England and The Industrial Revolution
England and The Industrial Revolution hist 1031
Popular in World Civilizations Since 1500
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naida Adams on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hist 1031 at East Carolina University taught by Michael B Gross in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations Since 1500 in History at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/14/16
England and The Industrial Revolution 3116 ● Neolithic Revolution ○ Agriculture ○ No longer huntergatherers (nomadic) ○ Humans discover they can grow there own food (farm) → civilization begins ○ Transition from hunter gather to farm and cultivate: no longer nomadic existence ● Industrial revolution ○ Happened relatively rapid ○ Confound social, economic, cultural change in Europe ○ Nothing goes unchanged by Industrial Revolution ○ Historically world changingcan compare to the Neolithic Revolution ○ Efficient, better way of doing things in minimal time ○ Machines ○ Mass production ○ Industrial revolution is the switch to machines, to omit human labor ○ Happened first in England @ the same time of French Revolution ● England: ○ Colonies: In the 13 colonies in North America, provides market ○ Geography: surrounded by water (island), many ports easily and quickly transport goods to markets, large market where goods can be shipped ○ Agricultural Boom: ○ Laissez Faire: peaceful/stable economy, gov’t stays out, saferegulating, freemarket “allowed to do”, people are able to make their own profit, unhindered by the gov’t ● Agricultural revolution ○ increase in agricultural productivity ○ made industrial revolution possible ○ by the 1700s farmers had such skill, became more efficient, produce crops and more wheat ■ price goes down/ more abundant (less precious) [Modern Capitalist Society] ● Bourgeois ○ The middle class ■ ie: teachers, doctors, lawyers, managers (profit, salary) ● Proletariat ○ Lower Class ○ large rural population ○ the workforce that made industrial revolution possible ○ works with their hands ○ not educated/ unskilled worker, makes wages ■ ie: fast food worker, janitor ○ Skilled workers: ■ works with hands, makes hourly wages/pace work, specialized training ■ ie: craftsmen, plumbers, electrician ● The Upper Class ○ (ie: “old money”, inherited) ○ does not need to work, money given to them ■ Feudal Society → based off relationship to the king ■ Capitalist Society → based off of how you make money Industrial Revolution 3316 ● Textile Industry ○ began industrial revolution ○ production of cloth ○ english cotton textile industry ● New relationship between workers and boss ○ boss: bourgeois ○ workers: proletariat ○ development of factories ● Clothing became plentiful ○ inexpensive, more people could afford to buy ○ ie: undergarments are now available to everyone and not just the rich, now considered modern ○ textile mills made underware possible ● Factories needed to be in rural areas for water ○ undesirable areas of work ○ used children to work in factories (orphans) ○ exercised the right of slavery ● Work Conditions ○ long hours, dangerous conditions ○ worked at 10 and up, sometimes 5 or 6 years old ○ housed, fed, locked up in factory dormitories ○ received very little if any pay ○ physical punishment for discipline ○ unprecedented form of exploitation ○ children are now apart of the Proletariat ● Steam Engine ○ rivers ran dry, relocation from rural areas ○ invention of steam engine, converted steam into mechanical power by James Watts ○ wood became scarce, less available because England was facing an energy crisis ○ wood was the main source of energy for cooking, warming of homes, factories ○ threatened the end of the industrial revolution ● Coal ○ shifted to the use of coal (better source of fuel and heat) ○ steam engines fueled by coal with a condenser ○ iron makers used coal ○ iron production increases ○ iron became plentiful and cheap ○ basic building block of economy ○ great breakthrough, creation of steam driven locomotives (the railroad) ■ The Rocket (16 miles per hour), world’s first railroad lines, considered then as fast ■ rapidly improved, creation of train stations ● Rail roads ○ the building of railroads caused strong need for proletariat workers ○ changed social and cultural standards ○ need for railroad engineers ○ went through tunnels and mountains and bridges ○ railway heroes, new industrial hero ● Great Exposition: Crystal Palace 1851 ○ made with glass and iron (cheap and available) ○ symbol for England, burned down later in history ○ represented industrial achievements ○ famous place (new industrial prouse of England) ○ glorified, tourist site ○ England became workshop of the world ○ England produced 20% of all the world’s industrial goods ○ The Proletariat class fell, rich became richer the poor became poorer. ● Condition of England Question ○ Were people becoming poorer? ○ Industrial production's environmental outcomes killed many people → Industrial crisis/ problems ○ Samuel Smiles (Self Help) 1859 ■ successful book, translated in other European languages ■ from Scottland, large family, wrote books, father died at early age ■ doctor, journalist (Lee Times), invested in railroad industry ■ Topic: Josiah Wedgwood ● indefatigable→ “fatigue”, he doesn’t get tired (energetic) ● youngest of 13, poor family ● leg was amputated due to polio as a child ● worked himself to the top of the potter buisness (extremely good) ● made Wedgewood China (the best/expensive) ● purpose: success after trial and error ● had admirable perseverance ● became king's personal pottery maker ● improved England's economy by trade and production jobs ● Produces 84 million pieces ● industrial hero→ inspired others ● made himself better than what he would have been ■ included Edgewood in his book because they had a lot in common ■ similar to The American Dream