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Global Change

by: Ms. Mckenzie Labadie

Global Change ISP 203A

Ms. Mckenzie Labadie
GPA 3.62

Ralph Taggart

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Ralph Taggart
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This 58 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Mckenzie Labadie on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISP 203A at Michigan State University taught by Ralph Taggart in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see /class/207723/isp-203a-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Physical at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
February 21 2012 ISP 203A Professor Taggart 2 Why was the market still standing gt Because of the foundation and how they built it strong w a lot of money 2 When you haven t had something happen in a long time gt people assume that it will not happen again 2 The most dangerous place for Earthquakes in the US is gt Near St Louis Missouri along the Mississippi river 2 Earthquake in China 1950 killed around 250000 people Tsunamis 2 Japanese term that means great wave 2 There s a limit to water 2 Not all Earthquakes create a Tsunami gt Dec 26 2004 Indonesia 39 9193 mag 250000 causalities 39 100x powerful then a 70 magnitude 0 Banda Aceh 0 Sri anka Ceylon drainage 2 If it happened in the pacific there could have been warnings because gt Buoy s wire the pacific to help warn if there is an earthquake 2 Are harmless if you are out sea and if you are pretty deep within the ocean 2 2011 Tohoku Earthquake amp Tsunami JAPAN gt March 11 2011 gt Mag 8990 gt 13135 CAUSALTIES 2 Japanese Nuclear Power Plants gt Scared everyone gt 11 reactors automatically shut down gt Fukushima Reactors 39 Closest to earthquake 39 Were physically damaged by the Earthquake 39 Working reactor was very hot 39 The tsunami took out the cooling system pumps 0 A lot of explosions that abolished buildings around them 0 Steam is a monstrous problem that causes a lot of explosions gt Japan does not have coal amp that is why they have the Nuclear plants amp they do not have a lot of land to work with so were they place the plants at is very limited Waves 2 Water depth greater than 12 wave length Waves uniform in height 2 Water depth less than 12 wave length Velocity increases and wave height increases gt There s a limit to waves size What causes Earthquakes 0 Movement of Tectonic plates MegaTsunamis 2 Lituya Bay Alaska 1958 gt Big land slide that occurred and a huge amount of rock broke off and fell into the bay 39 1800 feet tall 39 Stripped all the vegetation 39 1 boat survived the other did not 39 No one knew how bit the wave was until the geologist figured it out January 12 2012 ISP 203A Global Change Notes Ralph Taggart The Tool 0 Human reason governed amp restrained by a set of rules for the proper application of reason systematic Logic Where to Start 0 Axioms simple selfevidence statements that are beyond dispute The Method Greeks 0 Start with one or more axioms 0 Use logical reasoning to prove or demonstrate a more complex statement or proposition 0 The more complex Successes o Euclid 300 BCE developed the principles of plane geometry 0 Aristotle and other classical writers used the approach to try to understand other facets of the world Eratosthenes330 BCE Romans 0 The earth is a sphere 0 Measured its diameter to within 1 o The earth is tilted on its axis by 235 degrees seasons Greeks were really good in medicine Some people classified the middle ages as the dark ages 1000 years ago Baghdad was the best city in the western hemisphere to live in there were a lot of great people that lived there Europe is not just one but a bunch of places Columbus amp the council of Salamancal487 Sir Francis Bacon 15611626 English man Didn t do anything fancy Introduced the concept theory of mind Renaissance Galileo Galilei 15641642 0 Relationship between books amp Literacy o Rediscovery of classic works 0 Application of observation and common sense ISP 203 Exam 2 Notes Earthquakes continued Using multiple stations to measure earthquake to triangle the exact epicenter of earthquake Reid California 1906 Role of Faults Earthquakes are caused by movement in the fault lines Mercalli I X Intensity Scale Measured by the damage to buildings around them Charles Richter 1935 quotMagnitudequot Magnitude S wave amplitude and travel time Measures the energy released Plate Tectonics Alfred Wegener quotContinental Driftquot Continents match up if put together Fossils of same species on the coast of land masses Earthquakes on edge of faults Sea floor spreading New crust is being made Spreading zones usually in the sea Geomagnetics Metals in core create magnetic field on Earth quotPolar Wanderingquot Earth s magnetic field reverses Magnetic field of Earth unsteady quotBenioff Zonesquot linear pattern of earthquakes at colliding plates when at different depths stops at 600km because rock is hot becomes like plastic slippery slides easy Trench marks the edge of a fault line Divergent Boundary quotSpreading Zonequot New igneous rock is being brought up from the inside of the earth As new crust is made the plate is split and spread apart Collisions Subduction Zones Heavier plate overrides the lighter oceanic plate Lighter plate goes down in Earth and is heated Creates magma which is sent to the heavier plate Creates mountains and volcanoes on coastline Orogenic Belts 2 heavy continental plates collide Creates huge mountain ranges Transform Faults San Andreas CA 2 plates are sliding in opposite directions 1 plate north other plate south Creates many earthquakes Earthquake Video Kobe 1995 Japan quake 5000 dead 69 magnitude Northridge 1995 California quake 57 dead 67 magnitude Tsunamis M Water depth less than 12 wavelength velocity decreases and wave height increases 2011 Tohoku Earthquake 8 Tsunami 11 March 2011 Magnitude 89 90 13135 casualties 925 drowned Japanese Nuclear Power Plants Reactors All automatically shut down Fukushima Reactors Built to withstand 70 magnitude earthquake Was damaged by 90 earthquake which exploded reactors and released radioactive material Mega tsunamis Lituya Bay Alaska 1958 Cliff face fell off and dropped into the bay Created a wave 1800 feet tall Volcanic Eruptions Hotspots around plate faults send magma to the surface which creates new crust islands Multiple Plutons Granitic Batholiths Minoan Civilization People from the island of Crete High art culture No evidence of warconflict Maritime civilization on the sea Had gigantic fleet of ships used them to trade If they were attacked they merely set trade sanctions Thera Santorini N 1600 BCE Volcano Steam Volcano 7 cubic miles of magma ejected into the atmosphere Huge tsunami earthquakes Tsunami wiped out Minoan civilization Catastrophic effects on the rest of the world Mt Vesuvius Pompeii and Herculaneum 79 CE Steam explosion Immense quantities of volcanic ash City completely buried in ash Excavated in 1700s Wall paintings survived Holes in the ash kept open pockets People and other things found inside Krakatau Sunda Straits Indonesia 1883 Steam explosion Sterilization of the islands all life gone Tsunami effects as far as South Africa 12C global temperature drop until 1988 year without a summer Paricutin 10400 ft Mexico 1943 Volcanic cone built up very fast Mt St Helens Washington 1980 Paul Kane 1847 painted Mt St Helens erupting Erupted May 1980 Steam explosion 0 Direct Blast effects destroys landscape trees 0 Lahars Mudflows Water saturated ash flows like wet concrete 0 Pyroclastic Flows tiny sharp shards of volcanic ash cut though things Mt Pinatubo 1991 Philippines Here scientists discovered how to predict volcano eruptions Flow of Volcanoes Underground Magma Chamber Breaks through at 1 or more places in crust Eruption N Rain ash flow Empty magma chamber sometimes collapses and creates a m Yellowstone Caldera Chain of calderas like Hawaii because the shift of the plate over the hotspot Super volcano The Atmosphere Composition 78 Nitrogen21 Oxygen 1 other Biology created our oxygen atmosphere Pressure More atmosphere the closer you are to Earth Increased pressure Barometer Instrument to measure atmospheric pressure CFC s and Ozone Depletion Chlorated Fluorocarbons CFCs released into the atmosphere reacts with 03 ozone and creates oxygen This makes holes in the ozone that are supposed to absorb UV rays Pollutants Smog amp Acid Rain 50 pollutants are from transportation 28 fuel burnofffrom power plants 50 carbon monoxide 16 sulfur oxides 14 Nitrogen oxides 15 volatiles 5 particulates Smog