Time Space & Chg Human Soc (D)
Time Space & Chg Human Soc (D) ISS 220
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Buster Heller on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 220 at Michigan State University taught by William Lovis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see /class/207749/iss-220-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Social Sci at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Chapter 11 New ideas New Worlds Life in the Upper Paleolithic 1 Comparing the middle and Upper Paleolithic a Cultures of the upper Paleolithic Europe and the equivalent Late Stone Age Africa i Upper Paleolithic 1 Term used for the final phase of the Paleolithic in Europe dating in between 40000 and 10000ya associated with the first appearance of anatomically modern humans in Europe iiLate stone age 1 Final phase of Stone Age in Africa Dating between 40000 and 10000ya b Significant increases in technological sophistication i Middle Paleolithic 1 Term used for the period in Europe after the lower Paleolithic and before the upper Paleolithic dating to between 250000 and 4000ya encompassing the cultures of premodern varieties of human beings including the Neandertals iiMiddle stone age 1 Term used for the time period in Africa after the early stone age before the late stone age dating between 250000 and 40000ya encompassing the cultures of premodern varieties of human beings including those transitional between premodern and anatomically modern Hsapiens 2 Stone tool technologies based on the production of elongated blades rather than flakes a lnvolves significant planning and careful preparation of the stone core b It isn t until about 52000ya that we see in the beginning of a systematic movement toward this method of stone tool production c A bladebased stone tool technology developed in western Europe by about 35000BP i Aurignacian culture followed by Gravettian 1 At the upper Paleolithic tool making tradition characterized by the production of small and denticulate knives Dated from 27000 to 21000 BP iiThe soluteran tradition 1 Stone tool making tradition of the European upper Paleolithic dating between 21000ya to 1600ya 2 Bifacially flaked symmetrical leafshaped projectile points a A pointed tool or weapon generally a stone bone or antler tip hafted onto a shaft often of wood which is thrown or shot at a target usually a hunted animal Includes spear points and arrowheads 3 Magdelanian a A Late upper Paleolithic culture in Europe dating from 16000 to 11000 BP includes finely made barbed harpoons carved decorative objects and cave paintings b Produced microblades i Small usually extremely sharp stone blades set into handles of bone wood antler and so forth 3 Broadening of the subsistence base to include biggame hunting small mammal trapping fishing and catching birds a He concludes that the middle Paleolithic inhabitants of this area were opportunistic hunters killing what they could when they could b In the upper Paleolithic levels i Habitual hunters iiHunting big game animals that migrated across the tundra in a yearly pattern iiiUsed animal hides for clothing ivTrapping Small mammals for their pelts 1 Large supply for food vAso used nets viDivers diets 1 Same in Africa a Fishing and bird catching viiEveryone participated in getting food 4 Increased use of bone ivory and antler for making tools Sewing equipment Eyed needles Projectile points Barbed bone harpoons Antler hammers Used bones to build their shelters i Also used hides 5 Manufacture of nonutilitarian objects particularly items of personal adornment a jewelry i 13000year old site France necklace TthQf IO39n iiBeads and animal teeth b 3d bone carvings i Nelson Bay Cave South Africa II c Growing awareness and significance of individual in society Large Perhaps more sedentary settlements 7 Movement of raw material across long distances implying greater social integration of distant and diverse groups a Trade across great distance are found in late stone age Africa b The ability to trade across great distances implies geographically broad social connections 03 8 Elaborate burials including personal items to accompany the deceased a Sungir graves i Bracelets iiBelts iiiSculptures b The humanity of these people is clearly recognizable 9 Production of the first recognizable works of art in the form of painting and sculpture a 33000 year period b Produced a remarkable variety of artwork in numerous media and styles c Stone slabs painted onengraved on d Animals were the main things i Natural looked like the real thing iill200 and 10000yabrazil iiiAncient Australians depicted their natural and apart worlds in many images they created 1 Different styles 10Art in the European upper Paleolithic a Southwest France and northern Spain b Cave paintings i Used natural pigments to make color 1 Mixed them with a base like