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England and The Industrial Revolution

by: Naida Adams

England and The Industrial Revolution hist 1031

Marketplace > East Carolina University > History > hist 1031 > England and The Industrial Revolution
Naida Adams
GPA 2.4

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Notes for the week of 2/23 - 3/3
World Civilizations Since 1500
Michael B Gross
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naida Adams on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hist 1031 at East Carolina University taught by Michael B Gross in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations Since 1500 in History at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 03/14/16
England and The Industrial Revolution  3­1­16    ● Neolithic Revolution  ○ Agriculture   ○ No longer hunter­gatherers (nomadic)   ○ Humans discover they can grow there own food (farm) → civilization begins   ○ Transition from hunter gather to farm and cultivate: no longer nomadic existence   ● Industrial revolution   ○ Happened relatively rapid   ○ Confound social, economic, cultural change in Europe   ○ Nothing goes unchanged by Industrial Revolution   ○ Historically world changing­can compare to the Neolithic Revolution   ○ Efficient, better way of doing things in minimal time   ○ Machines   ○ Mass production   ○ Industrial revolution is the switch to machines, to omit human labor   ○ Happened first in England @ the same time of French Revolution  ● England:   ○ Colonies: In the 13 colonies in North America, provides market  ○ Geography: surrounded by water (island), many ports­ easily and quickly  transport goods to markets, large market where goods can be shipped    ○ Agricultural Boom:   ○ Laissez Faire: peaceful/stable economy, gov’t stays out, safe­regulating,  free­market “allowed to do”, people are able to make their own profit, unhindered  by the gov’t   ● Agricultural revolution   ○ increase in agricultural productivity  ○ made industrial revolution possible   ○ by the 1700s farmers had such skill, became more efficient, produce crops and  more wheat   ■ price goes down/ more abundant (less precious)  [Modern Capitalist Society]  ● Bourgeois  ○ The middle class   ■ ie: teachers, doctors, lawyers, managers (profit, salary)   ● Proletariat  ○ Lower Class  ○ large rural population   ○ the workforce that made industrial revolution possible   ○ works with their hands   ○ not educated/ unskilled worker, makes wages   ■ ie: fast food worker, janitor   ○ Skilled workers:  ■ works with hands, makes hourly wages/pace work, specialized training   ■ ie: craftsmen, plumbers, electrician   ● The Upper Class   ○ (ie: “old money”, inherited)   ○ does not need to work, money given to them  ■ Feudal Society → based off relationship to the king   ■ Capitalist Society → based off of how you make money   Industrial Revolution  3­3­16  ● Textile Industry   ○ began industrial revolution   ○ production of cloth   ○ english cotton textile industry   ● New relationship between workers and boss   ○ boss: bourgeois   ○ workers: proletariat   ○ development of factories   ● Clothing became plentiful   ○ inexpensive, more people could afford to buy   ○ ie: undergarments are now available to everyone and not just the rich, now  considered modern   ○ textile mills made underware possible  ● Factories needed to be in rural areas for water   ○ undesirable areas of work   ○ used children to work in factories (orphans)   ○ exercised the right of slavery   ● Work Conditions   ○ long hours, dangerous conditions   ○ worked at 10 and up, sometimes 5 or 6 years old  ○ housed, fed, locked up in factory dormitories   ○ received very little if any pay  ○ physical punishment for discipline   ○ unprecedented form of exploitation   ○ children are now apart of the Proletariat   ● Steam Engine  ○ rivers ran dry, relocation from rural areas   ○ invention of steam engine, converted steam into mechanical power by James  Watts   ○ wood became scarce, less available because England was facing an energy  crisis  ○ wood was the main source of energy for cooking, warming of homes, factories   ○ threatened the end of the industrial revolution   ● Coal   ○ shifted to the use of coal (better source of fuel and heat)  ○ steam engines fueled by coal with a condenser   ○ iron makers used coal   ○ iron production increases   ○ iron became plentiful and cheap   ○ basic building block of economy   ○ great breakthrough, creation of steam driven locomotives (the railroad)   ■ The Rocket (16 miles per hour), world’s first railroad lines, considered  then as fast   ■ rapidly improved, creation of train stations   ● Rail roads  ○ the building of railroads caused strong need for proletariat workers   ○ changed social and cultural standards   ○ need for railroad engineers   ○ went through tunnels and mountains and bridges   ○ railway heroes, new industrial hero   ● Great Exposition: Crystal Palace 1851   ○ made with glass and iron (cheap and available)  ○ symbol for England, burned down later in history   ○ represented industrial achievements   ○ famous place (new industrial prouse of England)   ○ glorified, tourist site   ○ England became workshop of the world   ○ England produced 20% of all the world’s industrial goods  ○ The Proletariat class fell, rich became richer the poor became poorer.   ● Condition of England Question  ○ Were people becoming poorer?   ○ Industrial production's environmental outcomes killed many people → Industrial  crisis/ problems  ○ Samuel Smiles (Self Help) 1859   ■ successful book, translated in other European languages   ■ from Scottland, large family, wrote books, father died at early age  ■ doctor, journalist (Lee Times), invested in railroad industry   ■ Topic: Josiah Wedgwood   ● indefatigable→ “fatigue”, he doesn’t get tired (energetic)  ● youngest of 13, poor family   ● leg was amputated due to polio as a child   ● worked himself to the top of the potter buisness (extremely good)   ● made Wedgewood China (the best/expensive)   ● purpose: success after trial and error  ● had admirable perseverance  ● became king's personal pottery maker   ● improved England's economy by trade and production jobs  ● Produces 84 million pieces   ● industrial hero→ inspired others   ● made himself better than what he would have been   ■ included Edgewood in his book because they had a lot in common  ■ similar to The American Dream   


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