Nitrous oxide pollutants mixed with the right temperature will trap smog over an area Acid Rain Sulfur oxides released from coal powered factories gets into the air and creates acid rain HeatEnergy Solar Energy Clouds reflect significant amount of energy back to space Some is absorbed by moisture 47 is absorbed by the Earth s surface Sun straight above in the sky generates the most heat energy Clouds reflect energy during the day and act as a blanket in the night trapping heat Warm air that rises condenses and forms clouds As warm air rises is gets cooler Satellites Polar Orbit Satellites Orbits pole to pole You see the same spot on Earth twice a day light and dark 90 of the weather forecasts come from this data New type of Satellites Program has failed and cost has tripled Geostationary Weather Satellites Located right above the equator takes 24 hours to rotate Always is above the same spot of Earth They can see the whole Earth Tornadoes The Hydrosphere oceans freshwater ground water precipitation Aguifers Places underground where water is stored Estimated 1000000 cubic miles of ground water 30000 cubic miles in world s lakes 300 cubic miles in world s streams N Unconfined aquifer top layer of ground water takes days to years to recharge N Confined aquifer lower layered aquifer Fairly impermeable rock beds between them takes centuries to millennia to recharge Wells drill to confined aquifers because of low contamination levels Tides Driven by the sun and moon The moon pulls away at the oceans Thermocline Temperature drops rapidly with depth Salinity Currents global heat machine water from equator areas carries to higher latitudes Exam 3 Notes The Key 1 Natural variation in populations 2 Conscious selection of parents and progeny an end in view 3 Change in the population Mutations and Genetic Recombination Natural Selection Thomas Malthus 1766 1834 Essay on Population 0 Geometric population growth 0 Arithmetic resource increase 0 War famine strife Variation in Populations High reproductive potential Finite resources YET populations N constant WPWN Organisms that are best adapted to environments where they occur are most likely to survive and breed 9 Organisms that are less competitive will not pass on their genes N If environments change so can the mix of traits in a population Alfred Russell Wallace 0 Field work in the Malay Archipelago 0 Significant problem explaining species distributions along the island chain 0 1858 manuscript on natural selection Darwin quotThe Origin of Species The Sur xvival of Favored Species in the Struggle of Lifequot 1859 Life Transforms the Planet Timeline 0 46 Gyr formation of crust o 38 Gyr first evidence of oceans o 36 Gyr first life Prokaryotic Heterotrophic o 35 Gyr Chemosynthesis o 34 Gyr Photosynthesis o 25 Gyr Hydrogen crisis 0 20 Gyr Oxygen Crisis 0 15 Gyr Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotes 0 Very small cells 0 Very simple structure No nucleus no complex organelles 0 Kingdom Monera Basic Energy Metabolism Heterotrophic Get high energy molecules from another living thing 1st living things were heterotrophic Methanogens Methane Not Important Anaerobic no use for oxygen living on leftover molecules from the origin of the life of earth Anaerobic Metabolism 6C Sugars Glucose Split in half gt 23C 2ATP Aerobic Generates 36 ATP eukaryotic cells form 6C Sugars Glucose A lt 2 ATP 23c A lt 12H 6O lt 6H20 A lt 34 ATP 6 coz Total ATP 36 Autotrophic Self feeders Create their own molecules for energy More complex than heterotrophic Chemosynthesis energy from iron and sulfur was prevalent when Earth was younger but is rare now Photosynthesis convert sunlight to energy make own ATP Cell Energetics Adenosine Triphosphate ATP Energy input ADP P lt gt ATP A P P P lt gt A P PNP Energy Output A Are the same thing can go either way lt gt Cyanobacteria first photosynthesis using organisms Stromatolites pumped 02 into atmosphere Photosynthesis 6C Sugars Glucose A lt 2 ATP 23C A lt Many ATP A lt 12H 6 C02 Photolysis 6C Sugars Glucose A lt 2 ATP 23c A lt Many ATP A lt 12H 6O lt 6H20 6 C02 Oxygen is toxic to all organisms organisms dump it off gets released into atmosphere Earth begins to change oceans turn blue Oxygen crisis too much oxygen for organisms to live Eukaryotic Cells Large to very large Complex organelles Nucleus Mitochondria Creates ATP Used to be free living prokaryotes made their way into living cells Chloroplasts photosynthesis Used to be free living prokaryotes made their way into living cells Every cell in our bodies are eukaryotic cells All mass extinctions occur in period era layer boundaries Continents come together less biodiversity Siberian volcanism released a ton of C02 Global warming causes methane clathrates to light Methane Clathrates globs of trapped methane ice in the bottom ofthe ocean All oceans on the planet become very hot in deep areas Methane released into atmosphere Global catastrophe Asteroids Sears 1000 km biggest asteroid biggest asteroids are sphere like Most asteroids are potato shape Meteors Meteoroid mineral body moving through space Meteors object moving through the Earth s atmosphere usually burns up in atmospher Meteorites Anything that survives on the meteor and makes it to the surface of Earth Cape York Greenland 1984 quotThe Dogquot amp quotAhnighitoquot Barringer Crates AZ 49000 Yrs 118km diameter blew up before it hit ground Manicouagan Quebec 212 Ma 100km diameter Deep Bay Saskatchewan 100 Ma 10 amp 13 km diameters 2 impacts side by side Impact craters are always circular Plate tectonics can distort the shape of an impact crater Luis Alvarez Asteroid Impact Gubbio Italy 1980 Nobel Prize winning physicist Created air radar to aid pilots in landing in bad weather Walter Alvarez Geologist had Luis father do analysis of area between Cretaceous and Tertiary periods Luis Alvarez discovers quotIridium Anomalyquot Iridium extremely rare element in platinum group Iridium content in analysis is 100x higher than rocks in Cretaceous and Tertiary period Discovered that Earth was struck by an asteroid 66 million years ago KT Impact Evidence 0 Iridium quotSpikequot o quotShockedquot quartz 0 Glass microspheres o Crater Crater found in Gulf of Mexico Impact Extinction Mechanisms Impact Winter Dust blocks the sun gt climate change Global Wildfires C02 Crisis Increased C02 in atmosphere increases global temperature Acid Rain Poisoned Atmosphere quotFern Spikequot Tschudy Fern spores in KT boundary reaches 100 right when you cross it Disturbance and Ecological Succession After devastation of vegetation the first stage of regrowing starts with weeds ferns Outside 3400 km of Chicxulus Impact you don t see fern spike gt no damage Dinosaurs Stegosaurs plant eaters spikes on back Hadrosaurs walk on hind legs balance with tail Ankylosaurs turtle lizard looking armored with spikes Ceratopsians multiple horns beak like jaws Triceratops Struthiomimids meat eaters run on 2 legs steal dino eggs Therapods Tyranosaurids Raptors Dinosaur Extinction Disease Evolutionary senescence Climate change Egg Production Asteroid Impact KT C02 and Marine Food Webs oceans become somewhat acidic and marine animals become extinct Terrestrial KT Survivors o FrogsSalamanders 0 Most reptiles except Pterosaurs big flying reptiles ate marine animals 0 Most birds 0 Most mammals 0 Most plants Why were dinosaurs uniquely vulnerable Dinosaur Herbivores What did they eat Ferns Conifers needlecone plants Angiosperms flowering plants Angiosperms dominate all plant types right before KT boundary Flowers pollination seed dispersal reproduction far better than all other plants NOT coevolution between animals and plants Co opted PredatorPrey system Gives plants animal like attributes of sexual reproduction Mummified Hadrosaurs 1 found in Alberta amp 2 in Wyoming Conifer needles found in stomach Utah Coal Mines logs stumps and footprints from swamp found in mines Karen Chin Dinosaur Dung only conifers and ferns found dinosaur dung claim that dinosaurs didn t eat the new populous flowering plants Herbivore dinosaurs didn t adapt to new flowering plants population plummets Carnivores don t have enough herbivore dinosaurs to eat population plummets Egg eating dinosaurs have no new eggs to eat population plummets Boreal ForestTaiga shortage of pollinators flowers aren t over populous Pinaceous Conifers pine spruce fir hemlock Spitsbergen Far up in arctic Oswald Heer 136 species 26 species of Broad leaves 722 Redwoods 5 species 139 Pine Family 1 specie 28 Dawn Redwood deciduous dominates Spitsbergen Axel Heiburg Island Swamps redwood Floodplains broad