blood greases or marrow iiPainted with wooden rods or brushes made with twigs or animal hair iiiGives us a rare glimpse into ancient world 1 Thought they could perform magic Make hunters capture those animals ivDocumentation of previous hunts 1 Like trophies vRegional variation in depicted animals viSpecies frequency in the cave art largely was a function of the economic significance of the animal l Cave art can be explained as fertility magic hunting magic hunting education and storytelling viiPacement of animals is not random 1 Major source of food central position 2 Dangerous creators 9 far away llGeometric signs a The authors refer to visions that result from stimulation of the optic system during altered states as entopic phenomena i Sleep deprivation iiDrugs 12Human depictions a Far less interested in selfportraits b Some hybrid s of human animal crosses c Showed differences between male and females And their different jobs d Handprints i Some were negatives iiMostly women and children l3Carvings and engravings a Some were naturalist depictions i Hybrid creatures 1 Part animal part human b Made first calendars l4Venus figurines a Sculptures of women sometimes with exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics dating to as much as 32000ya b Limestone or ivory or made of baked clay i Self portraits c Renderings of women of all ages and states of fertility i Fertility cult 15The implications of Upper Paleolithic artwork a Ancient art provides a window into the world of our ancestors and it makes sense for us to peer through that window in our attempt to better understand their world b Spiritual connections i Used blood 16Brave new Worlds a Humans could thrive under conditions that had previously proved insurmountable and to migrate into areas that were previously unreachable i Australia 1 Sunda a The combined landmass of modern islands ofJava Sumatra Bail and Borneo These lands became a single continuous landmass during periods of glaciation and attendant lowered sea level during Pleistocene 2 Sahul a The landmass of greater Australia including Australia New Guinea and Tasmania formed during periods of glacial maxima in the Pleistocene i Greater Australia Wallace Trench a A sea chasm more than 7500 meters deep separating Java and Borneo from greater Australia 4 Coming to Australia a Movement into greater Australia involved the use of watercraft Archaeology of the first Australians a First people are located around the perimeter of the continent i Traced back to only 40000ya iiLake Mungo 3 l Oldest human found b Robust skeletal features are very robust i Brow ridges c Swan river 6 Australia s dry interior a 2500020000ya b Conditions were different then the coast i People had to adapt Lu 1 iiThe Americas 1 Settled as early as 20000ya and as late as 50000ya 2 Waking or boating to the New World a Trip could have been made on land alone i Beringia land bridge 1 A broad expanse of land more than 1500 kilometers across connecting North America during periods of sea level depression in the Pleistocene People living in Asia walked east across the land bridge or traveled along its coast into the lands of the western hemisphere likely at least 15000ya and possibly more b Southeast Asia into Northwest North America 3 From Siberia to Alaska a The movement of people into and across Beringia need not have been intentional people may have been migrating because they animals were migrating Most likely population source for American migrants i Similarities between tool techniques iiDenai Complex 1 A stone tool technology seen in the arctic consisting of wedgeshaped cores microblades bifacial knives and burins dated to after lO7OOBp iiiNenana complex 1 Stone toll complex in Alaska dating from 11800 to ll000bp similar to tools made in Russia c How old are the new world sites i Human antiquity in the new world can be traced back more than 10000 years 1 Bluefish caves iiThe Cordilleran ice sheet and the Laurentide ice sheet keep people out of North America 1 Meadowcroft rockshelter near Pittsburgh 4 What do skeletons tells us about the first Americans a No look like modern native Americans or modern native people of northeast Asia i Longer and narrower faces skulls are not round Longer and narrower brain cases b Haven t been able to learn a lot due to struggles with the native American s who do not want the remains dug up i Kennewick man 5 DNA information a The mtDNA of native Americans comprise five distinct DNA clusters canned haplogroups i A biological lineage defined by a cluster of specific cooccurring genetic markers Five major Haplogroups characterize Native Americans and can also occur in East Asia An additional haplogroup found in some Native Americans is also found in Europe west Asia and southwest Asia but has not yet been found in East Asia 039
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