Water and the Environment
Water and the Environment ISP 217
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ISP 217 Exam 3 Review 111010 837 PM Review Questions The water in a bog is like cola except for which of the following A low in dissolved organic matter B high in pH C low in H D brown in color Which of the following are acids that result from the burning of fossil fuels A H2804 and HN03 B H2504 and NH3 C 802 and HN03 D H2504 and CH4 Which of the following statements is most accurate A 502 emissions come mostly from vehicles N0x emissions come mostly from power electricity generation B 502 emissions come mostly from manufacturing N0x emissions come mostly from vehicles C the N in N0x comes mostly from N2 in the air D none of the above are accurate The pH of unpolluted rain is mildly acidic because of what atmospheric gas A carbon dioxide B oxygen C nitrogen D sulfur dioxide The water in a bog is like cola because A it is high in sugar B it is high in H ions C it has a high pH D it has a lot of empty calories Which of the following chemical species is a major anthropogenic source of acid precipitation A 802 B CH4 C C02 D P04 Which of the following are sources of sulfur dioxide emissions A power plants B cars C forest fires D volcanoes E all of the above Which of the following statements best describes the largest source of ANC in freshwaters A weathering of limestone B weathering of pyrite C erosion of limestone D erosion of pyrite E weathering of granite Tall smokestacks A exacerbated local pollution problems B resulted in a reduction in sulfur emissions C resulted in air pollutants being transported long distances D all of the above Lake Ontario did not become more acidic over the 20th Century because A the water in the lake has a high concentration of bicarbonate HC03 B the pH of precipitation in the lake39s watershed is typically above 56 C power plants in the Midwest primarily burn natural gas D Lake Ontario has a high flushing rate Atmospheric pollutants that led to acidification of lakes in the Adirondack mountains of northern New York state has come primarily from A New York City B New England C the Ohio Valley D Toronto and Montreal E local forest fires The LC50 A is a measure of the chronic effects of a toxin B is a measure of the acute effects of a toxin C tends to increase as the length of the experiment increases D none of the above The most toxic substances known to man are A strong biomagnifiers B strong bioconcentrators C natural in origin D heavy metals Which of the following toxic chemicals has the greatest persistence A mercury B PCBs with 4 chlorines atoms per molecule C PCBs with 5 chlorine atoms per molecule D DDT Which of the following best describes the relationship between bio concentration factors and water solubilities of toxic chemicals A positive relationship B negative relationship C no relationship D relationship is not known Given what you know about bioaccumulation in general which would you recommend to someone who asks you which type of fish is the safest to eat with respect to toxic contamination A lowfat fish that eat plankton B lowfat fish that eat other fish C high fat fish that eat plankton D high fat fish that eat other fish Toxic heavy metals are like phosphorus in that A they are required by organisms in small amounts B they are not required by organisms C they occur in organic and inorganic forms D they can exist as gases An old house and drinking water with a low pH is a dangerous combination because of which toxic chemical A PCB B mercury C lead D dioxin Atlantic City is warmer than San Francisco in July because it is closer to the equator it is further south it is closer to north moving ocean currents it is closer to south moving ocean currents 0093 l Nino events originate in the pacific ocean affect Michigan weather reduce nutrient supply and devastate fisheries in Peru nwpm D all of the above ISP 217 Exam 3 Review Sarnelle 111010 837 PM Acidification Part 1 3 pH DpHlogH opH 06 acidic opH 7 neutral opH 814 basic Dacids oan acid increases the H of water decreases pH ocommon acids H2C03 carbonic acid nIn unpolluted rain C02 H20 HN03 nitric acid H2504 sulfuric acid oWhat do all three acids have in common chemically H acidity is determined by H 0 burningerespirationproduced by combustion 00rganic acids Decomposition of refractory detritus leaves etc nCause of brown stain Refractory slow to decompose DBogs 08095 are naturally acidic Sphagnum moss acidloving plant Cranberries Few animals can survive in acidic water oWatershed Sandy soils No limestone Low ANC oWater in bog is similar to cocacola Low pH nAcidic Color nBrown stain Dissolved organic matter nSugarcarbon DSources of acidity oNatural sources Dissolved C02 carbonic acid 0rganic acids decay of refractory detritus Gases from natural combustion forest fires volcanoes oAnthropogenic sources Gasses from combustion of fossil fuels nSulfur dioxide S02 DS is in the fuel impurity DS is found primarily in coal DLowest S 9 highest S DNatural gas oil coal Nitrogen oxides NOx DN comes from the air N2 DHigher temperature 9 more NOx oSources S02 primarily from power utilities nPlaces that generate electricity NOx primarily from transportation oWhat happens to combustion gases when they dissolve in water C02 H20 9 H2CO3 carbonic acid NOx H20 9 HNO3 nitric acid S02 H20 9 H2SO4 sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide emissions in the US nStarted rising with industrial revolution nWent down with great depression but rose with WWII nCoal burning in Ohio Valley nPeaked and then lowered after clean air act 1972 along with earth day endangered species act etc nsee slide 16 Nitrogen oxide emissions in the US nCaused by cars nLess important when it comes to acidity than sulfuric acid DSpatial distribution of acid deposition oTall smokestacks Solution to pollution is dilution oAcid rain acid deposition Gasses in air dissolve into water and fall oWind flows west to east in north America olluted rain to north east L l DSources of acidity oAnthropogenic sources from below Acid mine draining nPyrite FeS2 H20 02 9 H2SO4 Flows over rocks minerals dissolve nWeathering leaching nMetals Fe Al Zn Cu Pb Cd As DReddish color Can wipe out aquatic habitats easily DAcidification oLake Erie and Michigan are not affected by acid rain Acid Neutralizing Capacity ANCtums oExperiment Bottle 1 lake Ontario nLimestone watershed tums nRemains blue when acid is added nTums buffers water n3x acid no change in pH nFISH HAPPY Bottle 2 big moose lake NYAdirondacks nTurns yellow when acid is added nlx acid big drop in pH nFISH DIE pH indicator dye nblue pH gt5 nyellow pH lt 4 Ddissolved substances ohardness acid rain oinorganic carbon system bicarbonate buffering C02 1 H20 ltgt H2CO3 ltgt H I HCO3 6 Some of added H combines with bicarbonate nPrevents the pH from dropping too much when acid is added buffers the pH oBicarbonate Comes from limestone in watershed from weathering nLimestone in watershed DWellbuffered freshwater system DHard water oExperiment Lake erieOntario nLimestone in watershedhigh ANC Adirondacks nLittle limestonelow ANC DMany bogs as a result oThe lower the pH the less fish DWeathering oAcidity speeds up weathering Dissolved minerals nCa Fe Al etc Al most prominent oEffects New York fish population in 40 adirondack lakes n1930 s few lakes without fish DpH of 68 for most fish n1975 majority of lakes have no fish DpH was too low nfish can live in pH of 6 limestone statues become blobs in 50 years ISOZ and NOx contribute to smog nRespiratory problems in humans nacid precipitation can damage forests NOX deposition alters nutrient balance in forests N03 Nitrogen cycle HNO3 from atmosphere is taken up by plants Part 2 2 Arguments against regulating 502 and NOx emissions D1 Acidification is a natural process ohave currently acidic lakes always been acidic oDid currently acidic lakes become acidic after the industrial revolution Acidity majorly increased after industrial revolution oReconstruct the pH history of lakes Step 1 find group of organisms with these attributes nNarrow pH tolerance DSample lakes with different pH s DAbundance of species versus pH of lake DThis abundance of species acts as the index of pHindicator species ograph on slide 8 ifA is present and F is not then it is automatically assumed that the lake has a low pH nleave identifiable fossils in lake sediment Ddiatoms microscopic algae oshell is made of silica glass Dslide 11 diatomaceous earth odeposits of diatoms from ocean create rock bottom is deposited long ago Step 2 identify diatom fossils in sediment core nPaleoreconstruction of past diatom abundance nSpecies found in sediment coring in 1800 s is extinct and replaced by 1981 from increase in acidity D2 Acidification is not reversible osource reduction oClean Air Act EPA Since 1970 602 emissions decreased by 11000 tonsyear NOX emissions increased since then DLess NOx per vehiclemile but more vehicles more miles more NOx DMore trucks less of a limit on NOx ohow effective Decreases in 502 emissions change in acidity of precipitation slide 24 sedimentation core depth graph nquick recovery concluding that acidification effects are reversible oaffects of acidifiction in lake pH lowers secchi depth phytoplankton dies making lake clearer crustacean species died down but started to recover incredibly slowly brown trout died out and can t return unless put in D3 it s too expensive opredictions were way over what the actual cost was 13 less than assumed cost continued to decrease over time opower plants reduced emissions lower than legal requirements ocap and trade policy emissions trading policy ninvest in pollutioncontrol technology nreduce emissions below requirements usell excess control credits DPROFIT ISP 217 Exam 2 Review 111010 837 PM Toxic Pollution 2 Toxin DA chemical that has 11 E negative effects on the survival or health of an individual organism DA poisonous chemical DNot toxins othese are not