Week 9 notes: South Asian, Arab, and Muslim American Clients
Week 9 notes: South Asian, Arab, and Muslim American Clients SOCIAL WORK 3503
Popular in Practice With Diverse Populations
Popular in Social Work
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by MadsSwart on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCIAL WORK 3503 at Ohio State University taught by Kelley Breidigan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Practice With Diverse Populations in Social Work at Ohio State University.
Reviews for Week 9 notes: South Asian, Arab, and Muslim American Clients
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/14/16
Working With Arab and Muslim American Clients Chapter 15 - Demographics o Stages of Arab migration to America First wave (between 1890 and 1920) Primarily Christian from Syria and Lebanon and easily assimilated Second wave (after 1967 war between Israel and the Arab world) Dominated by Palestinians, Egyptians, Syrians and Iraqis who had strong Arab identities Rejection of assimilation, with cultural separatism built on political ideology After 9/11, migration from Arab world diminished due to tightening of immigration laws In post-9/11 U.S., Arab and Muslim Americans have experienced significant racial hatred and hate crimes o 3.5 million Arab Americans 37% are foreign born o 8.5 million Muslim Americans from 75 different countries o Combined Arab/Muslim American population is younger, more highly educated, and earns more than the average American o Difficulties faced by Arab/Muslims in adaptation in the U.S. (Abu- Baker, 2006): Expectations to bring over and settle relatives/friends Developing language proficiency Conflicts between religious requirements and daily American life o Difficulties faced by Arab/Muslims in adaptation in the U.S. (Abu- Baker, 2006): Difficulty finding jobs in their professions and losing social status Differences in social interaction patterns between collective and individualistic cultures Increased tensions within families related to changing behaviors and values - Family and Cultural Values o Pillars of Islam, practiced by about half of Arab Americans Shahada: Oral testimony that there is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet Salah: Ritual prayer performed five times per day Siyam: Fasting during the month of Ramadan Zakah: Giving alms to the poor Haj: Pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime o Christian Arab Americans (the other half of the Arab population) Belong to the Monophyte tradition, believing Christ was the body and spirit of God, or of a “single nature” Remain strongly connected to Muslim Arabs and have been on the forefront of Muslim/Arab politics o Families are patriarchal, authoritarian, and hierarchical Specific roles given to men, women and children Child rearing balances mild rebuke and threats with unconditional love and appreciation Discouraged from individualism o Arabs from Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine, and Jordan Tend to be more educated Includes the majority of Christian Arabs o Arabs from North Africa, including Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco Primarily Muslim Share many African traditions - Arab Ethnic Groups in the U.S. o Arabs from Saudi Arabia and Persian Gulf Countries Primarily Muslim Tend to be more wealthy o Muslim, non-Arab immigrants numbers are double those of Arab Muslims Are ethnically diverse o Countries of origin include Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia), the Middle East (Turkey, Pakistan, Iran), and Africa (Kenya, Uganda) - Common Historical Experiences o America seen as hindrance to independence and national development Also seen as powerful for scientific progress and technology o Societal problems attributed primarily to Western colonialism o Relationship between Arab/Muslim clients and Western providers may include unconscious transference, with the Arab/Muslim client viewing the Western provider as both an oppressor and a powerful superior o Immigration experience evokes mixed feelings; conflicts over varying levels of assimilation in family - Factors Influencing How Clients Seek Help o Do not believe in mind/body dualism Experience psychological issues more holistically o Most psychological issues are accompanies by somatic complaints o Bodily complaints evoke more sympathy than emotional complaints and there is an expectation to tolerate them o Tendency to seek help from a physician first Expect bodily cure to result in mental cure o Seeing a mental health professional is associated with madness Called Jinnoon in Arabic o Arab/Muslim culture attributes psychological disorders to external entities called “Jin” that possess the body o Jin aligns with a tendency to attribute problems to external forces o May seek help from religious healers called Shekhes to eliminate the Jin o Cooperation with traditional healers is necessary for legitimizing client’s mental health treatment o Culture attributes psychological disorders to external entities (Jin) that possess the body Aligns with tendency to attribute problems to external forces o May seek help from religious healers (Shekhes) to eliminate the Jin o Cooperation with traditional healers necessary for legitimizing client’s mental health treatment o Culture attributes psychological disorders to external entities (Jin) that possess the body Aligns with tendency to attribute problems to external forces o May seek help from religious healers (Shekhes) to eliminate the Jin o Cooperation with traditional healers necessary for legitimizing client’s mental health treatment - Arab and Muslim Families and Communities o Common for Arab/Muslim families to hold more strongly to their tradition after immigration to keep it from being lost o Women tend to be more connected to