leaves Polar Day Length conifers in boreal forests What if boreal forest gets warmer boreal forests will return to the arctic area winters will become warmer boreal forests will disappear more carbon from not having boreal forests will warm the Earth further Quaternary Period Climatic instability Pleistocene older 2 4 mil years ago Ice Ages Holocene end ofthe last glacial period easier to warm up the earth than it is to cool it down Milutin Milankovitch Astronomical Theory Axial Tilt 22 24 41000 year cycle Axial Procession 26000 yr Cycle Orbital Eccentricity 2 100000 yr cycle Last Glacial Maximum 110000 10000 YBP Sea level 120m 390ft More land above water Paul Martin Pleistocene Over kill Hypothesis Humans killed off entire species by hunting Greenhouse gases C02 CH4 H20 03 quotDrunken Forestquot Siberia Permafrost permanent freezing of soil Permafrost in Siberia is slowly melting trees are tilting over Melting Sea Ice Retreating Glaciers Total 30 x 106 km2 Antarctica 27 x 106 km2 248 ft Greenland 25 x 106 km2 23 ft Melt all ice in Greenland global sea level would raise 23 ft Storm frequency and severity increasing Hurricane Katrina Aug 2005 Easter Island Moi statues Peak population 4000 8000 Farming Fishing porpoises Sociology clans Ancestor worship tied to Moi Abrupt declines prior to 1st contact Volcanic lake recorded pollen levels Densely palm forested island before islanders got there Used these palms for everything deforestation No palm trees left Consequences Without palms no boats No boats no fishing Likely started cannibalism Can t support population New religious idol is half man half bird February 23 2012 ISP 203A Professor Taggart 39339 The nasty thing about volcanoes could be lava but the real problem is gt all the gases associated I Volcanic gasses 0 Water 0 Carbon dioxide Minoan Civilization Crete Mid2quot d Millennium BCE 39339 If you did not behave and treat them right they would stop trading with you 39339 Thira Santorin 1600 BCE gt The volcano exploded a steam explosion Krakatau 1883 39339 Sunda Straits Indonesia gt When it erupted in exploded Impacts of Eruption 39339 Sterilization of the Islands 39339 Tsunami effects as far as South Africa Tidal surges in England 39339 12C global temperature drop until 1888 gt Year without summer I Crops failed 0 quotThe scream Evard Munch gt From Norway 0 39339 Paricutin 10400 ft Mexico 1943 o 139 Mt St HelensWashington 1980 gt Beautiful gt Volcano erupted in Many 1980 exploded Office 215 Natural Science Phone 353 5175 Email taggartmsuedu Office Hours M Tu W 1100AM1200PM and by appointment htt ta art I msuedu is 203a is 203ahtm Course information and policies Lectureexam schedule Required supplementary links Grade curves Study guide Course Themes What is science and how does it work Geosphere Atmosphere Biosphere Case studies in global change OOOOO Mythical planet Nibiru will collide with earth on 21 December 2012 end of the world The Origin of Science A MagicalStory Based View ofthe World Magical Systems 0 Attempt to model how the world works to gain a measure of security or control 0 There are levels of understanding or mastery of the system 0 Some components cannot be understood 0 When fully developed they are rational and selfvalidating Ancient Egyptians 0 Sun why does it orbit O Beetles Dung Beetles move large balls that look like the sun 0 Egyptians Beetles move the sun across the sky Philosophy quotLove of Knowledgequot Greek Assumptions A New Model for the Universe 0 The universe is machinelike being made up of parts that relate to one another according to laws or principles 0 There is nothing about the machine that is beyond human comprehension O The principles that govern the machine are unchanging The Tool 0 Human Reason governed and restrained by a set of rules for the proper application of reason 0 Systematic Logic 0 Garbage In Garbage Out 0 What you put in is trash whatever comes out will be equally trash Where to Start 0 AXIOMS Simple selfevident statements that are beyond dispute The Method 0 Start with one or more axioms 0 Use logical reasoning to prove or demonstrate a more complex statement or proposition 0 The more complex statement can then be used as if it were an axiom with respect to deriving new insights Successes O Euclid 3OOBCE developed the principles of plane geometry 0 Aristotle and other classical writers used the approach to try to understand other facets of the world Eratosthenes 330 BCE O The Earth is a sphere 0 Measured its diameter to within 1 O The Earth is tilted on its axis by 235 Seasons Columbus and the Council of Salamanca 1487 0 quotColumbus discovered the new worldquot NO there were already people here 0 There are different ways to navigate the oceans of the world Columbus39 Idea 0 Trading with Asia Land routes or very long sea routes instead lets go straight west we39ll get there 0 Told his idea to Spain because Portugal not interested have a monopoly on the long sea route Queen says quotnot right now in a war we need the money go to Council of Salamancaquot 0 Council turns him down Council full of religious people Religious people are the most educated people of the time they knew the world is round but they also know the approximate diameter of the earth MUCH to far to travel 0 Could not have built a ship that held enough resources to get you across the whole quotoceanquot Sir Francis Bacon 1561 1626 0 Theatre of the Mind too much mental baggage that we ALL have inside of us 0 Must divorce yourself from the theatre of the mind in order to allow yourself to see what is actually there not what you WANT to see 0 Our minds translate things that we do not understand into things that make sense to our brains Renaissance Galileo Gaiei 1564 1642 0 Relationship between books and literacy O O Rediscovery of classic works 0 Application of observation and common sense Johanis Gutenberg Most influential person of the millennium 0 Printing Press with MOVABLE TYPE 0 Letters and numbers and punctuation that get put together and make the printing plate 0 Cheaper to print 0 Creates more books in the world 0 Normal people can learn to read Natural Philosophy Reject the use of Axioms IidCdgt are I I I H Hypotheses are then TESTED by observation of nature The thing you39ve got to find out if it39s true or not Based on the test the hypothesis is either I Rejected Modified I Retained Impossible to prove that any statement ideawhatever is true You can not do that You can prove it false Why Because it has to be false for a reason If you can find through nature a reason why this is false then it is not true and you have to throw it out Things can be quottruequot because you don39t have enough information Things can only be false if there is something actually proving them wrong Natural Philosophy gt Science Galileo and Falling Bodies O Axiom Heavy objects fall faster than light objects 0 WRONG 0 Galileo used an inclined plane to help him time that and a Water clock No Wind Resistance by using the plane but not too flat because otherwise friction gt gravity 0 Do not fall according to weight All things in a given set of conditions fall at the same rate Galileo Astronomy 0 First person to use a telescope to observe the sky 00000 O 0 Thought that the moon was smooth 0 Galileo disproved 0 Found Jupiter and Jupiter39s moons 0 Recap Galileo Looking at the moon gt not smooth Earth not center of universe sun is always see lit side of Jupiter sometimes see back of Venus Roman Inquisition 1633 O Hierarchy went against the roman church convicted not allowed out of his house I Power people who control what you think and what you39re taught it39s all for your well being I Soviet Union only allowed to study kind of genetics that Stalin39s friend studied 0 Church in charge of things don39t want things changed Natural Philosophy Science 0 It is a METHOD not a body of knowledge 0 It can REJECT bad hypotheses with certainty O PROOF is not possible 0 THEORIES are welltested hypotheses I Hypothesis gt Theory Progress of Science 0 Physics mechanics optics astronomy 0 Chemistry 0 Biology Control Problems 0 No Controls 0 The Ethics of Controls 0 Improper Controls Experiment Control way to quoteven the playing fieldquot for all parts of the experiment Linus Pauling Vitamin C and the Common Cold 0 Student group received no vitamin C provided the baseline for incidence of colds 0 Student group received daily doses of vitamin C 27 fewer colds Placebo Effect O Placebo group 24 fewer colds I Real benefit of taking vitamin C 3 statistically insignificant Misuse of Science 0 Paul Broca 186039s 188039s I The nature of