toxins although they can have negative effects on organism survival or health Phosphorous nFish die out when lakes become too productive lpH nmany aquatic species die out when pH decreases sediments ntrout egg can suffocate when sediments clog gravel Dnontoxic manmade organic chemicals opolyester leisure suits opolyethylene Ziploc bags onylon nylons oTeflon pots oPolycarbonate water bottles oPropylene glycol food additive antifreeze Dtypes of toxins otoxic elements heavy metals all natural omanmade organic compounds onatural organic compounds phytoplankton toxins 2 measuring toxicity DLDSO lethal dose oDose at which 50 of the population die oLower LD50 greater toxicity toxicity DDose amount ingested oUsually expressed per unit body weight of the organism oExample mgkg DTable on slide 5 DFor aquatic organisms oLC50 lethal concentration concentration at which 50 of the population die oTCSO toxicity concentration Concentration at which 50 show some toxic effect oExamples of toxic effects that are not immediately lethal Cancer Birth defects Reproductive problems sterility Neurological behavioral problems DMeasures of toxicity LD50 LC50 TC50 should be qualified by time of exposure oExample 48hour LC50 Lethal number that died after 48 hours oGraph on slide 9 The longer organisms are exposed the more they die at each dose the lower the LC50 is DSome examples of a shortterm toxicity graph on slide 10 oMeasured as probable lethal dose because nothing is measured directly on humans through experiment oBotulism All natural Most toxic substance on earth LD50109 LD50 of botulism toxin in mice n000001 mgkg LD50 of botulism toxin in humans n0001 mgone grain of table salt what is it nForms in air tight spaces cans and when they get dentsstart to expand from excess air botulism is present oEthanol and PCBs LD50 gt5000 Ethanol has a lower LD50 than PCBs so why has the US banned the production of PCBs but not ethanol nLD50 measures acute toxicity but have chronic long term effects UPCB s cause cancer and birth defects nEthanol is toxic but causes instant damage in a daydirect if consumption exceeds limits oChronic longterm toxicity Example fish consumption advisories for the Great Lakes chronic effects of PCBs Acute toxicity may not be a reliable indicator of chronic toxicity Chronic toxicity is more difficult and expensive to measure than acute toxicity 2 Toxic pollution DPersistence resistance to break down oToxic elements heavy metals Infinite persistence oManmade organic compounds Persistence depends on nReactivity more inert more persistent nSolubility less soluble in watermore persistent DBioaccumulation oConcentration of toxin is higher in the organisms than in the water oBioaccumulation mechanisms Bioconcentration nSimple chemical partitioning between the aquatic medium water and the body fluids of the organism nPrimary mechanism of bioaccumulation in most aquatic organisms nTravel through pathways into and out of organisms DThings diffuse through the surface of aquatic organisms DGills efficient way of getting oxygen into body and C02 out of the body and take up compounds Biomagnifications oMeasuring bioconcentration potential Bioconcentration factor BF nExpose organisms to very low not lethal concentration of toxin nTake samples of the water and the organisms nMeasure toxins in water and in organisms nResult DOver time BF in fish increases and then reaches a state of equilibrium DBF in water remains constant Dslide 23 ubioconcentration factor concentration in fish concentration in water I requation Dnegatively related to water solubility oless soluble water higher BF oless soluble in water more soluble in lipids lipids fatsoils we can predict bioconcentration factors by measuring solubilities no organisms needed ooctanolwater partitioning coefficient Pow making salad dressing bioconcentration 9 chemical partitioning of toxin between organism and water the higher the Pow 9 the higher the concentration factor 9 the more it will affect when it comes back around ogiven that BF is positively related to lipid water positioning how should levels of bioconcentrating toxins vary among fish with different fat contents nBioconcentration will have a higher bioaccumulation because there is more storage space for toxins nFatter fish have higher BF Graph on slide 31 nBigger fish higher lipid nBigger fish higher DDT nFattier fish higher DDT What body part should have the highest levels of toxins nThe body parts with the most lipids fat nFattier tissue higher DDT except brain oSolubility of organic toxins We can predict octanolwater partitioning coefficient Pow from chemical structure Pow is determined by chlorine nThe more chlorine in a molecule the higher the Pow UPCB polychlorinated biphenyls nPow increases with the number of chlorine atoms in the molecule Part Two 2 Biomagnifications DConcentration of toxin within organisms increases up the food chain oOnce toxin is taken in it s stored in lipids and increases as it goes farther up the food chain Phytoplankton Zooplankton Fish Birdsbird eggs highest concentration oToxins are taken into lipids or excreted DIs determined by food consumption oUptake gt loss The uptake must be greater than what s lost Stored in body lipids oBigger fish are older taking in these toxins over longer period of time storing them in their increasing amount of lipidsfat DHigh biomagnifications result from oHigh persistence Low reactivity low water solubility oHigh uptake rate Rapidly assimilation oLow excretion rate Slowly metabolized DQ match fish amp whale to biomagnifications Vs bioconcentration oWhale biomagnification oFish bioconcentration oThe fish is a constantly taking up toxins and is eaten by the whale so the whale is getting the toxins specifically from the fish 2 Toxic elements heavy metals DCharacteristics oMore soluble at low pH see lead oBind to sediments higher concentrations in sediments than water oElement cycles inorganicorganic forms oHumans redistribute do not produce DType 1 potentially toxic at any dose oLead mercury cadmium arsenic DType 2 essential nutrients at low doses toxic at high doses oCopper zinc chromium selenium DLead Pb on plumbum one who works with lead plumber oDid lead in roman wine lead to the fall of the empire Acidic beverages in a lead cup oWorldwide lead is the most important heavymetal pollutant oUses Lead pipe not anymore Lead pigments in paint phased out but still in old houses Lead solder phased out but still in old things Lead gasoline phased out but still in sediment surrounding highwaysroads Leadacid batteries 1 use in US today Lead shot ammunition oFate of lead Binds to sediments in aquatic systems Human intake atmosphere food drinking water Inorganic lead stored in bones Organic lead stored in fatty tissue bioconcentration oMostly just found in drinking water now More soluble at low pH flush pipes before drinking Used as solder on pipes oEffects of lead Irreversible brain damage Learning disorders in children high sensitivity Anemia Lead poisoning of waterfowl intentionally eat lead shot Lead poisoning of scavangers inadvertently eat lead shot Kills them DMercury Hg oOnly metal that is liquid at room temperature oCan vaporize and be inhaled oElement cycles inorganicorganic forms oMeth l oran39 H most danerous form ll i i Elementalinorganic mercury isn t what is bad what it turns into methyl mercury is oUses of mercury Electrical devices switches light bulbs Antifouling paint boats Fungicide Production of bleach NaOCl and lye NaOH from salt NaCl with Hg as catalyst Gold mining separate gold from ore Tooth fillings amalgam with silver Thermometers Batteries oFate of mercury Elemental mercury is poorly absorbed by gut Elemental mercury is rapidly excreted Methyl mercury is rapidly absorbed by gut Methyl mercury is slowly excreted Swordfish nBF factor for methyl mercury 10000 in fish nBiomagnifications of methyl mercury leaves high levels of Hg in fish nDon t eat often oEffects of mercury Irreversible brain damage mad as a hatter Birth defects minimata disease oToxic organics anthropogenic Most aromatic hydrocarbon The more chlorine the more it bioconcentrates CI high BF bioconcentration factor Dtoxic pollution oDDT DDD Chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons Insecticides kills bugs Insecticidal properties discovered by muller Breakdown to DDE in environment M complete failure of grebe reproduction persistent organic chemical that goes into sediment and bioaccumulates result nthins egg shells so the mom crushes it by sitting on them Dbald eagle is examplereason for banning of DDTDDD OPCBS Chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons Nonreactive stable inert fluids Resist breakdown Electrical transformers insulator coolant Not soluble in waterhighest bioconcentration factor see slide 28 Acute effect nhigh dose nchloracne happens see slide 29 nman was slipped high dose of PCB and his skin became nasty chronic effects nlow doses upromote tumor growth birth defects humans nreason for fish consumption advisories production was banned but it remains in sediments ISP 217 Exam 3 Review Peacor 111010 837 PM Variations in Climate 2 Review DAtmospheric circulation oUneven heat distributioncoriois effectweterliestrade winds oDrives ocean surface currents Wind pulls water due to friction Causes formation of gyres nFlow of current around the periphery of an ocean nTraps in garbage Slide 4 gyres nRed arrows transport warm water Daway from equator nBlue arrows transport cold water Dtowards equator surface currents ntransfers heat to land warm water flows from near the equator to higher latitudes northern hemisphere bringing heat with it winds bring heat off of water to land unext cooled water moves back to equator ncycle continues ngreatest amount of heat transfer occurs at midlatitudes 3060 n10 million billion calories of heat each second difference in heat transport leads to different temperatures at same latitude neast coast atlantic city