than Saturn quot but only slightly larger Greater pressure greater density in e For objects 3x more massive than Jupiter increasing M decreasing R RADiusiEmh l Sun is 1arger than Jupiter because it has an interna1 energy source to heati up Spherical shell of matter Acts as if all rnass figs MT at central point Can use orbits ofmoons sp acecra to determine oblateness Oblate shell does not s in turn on in emal structure rigidity Implies gas giants have dense cores thick soup of rocks and ices inner 2025 of radii 15 earthrnasses for Jupiter 13 for Saturn Uranus amp Neptune Juphlr Uunul mum So core makes up much of planet for Uranus amp Neptune mamn Moon 25 25 Temperature Structure of the Early Solar Nebula Water ice to right of his line Ar Wage m l l Tempmmrc no OJ 1 3 as l m 1 2 Dislance mm the Sun AU Jupiter Main constituents of gaseous atmosphere Hydrogen 90 Helium 1 0 Methane CH4 02 Ammonia M3 002 Clouds Frozen ammonia Cause of different colors JUPITER Atmospheric Structure Cloud layers in the HydrogenHelium atmosphere In D 1 E l l 100 200300 Temperature Fig 101 1 Strong winds differential rotation 390 m m m Fig 1014 0 Different than Earth 0 Fast spin 0 Absence of solid surface underneath Jupiter The Great Red Spot Longlasting storm first seen by Galileo in 1610 Earth sort ofto scale Colorcoded image showing which light is re ected offwhich type of clouds Uses spectroscopy Pink high thin clouds White high thick clouds This is a dynamic evolving storm 0V1e alileu wwwth Galileo mission to Jupiter 1995 Orbiter still studying Jupiter s moons Probe parachuted into atmosphere Studied as function of altitude Penetration of sunlight Temperature Doppler wm Experlmanl Winds Cloud chemistry Atmospheric composition Jupiter s nu Fluxes Jupiter s heat sources 50 is from solar energy But other 50 comes from internal heating 0 This is gravitational energy released when Jupiter formed 0 Currently stored in interior as heat energy 0 Slowly being radiated away 0 Plus maybe some continuing energy release from contraction Similar effect in Saturn 0 But additional effect of same magnitude from ongoing differentiation 0 Separation of H from He There s weather on Saturn too HST WFPCQ Decembev I 1994 Uranus View from Voyager 2 in 1986 Uranus August 8 1995 msmsTsuovDoum 1mm Kkondihtwmniy autumn ma Msa Clouds seen in infrared Falsecolor image emphasizing Dark Spot Seasons of Uranus 84year Sidereal Period Fig 105 2007 A Dark spot due to seasonal heating Equamr Amount m 5 PM sunnam N Paie Atmospheres Jupitez Saturn Uranus Nepmne 531 Sun H 90 97 33 74 93 36 He 10 3 15 2s 7 14 CH 02 02 2 1 URANUS mmmz Fig 1011 Methane Clouds on Neptune Blue color is due to methane GHQ gas White clouds are methane ice c1ystals 70 km above denser part of almosphere Taken by Voyager 2 cm a distance of 590000 km Neptune s Great Dark Spot Anticyclone similar to Great Red Spot on Jupiter About same size as Earth Moved across Neptune s surface at 700 krnhr l Seen by Voyager 1989 then disappeared Some planets and moons shown in correct relative sizes Earth Venus orbit around 00115 orb it around Callisto Pluto Ganymede Titan Io Moon Mercury Europa Triton The Moons of Jupiter w Wquot 28 known satellites 7 a miniature Solar System w 7 7 yum The Galilean Satellites Io Europa Diameter s Semimajor tMoon1 1Moon1y axis Inn Callisto 14 15 1553000 Ganymede Ganymede 15 20 1070000 Europa 09 07 671000 Callisto o 1 12 422000 km Mass glcm 3 3476 10 3 3 Calllsto 4320 15 1 B nymede 5270 20 1 9 Eu opa 13 07 3 0 640 12 3 5 Callisto Orbital period 17 days Tidal locking With Jupiter Surface temperature l40 C appears to be mostly ice 18 x density of water Many impact craters 39 Not well differentiated Close Galileo ybys gravitational eld no dense core Geologically dead for 4 billion yrs Callisto ede Gane Largest satellite in Solar System Fewer impact craters than Callisto geologically active Differentiated Rock metal cme Magnetic field present Mantle crust made of ice 39 Volcanic ows but water rather than lava Ridges valleys due to compression of crust Ganymede is closer to Jupiter than is Callisto 39iidalfmces may drive this geological activity Europa Not made of ice