intelligence I Founder of Physical Anthropology Measured brain capacity of human skulls The Limits of Science Density Iron 698 gcm3 floating in Mercury 1353 gcm3 Floating ce Cubes float because ice is less dense than water Solid thing should be denser than the liquid of the same substance Properties different of water gtallows our lakes to very rarely freeze all the way through DensityTemperature 0 Expand Heat Contract Cold Density measure of weight unit volume Expand Heat Density goes down Contract Cold Density goes up LAVA LAMP OOOO Density allows things to rise heat helps things rise I Ocean currents caused by heat of the sun I Heat Engine hot air rises cold air sinks I Geological Time 0 quotDeep timequot 0 Earth older than humans I Greeks made 3 core assumptions I Everything works like a machine Nothing beyond human comprehension I Unchanging principles 0 Time gt linear under most circumstances gt unidirectional Understanding Large Numbers 0 A Slbill weights quot 1 g 1 million dollars weights quot 1000000 grams At 454 gramspound 1 million dollars will weigh quot 1 ton 2000 lbs At 2000foot a million dollars makes a stack 500 feet tall If we had a 1 bill for each year the earth has existed 46 billion the stack would be over 435 miles high Rock tells the age of the earth 0 Rock Time 0000 I Lowest is oldest top is newest cores I Can display what was going on in that place at that time and other factors that were happening at the time 0 Can not date each section of rock for how long it took to make that section 0 Rocks formed sequentially Igneous lava volcanic O Lithological Correlation I Match up rock from two different places to see if they are from the same time or not Can match types of rock and sequence same rocks same order approx thickness 0 Rocks form layers oldest on bottom youngest form on top of the older layers 0 Lithological study of rocks 0 River dropping different sediments can cause layers William quotStrataquot Smith 0 Canal and drainage projects Fossil collector IndexGuide fossils Predict rock layers 1815 Geological map Put the project up for bid like an auction canal builders gt how much can you build this canal for Able to predict digging much easier Biostratigraphic Correlation 0 Can identify similarities between the fossils within the layers 0 Same rock layer in different places if those fossils are unique 0 Can now match the different layers TimeRock units 0 O O 0 Time Divisions Equivalent Timestratigraphic Divisions Era Erathem rarely used Period Systems Epoch Series Age State Chron Zone Chronozone Periods 6 periods oldest era of the geological time scale 0 Permian Perm Russia 1841 mum 7 WWW Engwana1a22 Dwnminr Dwnnimre mu sumquot 4an Wm ms wgmn mm ma 1azs mamame and c ninannhngemWi ei mum mm 7 Mun myquot new immgengrivmzv ize M LEARN m azummmwzsmww mmmnmm Mmmean mum mndem m GEOLOGIC TIME SltALE Camila Phanelmolc Pmlemzalc mum Nadean Precambrian mu m knnwme man m mike gm mm in mm Ear mm mum bdnre I There are obviously rocks older than the Cambrian I Knew there were older rocks position of the rocks couldn39t do anything with it 0 No more land marks to go back in time with fossils I Need new technology to start dating earlier Radiogenic Dating 0 Radioactivity O Isotopes O Halflife Periods arbitrary until 20th century 0 Absolute dates based on radiogenic dating All elements are constructed of atoms O Atoms kinda like a solar system 0 In the nucleus I Postiveproton I Neutralneutron I In the most abundant form of naturally occurring elements the number of protons is equal to the number of neutrons 0 Number of protons determines what the element is Can pull out neutrons and still remain same element 39 Called Isotopes when you change number of neutrons AddSubtract too much becomes unstable Isotopes inherently unstable Radioactive everything is even humans Radioactive means unstable typically wants to change in to some other element Decay Can not determine single atom decay I Large amounts can predict rate of decay I Called Halflife OOOOO Parent Daughter Half Life yrs Carbon 14 Nitrogen 14 5730 Uranium 235 l Lead 207 704 x 106 Potassium 40 Argon 40 1251x109 Uranium 238 Lead 206 4486x109 Rubidium 87 Strontium 87 488 x 109 Use as a clock to tell how old the sample is Limited number of elements bc higher numbers have shorter halflife are basically gone now Dinosaurs 70100 million years old Measure what is left element atoms CARBON 14 DATWG PROBLEM Knuw the m We uf CarburHA demzmve Emp e demzmve Daedurs Surruunded by radmzmveshwe d Reference 1 Week 2048 Cuunts ecuuntshuu dbe zrgerthznsamp eswzeszmpeshuudbe u derthznmudem as t A ume atumsampxecumzmedsameamuumunzmzu ncuumzs reference zgzmsl 2 current samp e wmgrd F waby Nube Pnze Chemwstry 195a Curve ufKnuw s n Ammd and mm 1949 mw emu VT awl 9m Bum EM Use u der Emp e mm befure tesungsMUST KNOWTHEAGE 0 Must add the age of the reference sample to get the correct YBP I Carbon 14 added to 39 Check lecture I Very bumpy curve bc of many many factors Origin of the Universe WMAP Satellite 137 billion years 0 10 years ago best estimate was 1020 billion years ago 0 NOW we know it39s about 137 bill O quot Big Bangquot tiny area of EVERYTHING easy to explain the bang 400 million years after big bang 0 Microwave radiation left over Big Bang 137 billion years ago 0 Inflation VERY QUICKLY I Formation of the first stars left radiation Very few elements only hydrogen I Stars have high gravity pull things in I High temperature high pressure core allows fusion of hydrogen atoms Creates other elements 39 First stars hydrogen rich 0 Super Nova Star blows up pressure beats gravity I Heavier elements created by quick pressure and heat forcing elements together The sun quot same age as the earth 0 All of our solar system about 137 years Late comers in the universe Sun is a loner very very far apart from all other stars 0 Typically stars form in gas clusters Sun must not be where it originally formed I Formed in a gas cluster and then somehow moved Origin of the Solar System Nebular Hypothesis 0 Spinning disk of gas 0 I Double star system no life Spinnings starts gravity and that allows for things to get pulled in I Creates stars sun and even planets Why didn39t smaller formation light up as stars 0 0 Not enough gravity to quotlight upquot Water 0 Early solar wind swept water away from the stars 0 Much ends up as ice in outer most regions The Solar System 0 Terrestrial Planets closest to sun smaller 0 Gas Giants outer solar system huge Asteroid Belt belt of garbage left over pieces of planet why is it not a planet located 12 way between 2 largest gravity fields in the solar system Jupiter and the sun constantly pulled in both directions 0 I Pluto nota O I I O Pluto I I O I Evolution 0 0 Mass I I I I I O I I I I 0 Mass 0 I 0 Merc I I planet All other planets Orbit nearly circular Orbits very close to singular plane not neatly organized Very oblong orbit Plane tilted compared to others Very far out in solar system we forget about it Pieces of ice that float around Pluto piece of ice got stuck in orbit Other pieces of rockice found via telescope naming treating as planets Not really planets but some biggersame size as Pluto Therefore to solve problem pluto not a planet fPlanetary Atmospheres of the planet escape velocity Gravity is what holds the atmosphere to the planet Gravity is determined by mass More mass of planet more easily holds atmosphere Earth Escape velocity quot 7 milessecond Moon Escape velocity 2 milessecond Temperature molecular motion Molecules move slow in cold Molecules move fast in hot Cold planet escape velocity doesn39t matter as much because molecules move slower Hotter planets molecules move very quickly can lose atmosphere and other things much easier of the gas 39 Element abbrev molecular weight Hydrogen H2 2 Methane CH4 16 Water HZO 18 Carbon Dioxide C02 44 Heavier the gas moves much more slowly Light gases more easily lost from planet atmospheres than heavier gases All early planets comprised of mostly hydrogen as atmosphere Heavier gases C02 often get pulled into gravity of planet and get made into part of the planet Doesn39t stay there volcanic eruptions released into atmosphere throughout history nner Terrestrial Planets most like the earth very small atmospheres ury About same size as the moon very small More gravity than moon because of mass VERY hot Atmosphere gone Moon also has no atmosphere 0 Venus I quotTwin to the earthquot White cloud that completely covers Venus I Would assume water bc similar to earth I We have clouds they39re white I Hot on that planet probably jungle like and crazy animals