Global Change ISP 203A
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Mckenzie Labadie on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISP 203A at Michigan State University taught by Grahame Larson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/207729/isp-203a-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Physical at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
GLOSSARY FOR LECTURE 13 DANSGAARD OESCHGER EVENTS Sudden and shortlived signi cant warm events during the last glacial phase that are recorded in Greenland icecore oxygen isotope records EEMIAN WARM STAGE 7 Term used to de ne last interglacial phase in Europe HEINRICK EVENTS Sudden and shortlived extreme cold events during the last glacial phase represented by bands of icerafted debris in the North Atlantic marine record Also recorded in Greenland icecore oxygenisotope records ICE RAFTING 7 Process by which debris gets carried out to see by ice bergs which subsequently melt causing debris to settle on the sea oor LITTLE ICE AGE EVENT 7 A sudden widespread cooling event over lands around north Atlantic that occurred between 700 and 200 years ago PENULTIMATE INTERGLACIAL PHASE 7 The last interglacial phase that occurred about 125000 years ago SANGAMON INTERGLACIAL Term used to de ne last interglacial phase in eastern North America WEICHSELIAN COLD STAGE 7 Term used to de ne the last glacial phase in Europe WISCONSIN GLACIATION Term used to de ne the last glacial phase in eastern North America YOUNGER DRYAS EVENT 7 A sudden widespread cooling event that occurred globally about 129001 1500 years ago GLOSSARY FOR LECTURE 14 BARRIER ISLAND Island separated by from the mainland by a salt marsh It generally consists of a multiple system of beach ridges and is separated from other barrier islands by inlets that allow exchange of seawater with lagoon water BAY A body of water partly enclosed by land BAYMOUTH BAR A sandbar that completely crosses a bay sealing it off from the main body of water BEACH FACE The part of the beach environment that is a nearly planar part of the beach pro le below the berm and normally exposed to the swash action from waves BERM The relatively at part of a beach pro le produced by deposition from waves the part of the beach where people sunbathe BLUFF A vertical face composed of soil material WAVE OF OSSILATION A water wave in which water particles follow a circular path with little forward motion WAVE OF TRANSITION BREAKER A water wave in which the individual particles of water move in the direction of wave travel as in a broken wave DUNE A mound bank ridge or hill of loose windblown granular material generally sand either bare or covered with vegetation It is capable of moving but maintains its characteristic shape DROWNED VALLEY A river valley ooded by the sea when sea level rises or land subsides ESTUARY A tunnel shaped inlet of the sea that formed when a rise in sea level or subsidence of land caused the mouth of a river to be ooded Along the seashore the commonly contain a miX of salt and fresh water GLACIAL LOADING AND UNLOADING The subsidence or rebound of the earth s crust due to the addition or removal of an ice mass GROIN A structure designed to protect shorelines and trap sediment in the zone of littoral drift generally constructed perpendicular to the shoreline HEADLAND A coastal point of land that juts out into the sea LAGOON A protected body of water separated from the sea by a reef or barrier island LITTORAL TRANSPORT Refers to the transport of sediment in the nearshore environment as a result of the action of waves on the land LONGSHORE BAR Elongated depression and adjacent ridge of sand roughly parallel to shore produced by wave action LONGSHORE CURRENTS A current of water and moving sediment that develops in the surf zone as the result of waves that strike the land at an angle PLUNGING TUBULAR BREAKER A type of wave that strikes a shoreline with a relatively steep beach profile associated with beach erosion RIDGE AND RUNNLE A crest and trough caused by a series of offshore bars RIP CURRENT Backwash ow perpendicular to the shore out to deep water RIPRAP A layer or assemblage of broken stones placed to protect an embankment against erosion by running water or breaking waves SEA ARCH An arch formed by wave erosion when caves on opposite sides of a headland unite SEA CAVE Cave cut into headland or cliff by wave action SEA STACK An isolated mass of rock standing just offshore produced by wave erosion of a headland SEAWALL Engineering structure constructed at the water s edge to minimize coastal erosion by wave activity SEICHE A periodic standingwave oscillation of the water surface in an enclosed water body such as a lake SPILLING BREAKER 7 A type of wave associated with the deposition of sand on a beach and a shoreline with relatively low slope SPIT A long ridge of sand deposited by longshore current and drift where the coast takes an abrupt inward turn It is attached to land at the upstream end SURGE A localized increase in the water level of an ocean or large lake It is commonly associated with storms TECTONIC MOVEMENT Uplift or subsidence of the earth s crust caused by tectonic forces TIDAL FLAT A broad at region of muddy or sandy sediment covered and uncovered with each tidal cycle TOMBOLO A ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland or another island WAVE BASE The depth at which the movement of water molecules in waves becomes negligible The effective lower limit of wave motion which is half of wave length WAVE CUT CLIFF A seaward facing cliff along a steep shoreline formed by wave erosion at its base and mass wasting WAVE LENGTH Refers to the horizontal length between successive crests of waves WAVE CUT PLATFORM A bench or shelf along a shore at sea level cut by wave erosion WAVE REFRACTION The bending of water waves as they encounter different