traditional culture Communication with U.S. culture is more limited o Men and children tend to become more quickly assimilated due to extensive exposure to U.S. culture in work and school - Common Problems Presented In Treatment o Psychological problems the same as those present elsewhere, but subject to cultural differences o Tendency toward presenting only somatic complaints o OCD symptoms often include religious ideas and rituals o Stress related to immigration, often addressed through family, couple or marriage counseling o Depression and anxiety in women related to homesickness and dissatisfaction with husbands absence o Issues related to youth dysfunction due to authoritarian parenting in a liberal and individualistic culture - Critical Factors in Assessment o Individuation The degree of independence and autonomy o Ego strength Degree of personal strength Evaluated based on ability to withstand conflicts likely to occur o Family Strictness Readiness for change depends on how strictly families adhere to traditional structure and norms o Indirect interventions are appropriate when levels of individualism and ego strength are low and level of family strictness is high o These interventions address conflicts symbolically through tales, myths, stories, etc., without bringing up content that is forbidden in the family o Use ‘cultural analysis’ to explore belief systems and expose inner inconsistencies Use the oppositions to facilitate therapeutic change by highlighting new values and beliefs - Developing Rapport with Arab and Muslim Clients o Culture is authoritarian with high power distance o Therapists should find a way to join with male authority in a way that respects it o Acknowledge and respect position of male members without neglecting the needs of other family members o Inquire about and listen to concerns of figures of authority o Interview parents and children together in intake meetings to show each that you are speaking to the other without judgment and with respect - Case Example o A 23-year-old Arab Muslim woman experienced a panic attack at university o Came to clinic with her husband, who wanted her to quit school and return home o Therapist uncovered dynamic in relationship regarding the husband’s concern with the wife’s attending school and interacting with other men o The woman’s panic attack had been a result of conflict over her attraction to the social life she experienced as a student and her obligation to her family o Therapist and client used metaphors so she could become comfortable in her new role as a student, and client transferred to an Arab college Working With South Asian American Clients Chapter 16 - Demographics o South Asian Indians are second-largest Asian group in US after Chinese Second fastest-growing after Hispanic Americans o Early immigration concentrated in the East Coast (New York and Florida) Newer trends favor California – High Populations in Chicago and Houston o New trends see immigration to centers of the tech industry Cities where families have est. businesses draw poorer families o Masters, doctorate, and professional degrees at 5X national avg for all Americans - Historical Factorth o Beginn 20 Century, California manual labor caused violence and discrimination o Anti-immigration laws Naturalization rights for South Asian Indians Luce-Cellar Act of 1946 o Two waves of immigration: First wave occurred in 1965 Highly educated professionals Mostly in cities, but some filled rural need for doctors and educators More acculturated Second wave included those with less formal education Many were merchants and established in ethnic enclaves More traditional - Acculturation o Varied according to education, class, caste, family size, economic support connection to traditional culture, degree of religiosity, and migration history o Tended to increase with subsequent generations in America o Conflicts between American individualism and Indian communitarianism o Career and education based on family’s financial well-being - Family Organization and Values o Hindu values are pervasive amongst South Asian Indian families and inform family structures and a communal lifestyle o Emphasis on the sacredness of life and dharma, living by prescribed rules of conduct and hierarchy within the family o Each member’s dharma is fixed by kinship individual’s stage in the life cycle o Failure to abide by one’s dharma and to make appropriate personal sacrifices is seen as bringing hardship and pain upon the family o Other important values include karma, or destiny, and caste, the hierarchal organization of human beings o The organization of family may be nuclear or may include extended families, with grandparents frequently residing or visiting with family for long periods o Families are close-knit and provide financial support when needed, especially in cases of establishing oneself after immigration o Arranged marriages are common and occur with the consent of both families after much vetting This tradition is less apparent in second and third generations o Gender roles have historically been rigid, highly prescribed, and intolerant of women Patterns have changed over time in both India and U.S. Education for women traditionally seen as a way to make daughters more marketable for marriage o Two patterns of discrimination exist in the United States: Paranoia and racial discrimination due to perceived blame for outsourcing and offshoring practices by U.S. companies Post-9/11 attacks against South Asian Indians who were mistaken for Muslims in hate crimes - Characteristics of South Asian Americans o Incredibly diverse group o Includes individuals from countries such as Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka Others may identify as belonging to South Asia Many countries have had fluid borders or were not