n 2 space crafts visited there I Clouds actually sulfuric acid I Pressure VERY strong I Atmosphere nearly 100 C02 Denseest of the gasses 0 Greenhouse Gases I 3 or more atoms I Less atoms weaker I More atoms stronger 0 Percent in atmosphere I CO2 003530 also very responsible for heat on earth but a LOT more of it in the atmosphere I CH4 000017 very potent responsible for 12 of the heat on earth Other gases are also greenhouse gasses I HZO Even I Just doesn39t do much about heating trapping heat 0 Gasses act on atmosphere pass visible light partially block heat radiation from leaving similar to glass on car windows 0 Greenhouse Gases not bad actually good 0 Liquid water because of green house gases keeps earth about the right temp to have liquid gas otherwise too cold for liquid water 0 Venus cont Early volcanic activity releases CO2 I Earth has oceans soaked up the C02 I Venus has no oceans nothing to soak up C02 I Too heavy to leave the atmosphere I Drives out lighter gases I Greenhouse gases run out of control basically Venus is HOTTEST PLANET IN SOLAR SYSTEM 0 Earth I Not talking about it now talk about it rest of the semester I Only useful place for humans in the known universe 0 Mars Relatively small About equal gravity to earth Thin CO2 atmosphere Most earth like has water not liquid I frozen ice caps north and south water and frozen C02 Has seasons Sand storms occur during quotwinter monthsquot of mars39 hemispheres I Causes dark spots to appear lighter O I Surface vs Subsurface I Very rockysandy I Water usually a bit below the surface I Typically frozen when exposed sometimes turns liquid I Surface Frost I Bedding structures type of rock similar to sedimentary rock Surface Channels large crater once filled with water I Day length quot same as earth Possible that originally life had started on Mars at some point I Dig down under surface a mile or 2 I Possible to find bacteria still I Possible to find fossils Nanedi Valles similar to Grand canyon I Clearly cut by water I How much water was there I How long did it last What was it39s chemistry what kind of water was it Asteroid Belt I Asteroids I Big rocks floating around I Sometiems leave Astroid belt orbit I Can cause problems if cross paths with earth Outer Jovian Gas Giant Planets can not see the actual planet only the atmosphere 0 O Jupiter I Biggest planet I quotStripesquot atmosphereweather I Different elements make up different parts I quotSpotsquot storms I Great red spot HUGE storm been constant I Very cold I Highest mass Hydrogen dominated atmosphere I Moons I Jovian Moons Europa I Looks dirty yellowish brown High volcanic activity on another moon attracted to Europa over the waterice I Water on this moon under the surface Want to explore Saturn I Rings Slightly smaller version ofjupiter I All outer planets have rings most can39t see I Saturn39s Rings different I cy Dust particles not thick Should have been broken up I Tiny moons in the rings help keep the icy dust in line I Has quotstripesquot much less weather less internal heating less solar energy much more calm weather than jupiter Moons 39 Titan I Biggest moon in solar system I Almost size of Mercury Orange Blob very thick atmosphere I Methane atmosphere very thick I Can not see surface 0 Uranus O Neptune O Pluto I Igneous Rocks 0 Extrusive vs Intrusive Igneous Rock Salt Columnar Basalt Pillow Basalts Porphyry Obsidian Rhyolite Granite Dikes Skills Plutons Dike wall of rock Sill Pluton Large 3D blob of magma that has come up but not broken the surface I Rock Cycle 0 Igneous Rock NEW ROCK Magma I Igneous Rock I Weathering Sediment I Lithification I Sedimentary Rock Metamorphism I Metamorphic Rock I Melting I Magma Sedimentary Rock Shale and Siltstone 70 Sandstone 15 Limestone 10 Other less than 5 222012wma Audio recording started 241 PM Thursday February 02 2012 EXAM HOUSEKEEPING Today is the last lecture on the first exam Tuesday Review for exam ASK QUESTIONS Any material covered will NOT be on the exam should be a bit shorter than normal lectures though because he has to leave early Studying come from lectures NOT book book and internetjust help Questions can come from ANYTHING Study your notes people terms def Flash cards quot I Igneous Rock 0 Come from different kinds of lava O Intrusive Igneous Rock I Sedimentary Rock 0 Layers of different kinds of rocks 0 Typically formed in water can be on land though 0 Pressurized into rock I Metamorphic Rocks 0 Extra pressureheatother distorting feature Changes character of original rock Typically under the ground Subduction Contact with magma that adds a lot of heat and changes the rock on the edge Marble in the mountains pressure weight of the mountain on top of them causes the change 0000 Earthquake Science 0 Earthquakes product of local theology magical thinking I God makes earth quakes Punishment 0 Japan has lots of Earthquakes had a very different view I Giant Catfish Namazu lives in the mud underground causes earthquakes by thrashing I Doesn39t do it because he39s upset with people I Can39t move because usually a God holds him in place I Kashima God holds a rocksword to keep catfish from moving I Sometimes god gets distracted and the catfish can thrash causes earthquake Edo Earthquake Tokyo October 1855 O 0 John Milne 39 Picture Citizens of Tokyo attacking fish construction workers helping the catfish Robert Mallet Engineer 18501870 did most work Ireland Plumbing business from family Largest engineering operation in most of Europe very good entrepreneur Read about earthquake in Calabria Italy 1783 35000 killed Engineer looked at picture of buildingsstructures could see what stresses had occurred 39 Became fascinated with earthquakes Distribution read everything he could find about wherewhen the earthquakes occurred in history 39 EARTHQUAKES ARE NON RANDOM DISTRIBUTED IN REGULAR PATTERNS Velocity of seismic waves like sound waves move through the rock I Can measure these wave speed mini explosions moves faster through rock than sound through air 1857 Naples Earthquake I Made an intensity scale how much damage was done Plot the intensity around the area NOT Uniform 1850 1913 Engineer University of London Mining Engineer Not interested in Earthquakes Opportunity to teach in Japan at a new school 5 year contract end review how you did maybe review if goodinterested Loved it all the whole job and culture and everything 1875 Starts Teaching at Imperial College 1880 HUGE earthquake Yokohama Wanted more information on earth quakes could only find stuff from Mallet Realized he would need help colleagues other Japanese I Sent out postcards when there is an earthquake big small whatever write it down send it to him Formed Seismology Group in Japan FIRST EVER Seismograph I Milne Ewing and Gray Seismograph instrument to measure earth movement associated with earthquake Seismogram record of the earthquake typically piece of paper with the data Seismic Waves waves that move through the crust of the earth and causes the seismograph to vibrate P and S Waves Primary WavesrArrive rst weaker vertical typically Secondary Waves 7 Much stronger seco ds Amle from quotstandardquot 39 Whirl n m in Slawhum A via an 13 g g 2 i i a uir u s39 P and s waves travel at different speeds ster s slower s Wavescan notgo through the liquid outer core Solid inner core refracls P waves th The reason for ves are h core amp riesl and cked by core immgm quot umpireum Bulimiaquot e a 5M Wlihl cums pawn Pmllme roll lnr Flll 315 I Travel Time Dislance EXAM I 1895 Tokyo quake I Huge earthquake destroyed his labinjured wife I Left Japan 18961913 Isle of Wight I Little island off coast of England I Died there 50 questions 2 points 12 questions multiple choice TrueFalse I Judge by proving something false People and What they did Terms and Definitions Earthquakes and Finding Distance Geological Time Scale Carbon Dating QUESTIONS ON CONTENT Dates are just Relevant DON39T WORRY ABOUT THEM Geological Time Scale order names not dates Index Fossil or guide fossil animal that lived in the ocean but it only lived for a short time so you my can only find it in one bed at one rock level in a given area therefore if you find the guide fossil it will show you where you are in the rocks Helps you connect time between distant areas helps identify layers Lithological Correlation Rock Correlation layers Biostrophic Correlation Fossils Things at rest stay at rest PENDGULUM wants to stay at rest seismograph Francis Bacon said that investigator brought with him baggage about quothow the world worksquot RESULTS WILL MATCH WHAT YOU EXPECT TO FIND Greenhouse gases