latitude 39 July temp 75 west coastsan Francisco latitude 37 July temp61 2 energy absorption Dunit Wattsmeter2 energy hits a given area per unit time Dmost sun radiation absorbed by tropical ocean than land Datmosphere absorbs very little Dmost energy absorbed near the equator oleads to warmer waters near the equator uneven heat distribution that drives wind Docean source of almost all water that falls on land Dmore heat near equator 9 most water evaporation at equator 9 heterogeneity of heat absorption 9 wind currents Dmost water vapor starts in the oceans near the equator and is transported by atmospheric circulation over earth orain in east lansing is from ocean at equator 2 large scale weatherclimate patterns Dmonsoon opattern of wind circulation that changes with seasons obring rains that dramatically flood areas defines some regions seasons ooccur over a large scale countries ocaused by uneven heat distribution like all wind land mass warms and cools much faster than ocean therefore nin summer Bland is hotter than ocean Dair rises over land low pressure Dwind flows from ocean to land Dbrings moisture and rain nin winter Bland is cooler than ocean Dair rises over ocean low pressure Dwind flows from land to ocean oNorth American Monsoon Where southwest US and northwest Mexico Not as strong or persistent as in india Also called summer thunderstorm season Light green arrows show direction of wind which deliver rain slide 13 oMinimonsoons Sea breezes and lake breezes Can occur near largesmall bodies of water nSmall lakes nGreat lakes shoreline nOcean shoreline Same as regular monsoon but smaller oLake Breeze circulation Day nSun heats land faster than water nAir rises on land and has lower pressure than over water nWind moves from over water to land Night nOpposite effect Q at 6 pm which way would the smoke from the fire blow nThe smoke would blow toward the lake because the land is warmer from the day than the lake and the warm air rises and goes toward the cool air 2 El Nino and La Nina DNormal circumstances oTradewinds blow west at equator Wind circulation pattern between south America and asia called walker circulation Walker circulation nWind pushes warm surface waters to the west nWater near Asia can be 12 meter higher than south America nAs water is pushed away from south America cool lower water rises up replacing it in the east upwelling DMakes water colder DBrings up nutrients that fuel diverse marine ecosystems and fisheries oEx Peruvian anchovy nBig difference in climate in pacific region DWest is warmer 8 C with heavy rains oWarmer water evaporation convection up rain East is cooler and dry nThermocline in west is much deeper than east DEI Nino oAn oscillation of the oceanatmosphere system in the tropical pacific having important consequences for weather around the globe oOccurs at 27 year intervals oNot all are the same can be strong or weak oSee slide 19 oHow it works Trade winds weaken Warm water in west sloshes back to east Eastern pacific warms nUpwelling weakens nLess nutrient supply for marine ecosystems nWater evaporates in east leading to rain in the east Changes involved in nThermocline nWater surfacewater temperature nRain location nMore even conditionswater not as cold DLa Nina oOpposite of el nino oWarm water is even further west oCold water in east is even colder onormal condition but more extreme DImpact oAnchovy fishery in peru El nino events warmed water too much not suitable for anchovies oEffects on America El Nino temperature rises in north half colder in South part El Nina temperature stays generally same in north slightly warmer in the south nSome regions get much more rain some get less oMost severe El Nino event 198283 nestimated to have cost billions in economic losses worldwide 1998 nkilled 40 people 10000 buildings damaged by tornadoes in southeastern US ncali twice the rain and increased landslides and avalanches nwinter rains left 250000 people homeless in peru nanchovy fisheries ruined nHawaii suffered record drought Increases cholera in Bangladesh nDeadly disease nInfects people through infected water nIncrease in temperature leads to higher infection rates oQ are warmer summers in Michigan associated with lower anchovy harvests in peru Yes el nino years are warmer in western hemisphere oDoes one lead to the other If so which No both are just effects of el Nino oQ Are warmer summers in Michigan associated with weaker westerlies in the pacific ocean Yes the currents are less intense so the warm waters in Asia slosh back over to South Americathat region making the thermocline deepercausing more rain and warmer weather oDoes one lead to the other If so which Yes the weaker westerlies lead to the warmer summers 2 Lake effect snow DCause oCold air mass originates from the polar regions of Canada oBlows over great lakes oWarmer lake water heats the air the warm moisture rises convects upward oThe air mass blows over land oFriction slows the air over land as it snows DFor a lot of snow you need oLarge fetch gt100 miles oLarge difference in air and water temperature air must be 13 C colder see slide 39 thy does so much more snowfall east of the lakes oThe prevailing westerlies cause air to travel from west to east oThe fetch of the lake is furthest that direction Key Terms Ocean gyre Wattsmeter2 unit used for sun absorption energy that hits a given area per unit time Uneven heat distribution Monsoon changes in wind patterns that mark seasons for some areas by level of precipitation Sea Breeze Lake Breeze Minimonsoon near small lakeshoreline sea breezeslake breezes El Ni o La Nina Walker circulation the cycle rotating clockwise between South America and Asia White outs the fast effect of lake effect snow Lakeeffect snow distance gt100 miles air temperature 13 colder than water warm water turned into precipitation and slows with friction over land Fetch distance across a body of water surface length What factors lead to the world wide gyres Unequal heat distribution that leads to windwave currents across the globe Flow of current around the periphery of an ocean An explanation should include general details not needed the role of atmospheric circulation the Coriolis effect and uneven heat distribution In the transfer of heat between the oceans and land where does the heat come from and where does it go and what moves it Heat comes from the sun heating land faster than water Oceans absorb most of the sunlight The uneven heat distribution causes warm air to get pushed around by the cooler denser air and these patterns are affected by the coriolis effect earth s rotation so this along with uneven heat distribution causes air to move around Or oWarm water flows from near the equator to higher latitudes northern hemisphere oBrings heat with it oWinds bring heat off water to land oAfter this the cooled water moves back to the equator oAnd the cycle continues Some cities that are the same distance from the equator have very different temperatures due to gyres Explain why The gyres have warm heat coming from the equator but then the warm air is pushed up and cooled in the cycle or some of the warm air is carried to the land in a constant flow as long as the gyres are still formed Where is most of the sun s energy absorbed Tropical oceans Which latitudes Equator 0 Atmosphere or oceans oceans Where does most rain come from originally Tropical oceans What does heterogeneity of heat absorption on earth have to do with rain in Michigan The different flows of wind and water transportation bring the water from the ocean up to Michigan to rain Check it out on the video on slide Monsoons Where generally are seasons defined by wet and dry rather than cold and wet Around equator What is a monsoon Hint it is NOT a lot of rain though it may bring a lot of rain Patterns in wind circulation that changes with seasons What causes monsoons Unequal heat distribution How is a monsoon different in the summer and winter Understand why Summer land heats up much fasterwarmer than ocean DHeat from land is pushed up from breeze from ocean DWarm air is cooled and turned into precipitation causing more rain over land Winter land is much colder than ocean DCool air pushes warm air over ocean up causing more rain over ocean causing pressure on land to be low Are there monsoons in the US Where What are they sometimes called Yes South West America and North West Mexico DNot as strong or persistent as India but called a summer thunderstorm season Lake breezes and monsoons operate with the same process So what is the difference Lake breezes are smaller and shorter How would lake breezes on a sunny and cloudy day differ On a sunny day it would consist of mostly wind and on a cloudy day it would move the clouds from over water to over land causing more precipitation over land to occur Which way would smoke blow from a fire on a lakeshore in the day Toward land because the air on land is warmer from the day and the cool air from the water comes from the high pressure point to lower pressure points At night Towards the water high pressure of cold air over land travels to low pressure over water carrying the smoke out with it Which ocean does El Nino events arise in Pacific What starts El Nino events How often do strong El Ni o events occur The weakening of the trade winds Every 10 years or so What do the tradewinds have to do with Cholera This is a step by step question the trade winds are involved with El Nino events which affect the environment in a way that affects Cholera levels The warmer the water is the more capacity of disease it can hold How does the Walker circulation affect ocean temperatures in the west and east water levels the thermocline rain location over the Pacific ocean and nutrients Water levels water is 12 meter higher in Asia Thermocline deeper near Asia Rain location over pacific ocean more rain in Asia Nutrients more nutrients in South America cold waters rise upwelling from below and bring up nutrients