Global Change ISP 203A
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Mckenzie Labadie on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISP 203A at Michigan State University taught by O. Hernandez in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/207725/isp-203a-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Physical at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
1 Be familiar with combustion reactants and products A chemical reaction between hydrocarbons and oxygen that results in the production of carbon dioxide and water ECOSYSTEM f Fh otusynthesisx r in chloroplasts 39 Organic col H20 molecules 02 Cellular respiration in mitochondria J ATPpowers I most cellular work 7777777777 Ii1amp5quot W quotdunkidw energy 3 Be familiar with photosynthesis and cellular respiration See 2 4 Be familiar with how the carbon cycle is being altered Cycle has been altered by the burning of coal oil and natural gas since the industrial revolution in the mid 1700s U l Know greenhouse gas emissions by gas AND by source Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Gas Fgases l Nitrous 0 d Methane I 4 Carbon Dioxide Cn maxilla f ssil nl use 57 9 77 coZ Dioxide other 3 Source WC 2007 Based on Klohal emissions from 2004 6 Be familiar with the EPAs greenhouse gas reporting program data a Amount of COze emitted in 2012 and 2013 3 Billon Metric tons b Powerplant contribution to C02 emitted 2 Billion Metric Tons c Proportion of facilities emitting 76 of reported 2012 emissions 10 9 0 H H H N Know pledge by US and China regarding C02 emissions China will curtail carbon dioxide emissions so that they would peak around 2030 Mr Obama pledged that the United states would cut emissions by at least 26 from 2005 levels by 2025 Know proportion of world s C02 emitted by US and China 40 Know 3 numbers from Do TheMath video what they are and what they mean 2 degrees Warming above 2 degrees would be unsafe 565 Gigatons Humans can pour 656 more gigatons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and still have some reasonable hope of staying below 2 degrees 2795 Gigatons The Carbon Tracker Initiative Estimates that proven coal oil and gas reserves of the fossilfuel companies and the countries think Venezuela or Kuwait that act like fossilfuel companies equals about 2795 gigatons of C02 or five times the amount we can release to maintain 2 degrees of warming Know 2 features of Bill McKibben s divestment plan from the Do The Math Video Basically hoping that Countries cities Universities and you yourself will pull your money away from oil companies Know why the following statement is misleading quotWith a history of 60 years after nearly a million wells drilled there are no documented cases that hydraulic fracturing has led to the contamination ofwater Fracking has been around for 60 years but over that 60 years it has changed in magnitude due to increasing technology and of course increase in actual fracking Know difference between weather and climate Weather Short term changes in the atmosphere Climate Long Term Know 3 global climate zones Polar Zone Temperate Zone Tropical Zone 14 Be familiar with earth s orbit from the point of the northern hemisphere Earth s Orbit March equinox neither NightS longer than days pole tilts toward the sun Nights get shorter 5 December 71 Sepiember 39Vi nter solstice Norihe rn hemisphere tilts Summersolsiice awa from the Northern hemisphere tilts toward the sun September equmox neither pole tilts toward 23 5 15 Be familiar with Milankovitch cycles eccentricity obliquity precession Eccentricity The shape of the orbit around the sun which affects the EarthSun distance The cycle takes about 10000 years obliquity Changes in the angle that Earth s axis makes with the plane of Earth s orbit The cycle that averages about 40000 years Precession The change in the direction of the Earth s axis of rotation The cycle averages about 23000 years 16 Know how distance from equator affects global temperature precipitation and direction of prevailing winds Highertemperatures lower winds closer to the equator Lower temperatures higher winds further away from the equator Wetter in subtropical polar equatorial lows 17 Know how ocean currents and topography can affect climate Warm Southern waters move to Northern ocean areas and release heat into atmosphere Mountain ranges force air to rise along the windward side of the range clouds form and precipitation falls 0n the leeward other side dry air descends and warms Little precipitation falls on this side creating a rain shadow 18 Know what kind of waves sun emits and proportion that are re ected or absorbed ShortWave Radiation Ultraviolet visible short wave infrared 30 re ected 6 by atmosphere 20 by clouds 4 Earth s surface 70 absorbed 19 Know albedo Albedo indicates how well a surface re ects solar energy Ranges 01 0 absorbs all incoming energy perfect absorber 1 reflects all incoming energy perfect reflector Earth39s albedo 031 N 0 Know composition ofdry atmosphere NZ 02 Ar C02 N2 4W 02 20947 Ar 0934 C02 0033 N 1 Know what ppm refers to Parts Per Million 22 Know howtroposphere changes as you go up in elevation Temperature decreases with height 23 Know greenhouse effect greenhouse gasses Most ofthe emitted longave radiation warms the lower atmosphere which in turn warms our planet39s surface N 4 Know how greenhouse gasses trap heat Heat resulting from the absorption ofincoming shortwave radiation is emitted as longwave radiation into space N m Know what temperature measures Temperature is a measure ofaverage kinetic energy N 0 Know and feedback loops Negative feedback ends to minimize the effect of a are Positive Izzdhackrends to image the effect nia disturbance and return n the manual 5 disturbance and ramming to me nonnal Stale isalmost impassmie mil WEE inmai Change Climate warming Climate warming inuemd S 3 Cooling increased evapomim increased atmospheric ud cover watervapor reasedincnming Lincreasedgreenhouse A Dec solar radiation lalhednl napping oi radiation 27 Know how carbon moves between atmosphere and life photosynthesis and respiration Carbon cycle and how we have altered that cycle F r Hquot V 1 soil mrhnn 230m z dnnp man 17mm fossil urban unmm runnivu sndimuus 