let through visible light warms things up trap the heat radiation within the confined space like your car windows without windows the heat would escape with the gases they get trapped Long period comets period is the time it takes to get around the sun HAS A LONG TIME GREAT DISTANCE once every 5075100 years Short period comets start out as long period comets but orbit is deflected by passing too close to a planet now it is much shorter and every few years Deacon Traps Trap landscape over a large area with many volcanic rocks Deacon traps part of India part of collision with Asia LARGE SCALE VOLCUMISM Heat Engine PRINCIPLE most substances if heated will expand relative to stuff around it which may not expand density will be lower it will rise Gets away from heat source cools down falls because of larger density LAVA LAMP Titan Moon Larger than Mercury could be a planet if it wasn39t orbiting a planet has large lakesrivers not water methane Evolution of Planetary Atmosphere 3 things I 1 size of planet mass relates to gravity small gt low large gt high stronger gravity makes higher escape velocity I 2 temperature hot gt faster cold gt slow as move faster easier to escape I 3 mass of the gas hydrogen lightest moves quickest carbon dioxide methane heavier slower LOOK AT WEBSITE what relates to the lectures Determining Distance to earthquake I Relatively close 105 get both P and S waves I P moves faster arrives faster S moves slower arrives later 39 Knowing difference between speeds of the two can solve for distance I Farther Away lose P waves in core See S waves first I Sometimes refracted P waves Control Problems looks like a control but isn39t ethics controls etc Good medical experiment with people need consent use placebo has their own problems if placebo leads to negative effects Nebular Hypothesis solar systems start as flying spinning quotjunkquot material I Most gathers in center high density Increases gravity pulls in more gt sunstar Other places in the disk this happens too forms planets John Malin plumber first one to systematically find out something about them Nuclear Fusion VERY high Pressure and VERY high temperatures interior ofa star where you can fuse two atoms and create a new element then releases new energy Types of Igneous rocks Dikes Sills Plutons bigger more rock takes longer to cool contact metamorphism caused to rocks around Copernicus Polish mathematician took astrological observations and did the math to determine that earth was NOT the center of the universe BEFORE GALILEO books were banned John Milne Encouraged people to do more research on earthquakes Came back to US found out people had been doing research already Locating the Approximate Epicenter O 3 seismographs record the earthquake 0 Determine the distance from location 0 With 3 can locate the Approximate Epicenter 1906 Reid California 0 Role of Faults 0 Huge Earthquake for US not for Japan 0 Fire because of damage 0 Gave out loans in the park to anyone 95 paid back I Made large reputation gt Bank of America 0 Reid Did research around the landscape I Found out about faults weak places in the rocks I Originally thought Earthquake caused Faults Reid determined Movement of the plates on either side of the fault cause Earthquakes I Earthquakes caused by movement of plates along the fault I Sudden release of energy in that movement Pressure builds slowly over time when it finally snaps lots of energy that causes wavesearthquake Mercalli X Intensi Scale 0 Varrying strengths of earthquakes O Earliest approach damage of buildings 0 Mercalli creates 10 point scale I Damage of well built structures 10 steps that an engineer could evaluate Charles Richter 1935 Magnitude Charles Richter decided to measure the magnitude Describes the energy that was released in the earthquake Swave Amplitude and Travel Time gt Magnitude Magnitude is LOGARITHMIC I Mag 6 is 10X more powerful than Mag 5 Mag 7 is 100X more powerful than Mag 5 NONLINEAR World Wide Network of Seismic Observatories Seismograph Program Not done for science I Can know when people test nuclear weapons I Stations can determine if it was nuclear explosion vs earthquake Very convenient to use for other uses now Plate Tectonics 0 OOO Alfred Wegener quot Continental Driftquot 0 German Meteorologist weather guy 0 ldea counterintuitive I Continents of the Earth as we see them today were not always how they are now I Before they couple hundred mil years ago were one continent PANGEA 0 Beds of fossils that connect the continents O Crust of the earth not one solid piece I Broken into pieces Tectonic Plates I Can be land ocean on top of it 0 Places with a lot earthquakes also have a lot of volcanoes Typically right along the edge of fault lines 0 Also along places with mountains I Form along the edge of continental plates SeaFloor Spreading 0 Certain parts of the Earth are making NEW crustplate I Mid Atlantic Rift O Pushes the plates on either side away from the spread zone on the sea floor I Everything ON that plate moves too O PROBLEMS I Only so much room on Earth Making new crust in some places I Other parts must be interacting I Geomagnetic 0 Normal vs Reverse Magnetic Fields I Earths Polarity reverses randomly 0 Polar quotWanderingquot Oceanic Crust is lighter than Contiental Crust Tectonic Plates I Divergent Boundary O quotSpreading Zonequot 0 New material is made 0 Magma flows up through a quotfaultquot quotvolcanoquot 0 New crust is made forces existing plates outwards O Spreads plates apart I Collisions I Subduction Zone 0 Heavier plate going to run over the lighter plate 0 Continental plate going to go over Oceanic plate continent adds weight O Forces the lighter plate downward into the mantel 0 Old plate material goes down remelts and gets added to the mantel Lots of friction along the boundary along with lots of water I Forms Liquid Magma which rises up and causes volcanoes above the area 0 Constant never stops can cause earthquakes I Can cause new land to be added to continent as oceanic crust is pushed under and pieces of quotcontinentquot underneath water is added to the land already there 0 I Orogenic Belts 0 Two continents collide O Edges get smashed together into mountains I Transform Faults 0 San Andreas CA I Angular collisions 0 Generate many earthquakes because of friction against each other Kobe and Northridge Earthguakes 0 January 17 1995 Kobe Earthquake 69 Magnitude 5 miles under the ground I 5000 people died 0 1 year before Los Angeles 67 Magnitude earthquake hit I 57 people died 0 Why such great differences in deaths Scientists say possible for no one to die from earthquakes I Earthquakes do not need to be lethal O P waves will alert people that the earthquake is coming Shut off gas lines Cut off gas from house Trains stop Alert drivers 0 Better software to predict high damage areas I Most dangerous place in US for earthquakes 0 New Madrin Along the Mississippi River I By St Luis 18121813 I series of earth quakes Worst one caused the Mississippi to flow backwards I Worst place for earthquakes I New Madrin Fault Zone Most Dangerous part of an earthquake 0 Falling buildings 0 Fires Earth Quake that caused most casualties O Taun Shen 250000 people approx died I Tsunami 0 Great Waves Earthquake happens in the ocean 0 Normal Waves OOOO I Wave depth is only 12 the wavelength uniform height I Closer to coast where land is less than 12 wavelength from surface Velocity decreases and height increases 0 Tsunami I If plates change height water will be displaced I Starts a wave The movement goes all the way through the bottom of the ocean I Behaves similarly to regular waves but starts earlier because already going to the bottom 0 26 Dec 2004 Indonesia 91 93 250000 Casualties I 100X more powerful than 69 of Movie I Buoy Alert System 0 Pacific Ocean I Uses satellites to relay warnings O Expensive I 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami O 11 March 2011 0 MAG 8990 0 13135 casualties 925 drowned 0 Nuclear Power Plants I Fukushima Reactors I 12 foot sea wall not helpful at all Most NPP automatically shut down at first shakes I Fukushima so close damaged by the earthquake and THEN tsunami I Pumps used to cool the hot reactors were taken out and caused explosions steam Megatsunamis O Lituya Bay Alaska 1958 I Big piece of cliff fell off and into bay Bay very constricted by shape I Helps to develop the wave even more I 1800 feet tall 180 stories tall wave that 0 Most likely to hit New York coast line area I Cliffs in canary islands I If falls in small pieces not an issue but if large chunk falls I HUGE tsunami is likely to hit