and such from deeper levels How do these patterns change during El Nino and La Nina events El Nino evens out a bit between East and West La Nina same as normal effects except a bit more extreme How could changes in the trade winds affect anchovy fisherman Weaker trade winds cause warmer waters making the anchovy less dense because they enjoy warm water Be able to interpret the figures on slides that show how El Nino events affect climate in the US What are some of the world wide consequences of El Nino events El Nino in US warmer around Michigan colder around florida World less rain in Asia more rain in South America more rain in center of ocean You are expected to know the listed effects for the 19821983 El Ni o but not where they occurred For the 1998 El Nino you are expected to know the effects listed But we won t have tricky responses like California suffered a drought when it was Hawaii We just want you know what sorts of effects El Nino can have 198283 estimated to have cost billions in economic losses worldwide DAustralia drought and brushfires DIndonesia Philippines crops fail starvation follows DIndia Sri Lanka drought fresh water shortages DTahiti 6 tropical cyclones DSouth America fish industry devastated DAcross pacific coral reefs die DColorado river basin flooding mudslides DGulf states downpours cause death property damage DPeru Ecuador floods landslides DSouthern Africa drought disease malnutrition 1998 D40 people killed and 10000 buildings damaged by a wall of tornados in southeastern US DCalifornia twice the rain increased landslides and avalanches DHeavy winter rains left 250000 people homeless in peru devastated anchovy fisheries and closed every port in the country DHawaii suffered record drought DWestern Africa and papua new guinea reduction in rain led to crop failure starvation and the complete abandonment of entire villages What are white outs Lake effect snow How much snow can fall in 24 hour period due to lakeeffect snow More than two feet Which side of Lake Michigan would you expect the most lakeeffect snow East side Why Because the snow travels from the west to east and deposits most of the snow at the beginning of contact with land Where in the world is lakeeffect snow the most prevalent The east side of Lake Ontario great lakes water basin What two main factors are required for large amounts of lakeeffect snow gt100 mile fetch and air that is at least 13 degrees colder than water Remember to know understand the point that each figure is illustrating For example the one with Lake Ontario in the Lake Effect Snow section ISP Exam 3 Review Peacore 111010 837 PM ISP217 Global Climate Change I Watching part of The Inconvenient Truth This handout highlights points of the section of the film we will watch The bold headers represent sections in the film There are no comments on the sections we won t watch but I include them so you know what else is in the film 1 The River Earth rise picture Name of first picture taken of the earth from the first Apollo mission to the moon It strongly influenced the environmental movement We are now used to pictures of the earth but they are still majestic and give us a feeling of our place in the universe But imagine what it was like to see the pictures of the earth for the first time What feelings would that invoke To some it invoked feelings of wanting to protect the earth 2 Continental Drift Continents may be huge but they drift Scientists have shown how they were once all connected like puzzle pieces Previously people thought this was a crazy idea The earth is just too big for such changes Al Gore used continental drift as an analogy of global climate change People think the earth is just too big for us to affect its climate But the atmosphere is not too thick compared to the size of the earth It is similar to a layer of varnish on a globe So affecting the atmosphere is not far fetched 3 Basic Science of Global Warming The basic science of global warming is as follows The atmosphere lets energy from the sun through to the earth It traps some of the energy as it leaves the earth towards space a good thing The thicker the layer the more the earth is warmed by the sun because the more energy is stopped by the atmosphere Humans are producing greenhouse gasses including C02 that thicken the atmosphere not a good thing By producing these greenhouse gasses we are leading to Global Warming and Global Climate Change 4 Global Warming Cartoon 5 Professor Revelle Professor Revelle had an idea Start measuring C02 in the atmosphere to see if it is changing He found that it was increasing This was a simple idea but had big impacts on people s view that humans could be altering the composition of the atmosphere 6 C02 Measures Since 1958 C02 concentration in the atmosphere has been steadily increasing since it was measured in 1958 Within each year it goes up and down This is cool It changes yearly because the use of C02 by plants changes through the year C02 intake by plants is greater in the northern hemispheres summers because there are many more plants in the Northern hemisphere than the southern hemisphere Therefore more C02 is used by plants in our summer than in the southern hemispheres summer Al Gore described it as the earth breathing in C02 during northern hemisphere summer and letting breathing out during our winter 7 Glaciers Recede Glaciers are receding all over the world The changes are dramatic Glaciers that were there for thousands of years are melting away This is evidence of the earth temperature rising It shows that the problem is world wide Problem glaciers store water needed by people below them 18 Ice Cores Ice cores are totally cool When the ice forms air bubbles are trapped Scientists figures out that there are ways to analyze the air and tell what the C02 concentration and temperature was when the bubbles formed Plus since the ice goes down in yearly layers like tree rings one can tell how old the bubbles are So essentially the bubbles can be used as a historical thermometer and gauge of C02 concentration So ice cores can be used to examine how C02 and temperature changed over thousands of years 9 C02 levels back 650000 years Using ice cores can see C02 levels and temperature changes for past 650000 years There are fluctuations that correspond with the ice ages as scientists would predict In all this time with these fluctuations the C02 level never has gone above 300 parts per million But now due to humans the value is much higher And it is projected to keep increasing to even higher levels In the past the changes in C02 levels reflected huge changes in global temperature On the low end of C02 Michigan was under a mile of ice during the ice ages On the high end the temperatures were like now Therefore differences in the C02 seen over the last 650000 years reflect large differences in temperature and huge differences in the climate and effects on earth But the projected C02 difference increase is even larger What will happen to the temperature of the earth when C02 goes to the very high projected levels Al Gore claims the potential consequences are so dire that it is deeply unethical not to address the problem 10 Albert s accident Skip 11 Rising temperature Temperature records show that the temperature on earth is increasing Air temperature As of 2005 the 10 hottest years on record all occurred in last 14 years note 2006 2008 also very hot years Large spikes in temperatures have also been seen around the world Ocean temperature The ocean temperatures are increasing following model predictions 12 Hurricanes Warmer ocean water is predicted to increase hurricane number and strength There has been an increase in the number of hurricanes Record numbers in recent years There have also been hurricanes in areas that they did not used to form This all suggests that hurricanes like Hurricane Katrina are due at least in part to global warming In this section of the movie Al Gore referred to another type of storm There was a Storm in the 19305 of another kind He is referring to the uprising of Nazi Germany Winston Churchill warned people that they had to do something The Era of procrastination of Half Measures of Soothing and Baffling Expedients of Delays is Coming to its Close In its Place We are Entering a Period of Consequences Al Gore uses this analogy to mean that if we don t do something we will enter a period of consequences 13 2000 Election Skip 14 Precipitation amp Evaporation Global warming is predicted to affect weather and there have been changes in weather There has been more precipitation and more of it comes as large storms One place to see data on this is in the Insurance Industry who tracks the number of storms In the US their data shows a huge increase in the number of large storms from 27 per year in the 19705 to 50 per year in the 19805 to 93 per year in the 19905 and 20005 There have also been an unusual amount of storms and catastrophic events around the world such as major floods in Europe and very heavy rain and floods in India Paradoxically global warming models also predict more droughts due to relocation of precipitation recall that we saw something similar with El Ni o events Darfur and Niger have suffered from record drought problems 15 The Gore Farm 16 The Arctic Al Gore calls changes in the Arctic a Canary in the coalmine because the problems there are an indication of what could happen around the world Drunken trees are trees leaning over due to the permafrost hard frozen ground thawing Drunken trees are evidence of the permafrost being lost They are also evidence of the Arctic getting warmer The oil companies keep track of when they can drive trucks on roads When it is warm they can t because the ground is too soft The use of the roads has gone from 225 days per year 35 years ago to 75 days per year now This also is evidence of a temperature increase Indirect evidence like this of global warming is interesting and common