depths and bottom conditions or of other waves as they pass from one medium to another of different properties GLOSSARY FOR LECTURE 15 ANAEROBIC Describes that which occurs without using or in absence of oxygen ANTHRACITE The hardest of naturally occurring coals It contains more than 90 percent fixed carbon and has the highest heat value of all coals ANTICLINAL TRAP Petroleum trap formed when layers of rock of varying porosity are folded into an arch and petroleum accumulates within the arch BITUMEN Any natural mixture of solid and semisolid hydrocharbons as asphalt BITUMINOUS COAL A black sedimentary rock that is the intermediate grade of coal and contains 60 to 90 percent xed carbon CENOZOIC Geologic era spanning the time from 66 million years ago to present COAL A solid carbon rich fuel formed from the remains of land plants through the efforts of heat and pressure in the earth s crust DIATOMS Any of various marine and freshwater plankton whose walls contain silica FAULT TRAP A petroleum trap in which a fault has juxtaposed permeable and impermeable rocks so that petroleum accumulates in the permeable rocks FIXED CARBON The percent carbon within coal FORAMINIFERA Surface and deepsea protozoa with calcium carbonate shells FOSSIL FUELS Combustible deposits of altered organic materials such as coal crude oil and natural gas HYDROCARBON An organic compound containing only hydrogen and carbon hydrocarbons may be solid liquid or gas and are major components of coal crude oil and natural gas KEROGEN A waxy solid hydrocarbon in oil shale LIGNITE BROWN COAL The softest of the coals with the least fixed carbon NATURAL GAS 7 A gaseous hydrocarbon speci cally methane CH2 NONRENEWABLE Not being replenished or formed at any significant rate on a human timescale OIL Any of various liquid hydrocarbon OIL SHALE A sedimentary rock containing the waxy solid hydrocarbon kerogen PEAT A brown lightweight unconsolidated or semiconsolidated deposit of plant remains PINCH OUT TRAP A petroleum trap in which upward thinning permeable rock is juxtaposed by impermeable rocks so that petroleum accumulates in the permeable rock PHYTOPLANKTON Microscopic plants that oat at the ocean surface RESERVOIR ROCK 7 A rock that is sufficiently porous and permeable to store and transmit petroleum REEF TRAP A petroleum trap in which porous fossil reefs bounded by impermeable rocks trap petroleum SALT DOME TRAP A petroleum trap in which salt forms large impermeable domeshaped masses trap petroleum along their walls SOURCE ROCK A rock containing organic matter that is converted to petroleum by burial and other postdepositional changes STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP A petroleum trap produced from a change in character of the reservoir rock rather than from structural deformation TAR SAND A sandy deposit containing tarry organic matter from which hydrocarbons can be extracted WILD CAT DRILLING Exploratory drilling with hope of discovery of a new oil eld ZOOPLANKTON 7 Microscopic animals that oat on the ocean surface GLOSSARY FOR LECTURE 16 ACID MINE DRAINAGE The acid runoff from a mine or mine waste ENHANCED SECONDARY OIL RECOVERY Production of oil or gas by arti cially stimulating a depleted reservoir with water gas steam or other uids in order to mobilize the remaining hydrocarbons GAS DRIVING Production of oil or gas by arti cially stimulating a depleted reservoir with gas in order to mobilize the remaining hydrocarbons GEOPRESSURIZED ZONES Deep porous rocks under unusually high pressure exceeding normal hydrostatic uid pressure Water in such rocks may contain large quantities of natural gas METHANE HYDRATES Crystalline solids of gas and water found to be abundant in arctic regions and in marine sediments These solids may provide a signi cant source of natural gas RADON GAS 7 A radioactive gas emitted in the breakdown of uranium SILTATION The settling out of silt in stream channels and in lakes SLANT DRILLING Drilling other than in the vertical direction STEAM DRIVING Production of oil or gas by arti cially stimulating a depleted reservoir with steam in order to mobilize the remaining hydrocarbons WATER DRIVING Production of oil or gas by arti cially stimulating a depleted reservoir with water in order to mobilize the remaining hydrocarbons STRIP MINING 7 A mining technique whereby the material sought is exposed by stripping away the overburden GLOSSARY FOR LECTURE 17 ACTIVE SOLAR Solar energy generation involving mechanical transfer of heat BIOMASS Organic material currently being produced on the earth s surface BIOMASS POWER 7 Harnessed energy from BREEDER REACTOR A ssion reactor that generate nuclear fuel BURNER REACTORS A fission reactor that only consumes nuclear fuel DRY STEAM Natural steam associated with geothermal energy FISSION POWER Harnessed energy derived from the splitting apart of atomic nuclei FUSION POWER Harnessed energy derived when two or more smaller atomic nuclei combine to form a larger one GASOHOL Liquid fuel consisting of a mixture of gasoline and alcohol GEOTHERMAL POWER Harnessed energy derived from heat generated within the earth HOT DRY ROCK 7 Geothermally heated rock in the subsurface HOT WATER Geothermally heated water in the subsurface HYDROPOWER Harnessed energy derived from the movement of water on the earth s surface PASSIVE SOLAR Solar energy generation involving no mechanical transfer of heat PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS 7 Electronic devices that convert photons to electrical energy PLUTONIUM 239 A fissionable isotope of Plutonium SOLAR POWER Harnessed energy in the form of heat or electricity derived from sunlight TIDAL POWER Harnessed energy derived from tidal movement of the oceans URANIUM 235 A fissionable isotope of uranium YELLOWCAKE Ore for uranium consisting of uranium oxide
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