6mm 28 Know what the Keeling curve represents and the general trend in the curve Increase in C02 on Earth 29 Know why the Keeling curve varies on an annual cycle C02 in the atmosphere depends on Earth39s distance from the Sun 30 Know how the average 10 year growth rate in C02 levels measured at Mauna Loa has changed since the late 50s Atmospheric C02 has increased from 300ppm to 400ppm 31 Know what the average growth rate of C02 was during 2000 2010 at Mauna Loa 15 ppm to 19ppm 32 Know how atmospheric C02 levels pre1958 were determined Ice Cores C02 found in air bubbles trapped in ice 33 How are C02 and global temperatures related More C02 higher global temperatures 34 What is the trend in average global temperature since the late 1800s Going up Getting hotter 35 How much has temperature changed since the late 1800s Went from 57 degrees to 585 degrees Fahrenheit 36 What is heat capacity How does heat capacity for water compare to that of air Heat Capacity Specific heat of an object regardless of mass Ocean waters have responded more slowly than land air environments 37 How much has ocean warmed 0302 degrees Fahrenheit 38 What kinds of effects does ocean warming have on ocean food webs Areas where temperature has risen are the same places where phytoplankton 5 Earth39s Systems Plate Tectonics 1122013 4 58 00 AM System gbup ufmlemelaledpans mamng farms whale Gmspbm Ruck suhdand mbuen Aunnsphzm Gasses surmundmg mnh Bhsphzm meg b msms Hydmspbm Water xqmdand fmzen Earth39s systErns mismclthmugq the mqumEnt brbmsxgy and mm Manet has energy and takes up wane Enzxgy basmesapamym duwurk urmass p umlara um um Density numba39 Cumpusmun ufEanh39s Almnsphzre d n Wm r r spmm V Mm mm canon an nun mum me Muhammaan Archan We used an mtegunze by phenulype wbam luuks 11kg nuW by gmmype lenhnulugy Strude ufthe Planet Censphzm Carer 15 vulume bun Nxckel and Umummembnus1ear rachuns pruduces hat anus 783 wlume Mbueanmd mnk muvmg Cnlslr suhd cumpused uf plate 39 nals un manna 7 a V7 Diverse plate boundaries A tectonic boundary where two plates are moving away from each other and new crust is formng from magma that rises to the Earth39s surface between the two plates Convergent plate boundary A tectonic boundary where two plates are moving toward each other If the two plates are of equal density they usually push up against each other forming a mountain chain If they are of unequal density one plate usually sinks beneath the other in a subduction zone Oceanicoceanic plate boundary When two oceanic plates converge one is usually subducted under the other and in the process a deep oceanic trench is formed The Marianas Trench for example is a deep trench created Oceanic continental plate boundary When an oceanic plate pushes into and subducts under a continental plate the overriding continental plate is lifted up and a mountain range is created Continental continental plate boundary When two continents meet headon neither is subducted because the continental rocks are relatively light and like two colliding icebergs resist downward motion Instead the crust tends to buckle and be pushed upward or sideways Transform plate boundary a plate boundary along which plates slide past one another and crust is neither produced nor destroyed Transform fault a fault along which one type ofmotion is transformed into another commonly displaces oceanic ridges on land recognized as a strikeslip fault such as the San Andreas fault 2 Kinds of Crust 0 Continental Igneous Granite Large Crystals Less Dense 3045 miles thick older 0 Oceanic Igneous Basalt Small Crystals More Dense 45 miles thick younger Continental Drift all land masses were originally united in a single supercontinent Pangaea 0 Proposed by Alfred Wegener 1915 o Lacked a mechanism to explain HOW the continents moved apart PERM AN 25a mwion yearsaga 0 Evidence Continental Ht Continental drift The gradual movement of the continents across the earth39s surface through geological time Sea oor spreading the theory that the venom mu e awa f rom pi cau iu consumed at seduction zones Evidence Glacial Till and Striations Evidence Fossils mass m mum ga mamm Plate Tectonics o PangaeaA vast supercontinentcomprising all the continental crust of the earth 250 million years ago What Drives Plate Tectonics Cunent Theory Thermal Convection Mzdccsamc ridge Conlmanla mmmmm Thermal convection cell A distinct volume of circulating uid in a uid medium under gravity that is heated from below and cooled from above usually found in large groupings Plate tectonic theory theory holding that large segments of earth s outer part lithospheric plates more relative to one another Hot spot A location zone of melting below the lithosphere that probably overlies a mantle plume Evidence Magnetic Reversals and Sea oor Spreading Geographlc nunh pole Magne c nonh pole x Iron inside of a magnetic eld Magnetism The property of being magnetic Magnetic eld A region around a magnetic material or a moving electric charge Within which the force of magnetism acts Curie point the temperature above which a ferromagnetic substance loses its ferromagnetism and becomes paramagnetic Paleomagnetism The study of the remnant magnetization in rocks The earth39s magnetic field as it existed in the past Magnetic reversalsphenomena involving the complete reversal of the north and south poles Magnetic anomaly a departure from the normal magnetic field of the earth Evidence Geologically Active Zones An xdeal tenanttn WWW Ill ttttt me uWa n m Rnek eyele representataon of event leadmg to the ongm destruetaon and orchanges and m h Vle V and eonsolrdates wnen magma cools mrnera1s erystame andtnen goes to sedAmentary rock w nr tntt tt uof mrnera1matter from squtron orfrom eompaetaon o p1ant or amma1 remams rms at ornear earth39s surface andvery unusua1 39 h heat pressure andtne enemrea1 aetamty of auras ressure grves the rock alayered orbanded appearanee Glassnpteris Genus offossxlxzedwoody plants known from rocks that have been datedto the Penman and Tnassre peno s o Deposrted on the southern supereontanent of Gondwanamost 0 Common fossil is that is of a tongue shaped leaf with prominent midrib and reticulate venation 1122013 45800 AM
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