Ice cover Meticulous records have been kept of ice cover by submarines 40 of the ice has disappeared in 40 years When ice melts the rate it melts speeds up That is because the water around the ice absorbs more heat Ice caps act like a mirror but the water absorbs more energy from the sun 17 The Ocean Conveyer If the arctic ice melts there are planetary consequences The ocean currents are the engine that moves heat around the globe and brings energy to the poles Thousands of years ago the melting of the glacier in north America led to a sudden change the conveyer belt which led to an ice age in Europe in only about 10 years This exemplifies the sudden nonlinear effects predicted by global warming Global warming leading to ice melt could cause the same sorts of huge effects by affecting ocean currents 18 Resistance to Change 19 Troubling signs Global warming is predicted to change environments and affect ecology and organisms Al Gore presented some examples Caterpillars that used to arrive at the same time as bird chicks now arrive earlier not good for the birds Frost used to kill pine beetles But now it is warmer and there is less frost As a result pine beetles are destroying entire forests Vectors of infectious diseases that is disease carrying animals like mosquitoes and rats are spreading Coral reefs are dying bleaching which affects the fish that depend on them 20 Antarctica Antarctica is a huge amount of ice some floating and some over land Scientist thought that it would be stable for at least 100 years even with global warming But already scientists are seeing that huge ice shelves are melting and land ice is falling into the sea 21 SeaLevel rise The ice in Antarctica and Greenland are melting faster than previously There have been dramatic changes One indication is that there are more moulins Moulins are tunnels through the ice filled with icemelt water rushing from surface of ice mass to bedrock below If Greenland or west Antarctica melted the sea levels would rise 20ft This could flood huge areas including large cities around the world 22 China 23 Population Explosion 24 OldHabits New Technology 25 Working tobacco 26 Is there a controversy Is there a disagreement among scientists Many people believe that there is equal number of scientists on both sides But there are actually very few scientists that study this issue that believe that global warming is not caused by humans almost all believe that humans are responsible Gore points out that there are industries that want to create this controversy which makes people doubt that people are causing the problems so that the company s interests will not be curtailed The cigarette industry used a similar approach There was strong evidence that cigarettes caused cancer They did not have to prove otherwise but rather tried to so doubt in people s minds create a controversy that is really not there A leaked document from the cigarette industry read Doubt is our product since it is the best means of creating a controversy in the publics mind The controversy approach is working over half of nonscientific articles on global warming are against humans being responsible 27 Science Fraud Gore has met scientists that were persecuted ridiculed and deprived ofjobs simply because the facts they discovered led them to an inconvenient truth that they insisted on telling Gore shows the close association between white house staff and the oil industry and nonscientists that are editing EPA documents Not in film scientists on both sides of this issue claim they are persecuted 28 Balancing the Economy and Environment Gore argues that the choice between the economy and the environment is a misconception First there is nothing more important then the environment Second addressing environmental issues will not have a net negative effect on the economy Doing the right thing moves us forward and creates jobs 29 City by City 30 The solution is in our hands 31 Are we capable of doing great things 32 Our only home Reaction and Discussion An Inconvenient Truth 1 Can you understand how a simple picture could inspire people to dedicate their lives to environmental issues Does seeing the picture of the earth invoke feelings in you If not do you think that is because you have grown up seeing such photos 2 What causes global warmingchange 3 Did you find the connection between the carbon dioxide data and the temperature data compelling 4 What are some misconceptions about global warmingchange 5 Were there any factsideas presented in the movie which you didn t agree with 6 What sources of information have you readseen before this class about global warmingchange 7 We did not watch the parts of the film that address things citizens can do We ll talk a bit about that later Key Terms Earth rise Continental drift Greenhouse gas Carbon dioxide C02 Global climate change Global warming Receding glaciers To Know Ice core Ice bubbles Relocation of Precipitation Drunken trees Permafrost Ocean conveyer Pine beetles Vectors of infectious Disease Coral bleaching Moulin How did the Earth rise picture affect the environmental movement Earth rise picture Name of first picture taken of the earth from the first Apollo mission to the moon It strongly influenced the environmental movement We are now used to pictures of the earth but they are still majestic and give us a feeling of our place in the universe But imagine what it was like to see the pictures of the earth for the first time To some it invoked feelings of wanting to protect the earth Continental drift was used as an analogy to demonstrate what in relation to global warming Al Gore used continental drift as an analogy of global climate chane Peole think the earth is 39ust too bi for us to affect its climate E 1 i a It is similar to a layer of varnish on a globe So affecting the atm sphere is not far fetched Is the atmosphere thick or thin compared to the size of the earth thin How does C02 contribute to global warming Humans are producing greenhouse gasses including C02 that thicken the atmosphere trapping in more heatnot a good thing By producing these greenhouse gasses we are leading to Global Warming and Global Climate Change Why does C02 go up and down each year It changes yearly because the use of C02 by plants changes through the year C02 intake by plants is greater in the northern hemispheres summers because there are many more plants in the Northern hemisphere than the southern hemisphere Therefore more C02 is used by plants in our summer than in the southern hemispheres summer It is described as the earth breathing in C02 during northern hemisphere summer and breathing out during our winter Does it go up or down in the summer Down in the summer due to more photosynthesis What is the general trend in C02 level ie going up down or staying the same C02 concentration in the atmosphere has been steadily increasing since it was measured in 1958 Within each year it goes up and down How are ice cores used to study global warming When the ice forms air bubbles are trapped Scientists figured out that there are ways to analyze the air and tell what the C02 concentration and temperature was when the bubbles formed Since the ice goes down in yearly layers like tree rings one can tell how old the bubbles are So essentially the bubbles can be used as a historical thermometer and gauge of C02 concentration So ice cores can be used to examine how C02 and temperature changed over thousands of years Are C02 levels high compared to their levels over the past 650000 years yes How many times in the past have they been higher than they are now never How did C02 concentration and temperature change in relationship to each other over the past thousands of years In all this time with these fluctuations the C02 level never has gone above 300 parts per million But now due to humans the value is much higher and it is projected to keep increasing to even higher levels In the past the changes in C02 levels reflected huge changes in global temperature On the low end of C02 Michigan was under a mile of ice during the ice ages On the high end the temperatures were like now Therefore differences in the C02 seen over the last 650000 years reflect large differences in temperature and huge differences in the climate and effects on earth But the projected COZ difference increase is even larger low COZ during iceages high now during global warmingclimate change The air temperature is rising but what about ocean temperatures Ocean temperature The ocean temperatures are increasing following model predictions What have been trends in hurricanes lately Warmer ocean water is predicted to increase hurricane number and strength There has been an increase in the number of hurricanes Record numbers in recent years There have also been hurricanes in areas that they did not used to form How does this relate to global warming This all suggests that hurricanes like Hurricane Katrina are due at least in part to global warming What was the point of the comparison made by Al Gore between the global warming and Nazi Germany There was a Storm in the 1930s of another kind this is referring to the uprising of Nazi Germany Winston Churchill warned people that they had to do something The Era of procrastination of Half Measures of Soothing and Baffling Expedients of Delays is Coming to its Close In its Place We are Entering a Period of Consequences Al Gore uses this analogy to mean that if we don t do something we will enter a period of consequences How is global warming predicted to affect weather there have been changes in weather There has been more precipitation and more of it comes as large storms What evidence was presented in the film that weather is being affected The insurance Industry has collected what data that suggests global warming is affecting weather the Insurance Industry tracks the number of storms In the US their data shows a huge increase in the number of large storms from 27 per