Density similar to Moon Heating by Jupiter probably the reason Tidal forces keep it geologically active But covered by layer of water ice Appears to be pack ice on top of an ocean Water must be warmed by heat from Europa s interior Europa s surface 5 39 i nila 2 Ice ow cutting across ridge the occas nal impact crater Io Closest to Jupiter of Galilean Satellites Strongest tidal forces 0 Active volcanoes 0 hot silicate lava similar to Earth More 10 Haemus Mons solid sulpherra a Volcanic cone Landscapes on the Galilean Satellites 100 km h To Jupiter The Innermost Moons of Jupiter All are tidally o l cked to upiter IMetis Adrastea Amalthea Thebe Io Size km 40 20 270x166x150 115 3530 Masskg 10 7 2x10 6 7x10 7x10 7 9x1022 Orbitradius 128000 129000 181000 222000 422000 km Inside Jupiter s Roche limitquot The Roche limit For an extended body in orbit around another body P2 a3 di erentparts of extended body have di erent orbital periods So body tends to be torn apart But selfgravity tends to hold it together Roche s limit is Where these two opposing effects are ed RRoche 25 pplanetpmoon13 Rplanet where p mean density Kuhn radius of planet Expressed in terms of density and Rpm in order to cancel out terms referring to size and mass ofmoon and mass ofplanet and Jupiter s outer satellites Semwmajur Ast Append 8 Dwameter X 1 man km a Captured asteroxd Why m two groups7 7 The Saturn System ox 000 km diameter 16minormoox What ring 7 Saturn s satellites mm m o Rm I mvlddul m rm Some planets and moons shown in correct relative sizes Earth Venus Mars 1 an Mercury Callisto Moon Europa Triton Pluto Titan Looking back at Titan T In visible lighL from Voyager I Composition half ice half rock I Has an atmosphere with many similarities to Earth s Titan 5 atmosphere Fig 112 Titan I Density about same as Earth s I 16 bars at surface Primarily NZ but also I carbon monoxide CO I methane CH4 I ethane CZHS propane CgHg hydrogen cyanide HCN I abuilding block ofDNA C2N2 HCEN Thick photochemical smog obscures surface Surface temp 180 C N CH Thtck photochemical haze What little we know about Titan s surface Infrared images showing 4 faces of Titan 0 From HST 39 0 See through the haze Titan is tidally locked to Saturn Solid brickred shows 4 regions that could not be imaged through the haze t 7 I i a g t I a emane 0053118 vi Always away from Saturn Always facing Saturn CASSIN INTERPLANETARV TRAJECTDHV mmmi mu 3 f jquot 4V nm m Lobkinq dowr i quot quot quot A gt7 quot axe33 25 Sep 2091 39 r i 7 7 a T J 39 I a r l 3 pp soma 26 kph Solar s siam Simulator Dzsxunc a travelled 2521 39bil km The other 5 major moons of Saturn Saturn s rings top amp bottom Bottom View showing the light that is not re ected by the rings Colorenhanced top View showing spokes of unknown origin Saturn39s Satellites and Ring Structure Titan is at Roche 5 limit and the Rings Large objects cannot form in this re ion or get broken up even if they do form my Samu Ulnmu mm 2122 smky Fig 1117 SatelliteRing Interactions Many small satellites nonetheless found in rings 0 Their gravitational interaction shapes the rings 0 Cause gaps in rings Swept out through gravitational resonances 7 cf Orbital periods with 21 or 32 ratios etc 7 or small moons move directly in gaps Keep rings from spreading out and dissipating Shepherd moons contain material in rings immediately adjacent to orbit of moon What are the rings made View from Pandora one of Ice the shepherd gt a plnch satellites including the Of dust braided F ring Dynamic Ephemeral Bodies 391 quotit w Rings onlyl km thick 2 J Fig 1119 1 All 4 Jovian planets have rings Jupiter s ring Imaged by Galileo probe Belinda F Uranus I i Rmy smiiamg Fig 1120 Neptune Fig 1121 Fig 105 Triton the largest moon of Neptune 2700 km diameter 08 x Moon Probably 75 rock 25 ice NZ atmosphere Retrograde orbit Rotation axis tilted 157 from Neptune s axis Many similarities to Pluto An erupting ice volcano on Triton Voyager picture Volcanic plurne rises 8 km above surface extends 140 km downwind due to sunlight thawing surface Some planets and moons shown in correct relative sizes Earth Venus Mars Planets orbit around 00115 orb it around lanets