east coast of US 0 fasteroid hits will also cause MegaTsunami I Volcanic Eruptions O Subducting Margins most common way to create volcanoes 0 Hawaiian islands are volcanoes I Hot spot in mantel I Magma comes up through weak place and rises towards the surface Multiple Plutons Granitic Batholiths O Softer sediment is eroded away from the stronger igneous rock that formed plutons that were never exposed O Teardrop shapes textbook type 0 Crystals in the rock has captured nuclear radiation Can carbon date it Sill O 0 Horizontal igneous rock within other rocks Volcanoes Lava is not what kills people The ash and other material put into the atmosphere is more deadly O O O O O 0 Especially with an explosion CO2 is expelled Sulfur Dioxide but mostly water I Impact of Volcanic Explosions Minoan Civilization Island of Crete Mid 2n39d Millennium BCE wall paintings No warconflict I Parties Athletics Pasttimes Thera Santorini quot 1600 BCE Erupted many times throughout history Exploded steam Blew away the middle of the island 7 Cubic miles of magma ejected into the atmosphere Huge Tsunami Earthquakes Mt Vesuvius Pompeii and Herculaneum 79 CE Small eruption in general unless RIGHT next to it Large amount of ash City was completely covered Late 170039s excavation begins I Wants artifacts 19th cent and Victorian Era Because buried in ash they were able to find wall paintings I VERY promiscuous Krakatau 1883 Sunda Straits Indonesia I Had been erupting I Then explodes steam Blew out huge chunk of island I Islands sterilized I Tsunami effects as far as South Africa tidal surges in England 12 C global temperature drop until 1888 year without a summer Paricutin 10400 Ft Mexico 1943 Small amount of steam in a farmers field 1 year later 10400 ft Mt St Helens Washington 1980 May 1980 Exploded steam I Had been erupting for a few weeks prior I David Johnson I Sitting at outpost around the mountain Seismographs keeping tabs on the mountain I Direct Blast Effects I Everything facing the explosion was devastated I Lahars mudflows Debris flows I Ash on the side of the mountain was water soaked I Slides down and flows down rivers Pyroclastic flows I Will erupt again I Allowed us to study eruption on close scale Mt Pinatubo 1991 I Philippines I Wired the mountain I Logged everything VERY populated area I Needed to give a timely announcement of eruption I Too late people die Too early lose credibility I Got it just about right I HUGE eruption Larger than Mt St Helens I Volcano quotPlumbing Systemsquot 0 Caldera tells us about past large scale volcanic activity I Yellowstone Caldera O O O O 0 Most dangerous Complex caldera system Like Hawaii hot spots move Continental Plate instead of oceanic Will errupt Will alter EVERYTHING I Connected But doesn39t seem like it is O The Black Swan the impact of the highly improbable Nassim Nicholas Taleb 0 Black Swans Australia they do exist USUALLY we don39t see them but they do exist I THE ATMOSPHERE Stock market crash Titanic trina 0 Composition Earth has a WERD planetary atmosphere I Oxygen is poison 39 No other planet because Earth is only this way because of Biology 0 Pressure Less weight higher less atmosphere pressing down Mercury Barometer Measures pressurealtitude O Pollutants O O CFC39s I Chlorinated FlouroCarbons Ozone Depletion I 3 Oxygen Atoms instead of 2 I Ozone absorbs most of the UV rays Smog I Nitrogen Oxides I Hydrocarbons the pollutants that come out of a car exhaust I Causes smog when combined with weather patterns Acid Rain I Sulfur Oxides I Comes out of coal burning plants chimneys Can wash high sulfur coal to make it low sulfur coal simply displaces the sulfur I Try to use low sulfur even low sulfur can add to acid rain though I Acid rain dissolves limestone I Trees killed on mountains where rain is forced due to altitude HeatEnergy Angle that light is hitting the earth Tilt creates a much different seasonsheating I Greater impact than the orbitcloseness to the sun Water Vapor Gas 540 cal Water Liquid 80 cal Frozen ce Solid I Hurricane Katrina Aug 29 2005 1015AM Pacific Ocean called Cyclones usually bigger Build from hot water in the ocean Over land it falls apart Over water it builds I Tornadoes Most intense type of storm activity Heat Water Wind Tornado Climate Change 0 O O O O O O O O O O O Warmer it gets cooler in others Whole planet changes storm patterns Rain Shadow Effect from mountains less waterrain Heat released as water transitions from vapor gt liquid Dry air on west side of continent doesn39t allow for as many tornados HYDROSPHERE All water on planet Earth The Water Cycle am a Aquers aemw enamecumpLeLeLyaaLuraLedWmeaLer Abuvewztertzb eunsaturatedramwztermutz su2w Gruundwzter mun wmrummnllnnmmlwamdlsnanllh Recharge E can WSW T T f Wm H T ee Fm cerTTned Aquerrbuunded by Tmpemuus Uncun ned Aquer DeepertheweH e ruck buthtup and buttum rezswe tn recharge as chances uf cuntzmmztmn r mare expenswe u Lakes Largei Lake Tnme Wur d 4325LG sea 436000 km SALT WATER Largei FRESH WATER Lake mme Hurun 596L7L7km2 Wur d rsze supenur 82100 kml Michigan 57800 kmz I Largest Tropical Fresh Water Lake Second Largest Fresh Water Lake Lake Victoria 68870 kmz I Tanganyika 32600 kmz Baikal 31500 kmz LAKES ARE RARE I GLACIERS DIDN39T REACH THERE THEN THEY PROBABLY AREN39T ANY I Temporary run out much more easily than oceans O Oceans Uses Sound waves sent from ship to sea floor and return I Can find depth Looking at Ocean Floor 0 Detailed maps now bc during cold war wanted to know where to hide submarines and did study to find out details Highest Mountain Mt Everest 8848 m Average elevation of continents 840 m Sea Level 0m Average depth of ocean 3800m Floor of central oceans 5000m Continental Shelf Actual edge of the continent under sea level Underwater Valley where river enters ocean Submarine canyons 0 When sea level was lower the river went all the way out on the edge of the continent Continental Slope where the shelf drops off Continental Rise where sediments from the continent settle out fairly flat but slight rise Tides O Gravity of the moon pulls on it slightly and changes the sea level slightly 0 Moon and Sun can both pull the tide I Lined up bigger tides I Spring Tides I Perpendicular smaller tides I Neap tides Temperatures 0 Surface typically warmer O Deeper point where temp drops very rapidly with depth THERMOCLINE 0 Cold Deep Layer cold water lies below the thermocline and extends to the surface at the poles Salinity O Saltiness of the ocean 0 Average amount that is typical 0 Equator lower than average 0 Higher on either side of the equator Currents Warm surface water creates currents towards poles Deep water circulates Thermocline can separate deep water from surface water I Waves 0 Driven by wind 0 Half wavelength deep 0 As get shallower create higher waves I Typical surf waves breaking O Headland Peninsula that pokes into the ocean Bay cuts into the land I Currents will erode and corrode the headland and deposit in the bay BIOSPHERE Apollo 8 Christmas Eve 1968 0 Read a quote from the Bible A Question of Origins Just 2 Possibilities O The Earth is eternal it has no beginning or end At one time the Earth did not exist and somehow it came into being Charles Robert Darwin 0 1809 1882 0 Edinburgh Medicine 1825 1828 0 Cambridge Theology 1828 1831 Charles LYELL 1797 1875 I Principles of Geology Being an Attempt to Explain the Former Changes of the Earth39s Surface by Reference to Causes Now in Operation Established the foundations of modern Geology Extended the work of Hutton uniformity of process I Age of the Earth Lord Kelvin and the Age of the Earth 1863 39 Heat Flux I The Earth is rigid It39s structure is homogeneous O I There are no undiscovered sources of energy I Age 25 400 Ma Marie Curie 1898 discovered Radium Pierre Curie and Albert Laborde 1903 Radium decay produces heat Exception to Kelvin39s third assumption John Perry 1895 questioned Kelvin39s second assumption If the interior of the Earth was not solid heat could be carried to the crust by convection not just conduction thus Kelvin39s age estimates could be VERY low Porto Praya St Jago White line all the way around the harbor 30 feet above the water in the side of the cliff layer of sea shells all the way around 0 Water used to be higher Galapagos Islands bio diversity is low 0 Everything on the island had to get there from somewhere else 0 Endemic Species Galapagos Tortoises O Endemic Species species only found in a very restrictive geographic area Each island in the Galapagos Islands has it39s OWN species of Endemic Galapagos Tortoise O Peruvian Green Iguana 6039s and 7039s everyone