year in the 1970s to 50 per year in the 1980s to 93 per year in the 1990s and 2000s How is global warming predicted to affect storms Drought There have been an unusual amount of storms and catastrophic events around the world such as major floods in Europe and very heavy rain and floods in India Paradoxically global warming models also predict more droughts due to relocation of precipitation recall that we saw something similar with El Ni o events Darfur and Niger have suffered from record drought problems What are drunken trees and what causes them Drunken trees are trees leaning over due to the permafrost hard frozen ground thawing What are they evidence of Drunken trees are evidence of the permafrost being lost and that the Arctic is getting warmer What evidence do oil companies have that the arctic is warming has to do with trucks The oil companies keep track of when they can drive trucks on roads When it is warm they can t because the ground is too soft The use of the roads has gone from 225 days per year 35 years ago to 75 days per year now which is evidence of a temperature increase When ice melts the rate of ice melting may speed up How Ice cover Meticulous records have been kept of ice cover by submarines 40 of the ice has disappeared in 40 years When ice melts the rate it melts speeds up because the water around the ice absorbs more heat Ice caps act like a mirror but the water absorbs more energy from the sun If the arctic melts there could be global planetary consequences How The ocean currents are the engines that move heat around the globe and brings energy to the poles Thousands of years ago the melting of the glacier in north America led to a sudden change the conveyer belt which led to an ice age in Europe in only 10 years This exemplifies the sudden nonlinear effects predicted by global warming Global warming leading to ice melt could cause the same sorts of huge effects by affecting ocean currents What is the Ocean Conveyer The currents According to the movie How has global warming affected some a bird chicks Caterpillars that used to arrive at the same time as bird chicks now arrive earlier not good for the birds b pine forests Frost used to kill pine beetles But now it is warmer and there is less frost As a result pine beetles are destroying entire forests Infectious disease spread Vectors of infectious diseases that is disease carrying animals like mosquitoes and rats are spreading Coral reefs Coral reefs are dying bleaching which affects the fish that depend on them Scientists believe that global warming could lead to sea level rise How The ice in Antarctica and Greenland are melting faster than previously There have been dramatic changes One indication is that there are more moulins What is a moulin Moulins are tunnels through the ice filled with icemelt water rushing from surface of ice mass to bedrock below If Greenland or west Antarctica melted how high is the sea level predicted to rise If Greenland or west Antarctica melted the sea levels would rise 20ft This could flood huge areas including large cities around the world A leaked cigarette industry document read Doubt is our product since it is the best means of creating a controversy in the publics mind Why was this presented in the movie ie what is the context related to Global Warming There was strong evidence that cigarettes caused cancer They did not have to prove otherwise but rather tried to sew doubt in people s minds create a controversy that is really not there A leaked document from the cigarette industry read Doubt is our product since it is the best means of creating a controversy in the publics mind The controversy approach is working over half of nonscientific articles on global warming are against humans being responsible ISP 217 Exam 3 Review Peacor 111010 837 PM Lecture 21 Global Warming II 2 Climate DDefines major atmospheric conditions oTemperature oMoisture content oWind oRain oSolar radiation oEtC DClimate Vs Weather oClimate broad Describes conditions nOver large regions nOver seasons years or longer oWeather narrow Describes conditions nLocally nOver hours or days DGlobal climate change Vs global warming oGlobal climate change Describes changes in earth s climate Two meanings nGeneral changes in earth s climate which have been happening forever nCurrent speeding up of climate change due to anthropogenic causes oGlobal warming Refers to the earth s warming Often used synonymously with global climate change Is only one aspect of global climate change DEarth s climate oThree main factors affect earth s climate Sun provides heat Atmosphere moderates temperature Oceans store and transport heat and moisture oDistance from the sun Venus avg temp 864 F nClosest to sun Earth avg temp 59 F Mars avg temp 81 F nFarthest from sun 2 Greenhouse effect DRadiation in greenhouse oRadiation from sun hits windows UV radiation does not go through Infrared bounces off windows Visible light goes through DRadiation inside car ovisible light is absorbed and heats objects in car oheat is emitted as infrared radiation but can t go through windows oheat is trapped Dconclusion visible light gets through and is transferred into infrared once inside UV and infrared can t get through initially Dgreenhouse on earth ogreenhouse gasses are trapped in the atmosphere as the visible light is in a window visible light gets through and infrared does not ovisible light comes in as short waves and olong wave infrared rays are reflectedemitted back toward atmosphere some are blocked in Dgreenhouse effect ois natural without atmosphere earth would be 33 C colder 91 F ogreenhouse effect is increasing human effects on atmosphere increasing the greenhouse effect o greenhouse effect refers to the natural effect the effect humans are having on it Dgreenhouse gasses oeffectively absorb infrared radiation emitted by earth ogreenhouse gasses Carbon Dioxide oreemit heat some goes to space some goes to earth and atmosphere oessentially trap heat and warm earth oglobal warming potential measure of how much one molecule contributes to warming expressed in relationship to C02 nCarbon Dioxide C02 1 6 potential nMethane CH4 23 nNitrous Oxide N20 296 nChlorofluorocarbon gt1000 In class question nHow many C02 and N20 molecules would it take to have about the same effect on global warming as 100 methane molecules DCOZ 2300 DNZO 777 nGlobal Warming is one aspect of global climate change DTrue nThere were no greenhouse gasses before human pollution DFalse nWhich can pass through glass DVisible light DInfrared radiation DA and B DNeither A or B DGreenhouse gasses 0 C02 oare increasing oCOZ and N02 concentration in atmosphere is higher than in at least 650000 years oRead graph on slide 20 What approximately is the concentration of C02 CH4 and N02 in 1000 AD oCauses of C02 greenhouse gas increase Burning fossil fuels nIncreased dramatically during the past 2 centuries nThis transfers carbon from one reservoir buried in the earth to the atmosphere Deforestation nForests remove carbon from the atmosphere less forests less C02 removal nForests have been cleared to use the land for crops pastures and places to live nOnly 15 of the original primary forest remains in US nTropical rain forests are being cut at a rate of 500000 km2 per year and could be almost completely eliminated in a few decades nBurning of trees adds to C02 emission DIn class question oWhy does C02 go up and down every year Because the earth is tilted on its axis and when the top half which consists of mostly land faces the sun more photosynthesis occurs decreasing C02 levels in the atmosphere oh the summer is C02 higher or lower In the summer C02 is lower because more photosynthesis takes place DGreenhouse Gasses oWater vapor Also a greenhouse gas Global concentration has not change Global warming predicted to increase water vapor concentration nPositive feedback more warming 9 more water in air 9 more warming 9 more warm air 9 etc nAnother example of positive feedback interestgaining interest on money made from interest But more clouds also lead to more reflection of sun s rays Negative feedback more warming 9 more water vapor 9 less warming 9 lower water vapor nAnother example of negative feedback heat in thermostat controlled room oOceans moderate C02 concentration in atmosphere Absorb C02 from atmosphere Contain 50 times more C02 Rate of absorption slower than we are adding C02 Absorption rate decreasing warm water holds and absorbs less C02 Is this positive or negative feedback nPositive oOther factors affect earth s temp El Nino and La Nina nDisrupt ocean currents that distribute heat and affect climate Global warming is an overall increase on long term scale variation from other factors will still lead to warmer and colder years nVery hot year is not only due to global warming nNormal or cold year does not mean there is no global warming 2 Climate change D3 methods used to examine oproxy measures indirect measures especially used to tell about past odirect measurements tell us about present ocomputer models used for past and future Dproxy measures oice cores water molecules from colder periods have less heavy isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen othree rings wetter years lead to larger tree rings osediment cores plant pollen grains indicate what was growing in the past which holds clues to climate Dputting all evidence together is used to describe global climate change othousands of scientific studies opeer reviewed Dimpacts oIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC International panel of scientists and government officials established in 1988 IPCC assessment reports nRepresent consensus of scientific research nDocument observed trends and predictions According to IPCC nAverage surface temp will rise about 24 C by end of century depending on actions taken 02007 international institute for strategic studies a military security think tank the effects will be catastrophic