considered separate until recently Most were, at one time, European colonies o Diverse collection of religions Including Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, and Sikhism Conflicts between Hindus and Muslims Oppressive history of the Hindu caste system o Many different languages are spoken by South Asian Americans Most widely spoken are Hindi, Bengali, and Urdu The language spoken can be an indicator of tribal identity, religious affiliation, or familial lineage Individuals may speak multiple languages because of the importance of knowing languages in industry and commerce and to preserve family tradition o Different groups have taken different immigration paths prior to coming to U.S.: European colonization is one factor that has encouraged the spread of South Asians to many different locals across the world Groups immigrated to the U.K., Fiji, Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa, Guyana, Mauritius, and Trinidad and Tobago These experiences and the resulting acculturation to these places adds to the diversity of South Asian Americans o The impacts of colonialism on collective histories o The importance of family and family structure o Emphasis on family name, family pride, and family legacy o Women have significant domestic and familial responsibility Roles are changing and vary according to the conservative or progressive ideals of a particular family o Experiences on American soil lead to an emphasis on family, dating, acculturation The same across subgroups - Names in South Asian American Sub-Groups o Not much agreement because of complex identities that exist Some prefer references to the particular country or countries from whence their families came Some identify by region, tribe, or caste Some identify by their familial country as well as “American” (i.e., Pakistani American) Some reject “South Asian” for its broadness Preferred identifiers may change depending on context or community - History of South Asian Americans o Prior to 1965, immigrants came as students or as laborers o After the Immigrant and Nationality Act of 1965, restrictions were loosened and more South Asian immigration occurred o Reinstatement of immigration restrictions in 1990 o Immigration limited to family reunification or need for specific classifications of workers o Though there is a more visible community of South Asian Americans today, there has also been a setback since 9/11, creating fear and discriminatory experiences - Factors Influencing How Clients Seek Help o South Asian Americans do not commonly seek psychological help due to an emphasis of the family and community over the individual o Behavior of individuals reflects on the community or family as a whole o Problems can mean shame for everyone o Concern that service providers will not understand values and culture-specific issues o Level of acculturation impacts help seeking Even those who are more acculturated may feel nervous or uncomfortable talking about family problems - Common Problems Facing South Asian Americans o Influenced by level of acculturation o Differences across generations, including misunderstandings and tension over Americanization of youth o Problems associated with identity and conflict with parents frequently experienced by second-generation adults o Family ideas of appropriate behavior and success in a new cultural terrain o Effects of socioeconomics on psychological issues may lead those who immigrated as professionals to feel stress related to achievement, believing in a model minority stereotype o Others may have few resources in the new environment, having immigrated or fled involuntarily May be less likely to speak fluent English May experience differing abilities to obtain high paying jobs May end up in family businesses where they are more likely to be robbed, assaulted, or killed – leading to more stress and fear of harm in the workplace - Assessment with South Asian American Clients o Should include: Information on exact cultural background, immigration history, religion, caste (if relevant), socioeconomic status, generational status, and influence of family/family roles Availability of family and community support systems Impact and experience of discrimination Level of acculturation - Building Rapport with South Asian Clients o Should include: A balance between being informed and being curious Seeking consultation Asking about specific and personal experiences of family and culture; and comfort with cross-cultural providers - Further Considerations with South Asian Clients o Effective therapeutic approaches may include those that are more medical in nature, such as CBT o Considerations include: Psychodynamic theories and psychiatric medication are complicated subjects Former may be experienced as uncomfortable Latter may be less shameful since it can be externalized as a medical problem o Advice-giving may be more successful in it’s reception, but it is important to explore all aspects of the system, cultural values, and behaviors that effect the client’s life o Styles of therapy and intervention will depend on level of acculturation o Therapists should be open and self-reflective about cultural ideas - Case Example o A couple, Rani and Raj, had an arranged marriage and were living in the U.S. with Raj’s parents o Rani felt disrespected by Raj’s parents, that Raj was drinking excessively, and that he had gambled away their savings o Raj saw his behavior as normal, leading Rani to seek a medical recommendation that would encourage him to change o Couple conceptualized the problems differently, especially with regard to family dynamics, due to differing levels of acculturation o Bringing in the whole family would have been too difficult because of language/cultural barriers
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'