had iguanas as pets eat fruits and berries Galapagos Islands O Galapagos Land Iguana Brown but body similarly structured eats whatever it can find 0 Galapagos Marine Iguana BLACK very short face flat plates for teeth webbed feet broad tail eats shell fish and seaweed I Finches I Settling Down 0 Voyage of the Beagle 0 Marriage 0 Reconciliation O Barnacles 0 Species Problem EXAM O 50 TrueFalse Questions Land and Sea Breezes 0 During day water shines on water and island Island heats more than the water does I Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxides O Nasty compounds from air pollution from combustion engines and similar 0 Nitrogen Smog O Sulfur Acid rain from power plants and cars typically down wind of the actual problem I Air Cells 0 Friction between the land and over laying air masses 0 Due to the rotation of the earth 0 Sphere causes friction because no easy way to flow 0 Breaks into 3 pieces Equator fastest I Middle slower I Poles slowest 0 Moving patterns of wind energy Continental Crust meets Oceanic Crust O Subduction Zone Oceanic goes down Continental goes over it 0 Unusual pattern earthquakes typically happen at these areas 0 Zones where earthquake typically happens I Benioff zones I Pyroclastic Flows O Vesuvius 0 Super hot gas ash and particulates possibly lava but mostly gases 0 Straight up in a column into stratosphere 0 Short lapse in eruption gases no longer moving upwards column collapses O Goes back down and very fast movement will cause problems I Geomagnetics 0 Earth has a magnetic field 0 Polarity North and South 0 Sediments with Iron pieces I Act as compass needles I Settle out and align with the magnetic field 0 Use these quotmini compassesquot in the rock 0 To find poles then vs now I Polar wandering I Pole seems to be in a different place 0 Can plot movement of continents Darwin 0 Hasn39t accomplished anything yet 0 Sailed 0 Not really done a lot Satellites O 2 Types 0 Polar Orbit Satellites I Weather Predictions O Geosyncronous Satellite Equator only I Travels at exact rate as earth below it Case Study on 2 Earthquakes Kobe and Northridge 0 Basically the same 0 Consequences were EXTREM ELY different 0 Japan no idea that there was a significant fault system there 0 Barometer 0 Works by pressure reading by rise and fall of quotmercuryquot Air 0 78 Nitrogen O 2 Oxygen 0 Little Bit of co2 0 Smaller Amount of Methane Charles Rhicter 0 Created Magnitude Scale 0 Used to use Intensity Scale ONLY worked when near a city Paul Cane O Sitting in canoe with Native Americans painting Mt St Helens Highly Improbable Events BLACK SWANS 0 Stock Market Crash NO ONE EXPECTED IT TO HAPPEN Rain Shadows 0 Big cloud of water 0 Blows towards mountains 0 As air rises cools condenses rains I Windward Side 0 Other side of the mountain GETS very little rain Mt St Helens Mt Pinatuvo Philipenes Krakatau Charles Darwin Domestication Natural Selection 0 Thomas Malthus 17661834 0 Essay On Population Geometric population growth I Arithmetic resource increase I War famine strife 1859 Origin of Species Timeline 0 466yr formation of crust O 386yr first evidence of oceans O 366yr first life Prokaryotic Heterotrophic Prokaryotes 0 Very small cells 0 Very simple structure I No nucleus I No complex organelles 0 Kingdom Monera Basic Energy Metabolism O Heterotrophic Methanogens I Anaerobic I Aerobic O Autotrophic I Chemosynthesis I Photosynthesis Calories Energy Autotrophic self feeder can also capture other energy and BUILD these energies Photosynthesis Heterotrophic can not build molecules from outside source must get them from other sources other heterotrophs or autotophs first to appear in the history feed off of the remains from the origin of life ATP when they need it they make it can not store it I Made by breaking down Photosynthesis First fundamental basic kind 6C Sugars Glucose l A lt 2 ATP 2 3C A lt Many ATP A lt 12 H 6 C02 Early Heterotrophs break up the molecules that were left from origins of life and quickly made complex waste products quickly running out of useful molecules TIMELINE I 46 Gyr formation of crust 38 Gyr first evidence of oceans I 36 Gyr first life I 35 Gyr Chemosynthesis I 34 Gyr photosynthesis 25 Gyr Hydrogen crisis quot 20 Gyr Oxygen crisis Photolysis 6C Sugars Glucose A ATP 23C A lt Many ATP lt 12 H 6O lt 6 H20 A 6C02 Aerobic Metabolism 6C Sugars Glucose gt 2ATP 23C gt12H302 gt 6HZO gt 34 ATP 6C02 Total ATP 36 Euka ryotic cells I Largeto Very Large Complex Organelles I Nucleus I Mitochondria Chloroplasts quotFern Spikequot Tschudy O KT Impact I Bump in the graph 70100 O O O Disturbance and Ecological Succession I Disturbance I Fire I After the fire plantsanimals will come back animals follow the plants Clearly a big disturbance that caused the fern spike Names Fern Spike Tschudy Effect I quotThequot Fern Spore Abundance Anomaly FSAA Anomaly something irregular quotThequot there are many of these quotanomaliesquot Ferns are Cretacious Plants Late Maastrichtian North American Paleogeography Chicxulub Impact Site Circular Impact Debris Kicks Out in direction of impact Not something that affected the whole world DINOSAURS BECOME EXTlNCT AT THE KT BOUNDRY Dinosaurs 0 O O O O 0 Plant Eaters Stegosaurus I Sauropods I Hadrosaurs I Ankylosaurs Ceratopsians I Styracosaurus I Chasmosaurus I Triceratops NonPlant Eaters I Struthiomimids Theropods Tyranosaurids Raptors Extinction I Disease Evolutionary Senescence I Climate change I Egg predation Asteroid impact C02 and Marine Food Webs Terrestrial KT Survivors Frogs and Salamanders I Most reptiles except Pterosaurs I Most birds I Most mammals Most plants Why were dinosaurs uniquely vulnerable o Dinosaur Trophic Webs Plants Available PTERIDOPHYTES Ferns and things related to ferns Ferns Lycopods Horsetails GYMNOSPERMS needlin lants with inecones Conifers Ginkgophytes CycadsCycadeoids ANGIOSPERMS Flowering Plantsl Monocots Palms Woody Dicots Herbaceous Dicots Flowering plants take over and dominate Dinosaurs had lived on fernsneedle plants Flowers Pollination Seed Dispersal Flowering plants use animals to do both of these things quickly and easily reproduce They can do nothing Flowering Plants Significance 0 NOT coevolution O Coopted PredatorPrey System 0 Animallike attributes Audio recording started 253 PM Tuesday April 17 2012 4172012wma What if they didn39t switch Mummified Hadrosaurs February 14 2012 ISP 203A Professor Taggart 0 Start of New notes for exam 2 March 22 Location 2 John Milne 18501913 gt Ancestor to all famous 39 Said to start recording earthquakes 39 Encouraged a lot of people to create a 39 One place where all three places lap 0 Approximate epicenter 39 Can locate an earthquake from a ReidCalifornia 1906 Role of Faults 2 Fires a company earthquake 2 Most banks sat on their money in vaults 2 Big Earthquake for the US 2 2 Italian citizens put up tables and put up loans gt 95 of loans were paid back gt This made a huge impact gt This turned in to Bank of America quotGeologist of the name Reid quot39 Did study 2 big blocks of land move 2 Faut Is a fracture along which rock on one side has moved relative to rock on the other side gt Can shift big blocks of lands 2 By looking the faults he saw that the earth s movements resulted in the movement of the faults lines 2 Sudden release of energy is what is responsible for the waves that cause the earthquakes Mercalli lX Intensity Scale 2 10pt intensity scale gt Using the degree of which the buildings were damaged Charles Richter1935 2 Magnitudegt the energy that was released during the event gt Swave amplitude amp travel timeMagnitude gt It s based on a logarithmic scale 39 Ex a 70 magnitude earthquake is 10X stronger than a 60 magnitude Eq gt Why the governments want to have semiotic world maps 39 Atomic bombs if a country makes a nuclear explosion we can see the destruction it causes Plate Tectonics 2 A singular theory that answers gt What causes volcanoes gt What causes Earthquakes Alfred Wegener quotContinental Drift 2 The continents ofthe earth have changed their position over time gt There was a time when all the continents formed a super continent 39 Evidence There is a bed in South America amp South Africa where the fossil remains of the freshwater reptile are found in both parts 0 A plant fossils found in Australia Antarctica India Africa amp South America showing that all Southern continents were once joined gt A fundament basaltic crust that is made of tectonic plates gt Mountains tend to form along continental plates


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All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.