on the level of nuclear war oClimate scientists warn that a 4 C warming will threaten human civilization as we know it but if we do nothing now the projection is that we will see a greater temperature increase than that oUnicef water shortages a decline in nutrition increased levels of global diseases such as malaria and natural disasters are all consequences of climate change caused by unsustainable carbon emissions oWorld health organization estimates that 150000 lives are already being lost each year as a direct result of climate change oPrecipitation change Complex problem that is difficult to predict Will vary by region around the world Expect some areas to receive more rain some less Droughts expected to be more severe Flooding expected to be more severe Consistent with what has been happening DIn class question oHow could warming of the Indian ocean affect the amount of rainfall somewhere else Chances in air current uneven heat distribution changes where rain falls DImpacts oGlaciers Large slowmoving mass of ice formed from compacted layers of snow that slowly deforms and flows in response to gravity and high pressure Shrinking and disappearing around the world Hundreds of millions if not billions of people are affected by loss of natural water storage Capture and hold water in winter Release water throughout the year and feed rivers and streams needed for nDrinking water nFarming irrigation nPower generation Greenland ice sheet nMelting DWater from melted ice forms lakes which are darker and absorb more heat and speed up melting DPositive or negative feedback oPositive DMoulins oDeliver water to the bedrock lubricating the ice sheet leading it to break off oRising sea levels Cause nExpansion of water with warming nGlacier ice melting Levels nAverage level has risen 20cm 8in since 1870 nIPCC predicts 2060 cm rise by end of 21St century without including Greenland melting nIf Greenland melts the rise will be much faster Flooding of many densely populated regions that re on lowlying river deltas like New Orleans and Bangladesh Some nations such as Maldives existence will be lost nPicture of governmental meeting underwater Cities will be evacuated Negativey impacts nAgriculture rice especially nWorld s coastal fisheries oEffects on organisms and ecosystems Cimate and seasonal changes will severely affect organisms and ecosystems IPCC estimates that as many as 2030 of all plants and animal species could be threatened with extinction Affected nEcosystems nBiodiversity nEconomies nDiseasehealth nAgriculture DGreenhouse Gas GHG emissions oDifferent activities that cause GHG emissions see slide 46 oPer capita production of C02 in 2003 see slide 47 USA is highest Key Terms Climate Weather Global Climate Change Global Warming Greenhouse effect Greenhouse gas Visible light radiation Ultraviolet UV radiation Infrared radiation To Know Global warming potential Carbon Dioxide C02 Methane CH4 Nitrous oxide N20 Chlorofluorocarbon ppm on figure ppb Deforestation Positive feedback Negative feedback Proxy measures Sediment core IPCC Drought Flood Moulin What is the difference between climate and weather Climate longterm pattern of weather over large area Weather short term conditions of the atmosphere in small areas What is the difference and relationship between global climate change and global warming Global climate change DDescribes changes in earth s climate DTwo meanings oGeneral changes in earth s climate which have been happening forever oCurrent speeding up of climate change due to anthropogenic causes Global warming DRefers to the earth s warming DOften used synonymoust with global climate change DIs only one aspect of global climate change What three main factors affect the Earth s climate Sun provides heat Atmosphere moderates temperature Oceans store and transport heat and moisture How does the green house effect heat cars visible light is absorbed and heats objects in car heat is emitted as infrared radiation but can t go through windows heat is trapped conclusion visible light gets through and is transferred into infrared once inside UV and infrared can t get through initially Heat the earth Exact same only atmosphere is the car What types of radiation do and don t pass through glass Visible light gets through Infrared and Ultra Violate radiation do not Through greenhouse gasses Visible light some infrared and some ultra violet waves gets through some infrared and UV light are reflected off of atmosphere and earth s surface visible light enters as short waves and is transformed into longwave infrared that either exits or is blocked in by greenhouse gasses What is similar between glass and green house gasses concerning the greenhouse effect They both trap in heat Is the greenhouse effect warming the earth a new phenomenon No If not what s the big deal it is necessary otherwise life couldn t exist on earth it would be too cold without atmosphere earth would be 33 C colder 91 F What is Global Warming Potential of a molecule The measure of how much one molecule contributes to warming About how many Carbon Dioxide molecules have the same effect on Global Warming as 1 Methane molecule Answer 23 Carbon Dioxide C02 1 6 potential Methane CH4 23 Nitrous Oxide N20 296 Chlorofluorocarbon gt1000 What about as 20 methane moleCules Answer 460 About how many nitrous oxide molecules has the same effect on global warming as 600 carbon dioxide molecules If a question like this is given on the test you would be given the table shown in lecture you don t need to memorize the numbers 49333 What is the main message of the figure showing how C02 changed since about 1957 To show how rapidly it has gone up farther and faster than ever before What do the annual peaks indicate and what causes them Annual peaks indicate the winters where plants are no longer taking in a mass amount of C02 low points are where C02 is being taken in during the summer Which gas is considered to contribute the most to greenhouse gasses C02 What are the two main reasons it is increasing Fossil fuels and deforestation What are two other gasses that also contribute a large percentage to greenhouse gasses Methane CH4 Nitrous Oxide N20 How does deforestation contribute to the concentration of greenhouse gasses forests remove carbon form the atmosphere Dless forests less C02 removal forests have been cleared to use the land for crops pastures and living the burning of the wood emits C02 What are the two opposing effects an increase in water vapor would have on global warming Positive oceans moderate C02 concentration in atmosphere DAbsorbs C02 from atmosphere DContain 50 times more C02 DRate of absorption slower than we are adding DAbsorption rate decreasing warm water holds and absorbs less C02 Positive more warming 9 more water in air 9 more warming 9 etc Dmore more more Dmaking money off of interest in the bank Negative more warming 9 more water vapor 9 less warming 9 lower water vapor Dmore more less lower Dex thermostat Which of these two are examples of positive and negative feedback If there is a cold year does this mean there is no global warming No Why or why not Because trends still lead to higher and higher global temperatures A cold year is just an example of rapid change in climate What is a proxy measure Indirect measures especially used to tell about the past How are ice cores tree rings and sediment cores used to measure climate Ice cores water molecules from colder periods have less heavy isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen similar to tree rings wetter years lead to larger tree rings sediment cores plant pollen grains indicate what was growing in the past which holds clues to climate What is the intergovernmental panel on climate change IPCC and what does it do International panel of scientists and government officials established in 1988 IPCC Assessment Reports represent consensus of scientific research document observed trends and predictions What are the predicted effects of global climate change on precipitation Average surface temperature will rice about 24 degrees Celsius by end of century depending on actions taken Precipitation changes complex problem predictions are difficult to make vary by region around the world some areas will receive more rain some less droughts and floods will be more severe What did the example of a farmer in Zambia exemplify destroyed the corn crop of farmer in Zambia analysis suggests that drought may intensify across south Africa droughts in Zambia will increase due to warming of Indian ocean Old and recent pictures of glaciers indicate what They are shrinking and disappearing How does a glacier melting at the top of a mountain affect the community at the bottom of the mountain in the long term they capture and hold water in the winter they release this water throughout the year and feed rivers and streams needed for Ddrinking water Dfarming irrigation Dpower generation What are the two main causes of rising sea levels expansion of water with warming glacier ice melting Which human activity has the largest impact on green house gases see pie chart Burning of fossil fuels energy supply 259 Do individuals in North America or Asia produce more Carbon Dioxide emissions North America By about how many times eg 2 times as much 10 times as much 8 times more on 2003 s record Do individuals in North America or Europe produce more Carbon Dioxide emissions North America By about how many times eg 2 times as much 10 times as much 227 times more on 2003 s record ISP 217 Exam 3 Review 111010 837 PM Lecture 22 Global Climate Change III Key Terms Carbon footprint Evidenceconfidence Direct measurement Glacial runoff Ozone layer hole To Know Carbon footprint Biological Pump Carbon capture Geological Storage Injection What is the connection between evidence for and confidence in a process The more evidence that is accumulated to support a process or theory the higher the probability is that it is true Why are some processes easier to be certain about than others It is easy to be confident when DYou can do an experiment to demonstrate DYou can make a direct measurement It is not easy to be confident when DYou cannot make a direct measurement or do an experiment DYou need to build evidence indirectly proxy from many different sources Are you confident that the earth is not flat yes Which parts of the GCC process are easiest to demonstrate people are increasing the concentration of greenhouse gasses the earth s temperature is rising substantially the earth s temperature affects climate Which are the most difficult greenhouse gasses trap heat and warm the earth other dramatic changes in climate global climate change the transitionconnection between things Are there more scientists that believe that humans are contributing to GCC than there are skeptics Why is it not surprising that there are skeptics They do not have to prove it wrong they just need to sew doubt Why are some scientists frustrated when both sides of GCC are given equal coverage time on news programs The ratio of scientists is very skewed Understand the grid about treating GCC with risk management What do the four squares in the grid represent Yes No F take action when it isn t needed nothing was wrong T problem solved Catastrophic doom of earth Why does Greg argue that we should not be debating whether GCC is occurring but rather what we should be doing Because regardless of the truth something has to be donesome decision has to be made before it is too late What argument is made that the GCC is True should be given more weight in the risk management table The catastrophic doom of the earth bottom right box How could ethics play into the risk management The cost of doing something if there is actually no risk top left square is smaller and affects us richest nation on earth the cost of doing nothing if there is actually a risk bottom right square is huge and affects the entire world even the most vulnerable people that did not contribute to the problem Do people ever prepare for an event even when they are NOT positive that it will happen yes How does this question relate to GCC Are some people that are not contributing to GCC affected by it Yes What are some examples Bangladeshi family flooding will drive families out of homes communities depending on glacial runoff What was the ozone layer hole example used to demonstrate in relation to GCC Scientists were confident that the ozone was thinning but weren t confident of the source They reduced CFC s aerosol and the ozone healedstopped thinning Relation took a view that wasn t solidly backed with evidence ended up being right and solved the problem What contributes to the ozone hole and what was done about it CFC s aerosol laws were passed to limit production of CFC s What are the three broad things we can do as individuals to combat GCC reduce our own impact carbon footpring become actively involved in issue vote for people who will act on issue How many tons of C02 do Americans on average produce each year 204 tons C02personyear How does this compare to the amount of garbage they produce 12 times more than amount of garbage produced If your car gets 20 miles per gallon how much C02 in weight will you produce if you go 10 miles 100miles Etc 10 lbs 100 lbs What if your car got 40 miles per gallon 5 lbs 50 lbs Some cars produce more C02 than others Why They get different amounts of milesgallon What is switching to green power Power that is generated from renewable resources like water wind and solar energy What are the top 5 ways Americans on average can reduce C02 use switch to green power seal and insulate duct system drive a fuelefficient car replace an old hot water heater control heating temperatures ISP 217 Review Sheet for Lecture Eutrophication III of 111 Dr Peacor Herein I give some questions and some stuff to know If you know the terms can answer these questions and understand what is highlighted here that is everything you need to know for the test Test study tip I After glancing at gures in the power point slides see if you can reproduce them draw them roughly without looking at them This is a good challenge and assures that you understand the gure because you need to be able to come up with eg the correct axes labels and gure out what the gures is telling us Study tip 11 Use these review questions as follows Review the lecture and your notes before trying to answer the questions Answer what you can And then go back over the slides and your notes I recommend this way as it increases retention of the information it is more active learning Study tip 111 Discuss answers with a course mate Eutrophication III of III Key Terms Dead zone Cyanobacteria Anoxic Dino agellates Sewage diversion Toxin Daphnia Red tide Zooplanktivorous Fish kill Piscivorous Thermocline Target nutrient levels To Know Give examples of causative and correlated effects What increases with eutrophication What particular kinds in freshwater and marine systems What are two important characteristics of these organisms How does an increase in P affect the of cyanobacteria in freshwater systems How does the increase in P affect biodiversity of algae Understand the gure that displays this More nutrients P vs Amount of different algae groups Why does eutrophication cost water utilities money Can eutrophication kill dogs if so how What is a red tide Can it affect animals Is eutrophication strictly a north American problem How does adding nutrients to lakes affect sh remember the answer different depending on the initial nutrient level in the lake low or high and how much is added Medium nutrients in a lake affect sh in what part of the lake Why Understand the dissolved oxygen gures in the sh kill section e g figures that show how going deeper in the lake affets dissolved oxygen levels Why can sh kills occur over more depths of the lake in the winter than in summer think thermocline What is a dead zone How do they form Great Lakes Lecture Key terms 1 Lakes Michigan Superior Erie Ontario and Huron 2 Watershed a region of land where water from rain or melted snow drains downhill into a body of water such as a river lake dam estuary wetland sea or ocean 3 St Lawrence river Into Canada that takes water to the Atlantic ocean 4 Nutrient input Great lake issue has to do with water quality and eutrophication 5 Invasive species disrupt lake Michigan food web 6 Sea Lamprey long skinny fish consume the same fish people do Trying to kill them by trapping barriers and sterilizing males 7 Lake trout a fish humans and sea lamprey like to eat 8 Ballast water used to stabilize boats when the cargo is not full but brings bad organisms here such as the sea lamprey 9 Zebra mussels recent invaders of the great lakes To Know 1 About how much of the world s fresh surface water do the great lakes hold a 20 of the words freshwater 2 About how much of the North America s fresh surface water do the great lakes hold a 84 of the NA fresh surface water 3 What is a watershed basin a A huge funnel b Slide 6 4 Where does water poured on the ground in EL end up leaving the country a St Lawrence river right then Atlantic ocean 5 Where does the water poured west of Chicago end up leaving the country a Goes from Mississippi river then to gulf of MeXico 6 About how much further does water poured on the ground in Lansing travel to lake Erie than water poured on the ground in Ann Arbor Why is it so much further than the distance traveled by car a About 800 miles because it has to go up and around 4 great lakes compared to Ann Arbor that has to only go through 2 great lakes because of the area they are in 7 Which great lakes have the most water and which has the least a Most 9 superior b Least 9 Erie 8 What percent of the water held in the great lakes water eXists to the ocean through the St Lawrence River each year a 1 b 100 years will be empty 9 Which 3 states or providences use more than 20 of the water used from the great lakes a Wisconsin Michigan and Ontario 10 What three types of great lakes water consumption use to represent more than 20 of the water use a Irrigation b Industrial c Public water supply 11 What are 4 main reasons people care about great lakes issues a Fishing b Recreation c Withdrawn water uses d Environmental concerns 12 What does falling lake levels affect a Shoreline habitat b Shoreline property 13 Is there an agreement on the causes oflake water falling What are two opposite opinions on the cause of falling lake levels a No agreement b Two options i Option 1 we need to get serious about water conservation ii Option 2 need more scientific study and public education about lake levels and water use 14 How did the diversion of the Chicago River reduce disease a It reduced the waste into the Chicago river which decreased the about of typhoid and cholera deaths 15 What event helped spawn the clean water act and great lake water quality agreement and the creation of environmental protection agencies a 1969 river went on fire b Oozes rather than ows and will not drown but decay 16 What is responsible for beach closings How would improvement of our sewage treatment reduce the number of beach closings a Polluted water with ecoli bacteria 17 What are two principal results of the clean water act a Unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant into navigable waters unless a permit was obtained under its provisions b Construction of sewage treatment plants with taX dollars 18 What is the total annual value of the great lakes fisheries a 1 to 4 billion dollars 19 What factors are disrupting the lake Michigan food web a Increasing fishing b Invasive species i Sea lamprey 20 What fish has the invasive sea lamprey affected most How does it affect them a Consumes the same fish human s do b Affected lake trout white fish and salmon i Decreases population 21 How did sea lamprey get by NiagaraFalls
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