Week 1,2, and 3 notes for 3401 Intro to Sociological Theory
Week 1,2, and 3 notes for 3401 Intro to Sociological Theory 3401
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Notetaker on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3401 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Samantha Kwan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociological Research in Sociology at University of Houston.
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Dr Kwan quotTruth Claimsquot 1 Black servers receive better tips than white servers 2 White customers are more likely than black customers to tip black servers better 3 Black customers are more likely than white customers to tip black servers better The quality of server may be a factor Statements come from their own bias based on their own experience The type of customer The level of education could be a factor In fact the level of pay that would be acceptable It can also be the SES of the customer and server This can also result in the location of the eatery service or person There is a research process like asking the question does service matter Where does SES fall into In regards to the reading assignment concentrate on the mean median and standard deviation Chapter 1 Human Inquiry and Science Ways of Knowing Firsthand knowledge Knowing by direct experience or observation ExamplesAdvantages and disadvantages Secondhand knowledge Knowing by agreementSources tradition and authority examples Advantages and Dis advantages B Provide an example of each type of knowledgePhysica emotional or mental experience such as rsthand knowledgeDiscuss advantages and disadvantages of eachKnowedge that someone told you or knowing by agreement gtTradition Intended knowledgeculture info such childbirth Expertise may not always be right gtAuthority ExamplesHealthcare provider such as a doctor Many times experts do not get questioned their expertise is taken as the gospel For example How Camron Diaz and her health book Book on dieting she is not a dietician Empirical observationand be logicalthis is the requirements of scienti c assertions Methodology is the science of nding out about human social life process in which we use speci c principles methods and techniques to create knowledge the ongoing process of quotknowledge accumulationquot The end product knowledge that addresses questions but not xed absolutes or results only quotprovisional truthsquot Critical Thinking Judging carefully and questioning quothealthy skepticismquot discourages us from quotpremature closurequot the understanding quotambiguities and nuancesquot and being open minded and willing to look at an issue from various perspectives It also utilizes quotlogical thinkingquotAn examination of one39s quotassumptions and biasesquotContra ideological thinkingwhat quotoughtquot to beaso referred to quotmoral or religious thinkingquot ideoogica refers and is quotdogmaticquot Errors in Inquiry and Some Solutions Inaccurate observations You are not making good observation casual Inaccurate observations You are not making good observation casual science is a conscious activityscience protects us from these processes Overgeneralizationpeople end to assume that based on one experience that anything and anyone is like their experiencethere is a protection of this scientist refer to it as quotreplicationquot Selective Observationthe protection is that it seeks out quotdeviant casesquotthose that go against the observable patternaso look at the quotresearch designquot Illogical reasoning it is the errors that scientist do no practice 222016 The Research Process according to Babbi De ning quotLiteraturequot Example Social Media What interest you The celebs or the fans Those who use Twitter You would go to Twitter internet sites such as E Online People that are fans form a community of some sortthere are two things that de ne literature who and what Who de nes what literature is relevant The researcherWhat concepts de nes what literature is relevant Fans celebs social mediawhat makes sense or concepts embedded in the information of the literature or what one is studying GoogleSchoarcom this is a totally different searches empirical literature you are studying the theory You can also use the UH Library Database the rst link Endnote Student version for free Parts of a Research Article Abstract summary of the article including purpose methods and ndings Introduction Introduces the topic separate from the Abstract and perspectives used in the article may have a title or have a title that has to do with the topic The reality of volunteering in a food pantry stress and time consuming de ne what a food pantry is what is it like to work in a food pantry tell the theoretical perspective and how it relates to the topicsometimes they can give the intro a catchy title blank background can be labeled in many waysLlTERATURE REVIEW Introduces what has been learned about the topic and how the article relates to this Methods Explains how data was collected for the study including how the key concepts were measured does NOT give the ndings ex Hegemonic masculinity Connell basically what we already know about the topic refer to the quotbigquot namesWest and Zimmerman Mike actually list the research question for you if it does happen it is quotsegmentedquot for the authors purpose Ex How was the data collected Methods sections NEVER GIVE FINDINGS It reveals the actual results of the study very much like reporting does NOT GIVE INTERPRETATION Findings also can be called results is like reporting just the plain details giving the ndings DiscussionConclusion Interprets ndings discusses implications of the study and directions for future research may be broken into separate sectionsexample The researcher observing abuseethical dilemma of reporting abuse while summing up another study References are a list of sources cited in article USE THIS TO FIND MORE LITERATURE ON THE TOPIC YOU ARE INTERESTED IN a quotSnowball strategy for nding other sources for your topic Important Questions to Ask about a Research Article Where would we go in a research article to answer these types of questions Introduction and the Literature Review is where you would go to nd out about the theoretical How do they create the sample is in the Methods section what did they actually do Important Questions to Ask about a Research articlesField Research In the case of trying to form a research question one must look at how to form the question In the case of a person who is a vegan We can look at the relationship or the possibilities that a person39s environment causes one to become a vegan Looking at the family it is a testable hypothesis that is it more likely that a vegans friends and family being vegan contributed to the person choosing to become vegan When using the example of sex the choices could be either female male other or intersexas the same with race such as W B As or Hisln the case of conceptualization you have to specify the meaning of the concepts and variables to be studiedln regards to the research done on tipping in the service industry there were other factors that could in uence and impact why there were discrepancies in regards to tips The factors to consider were the servers race server skills the atmosphere number of people in the party customer race servers genderin the research project you are going to focus on the main point The next lecture will be over causation continued from stats SOC 3401 Introduction to Sociological Research Spring 2016 Test 1 Study Guide Human Inquiry and Science Discuss rsthand and secondhand knowledge Firsthand knowledge is the quotknowing by direct experience or observationquot Secondhand knowledge is the quotknowing by agreementquot What does each way of knowing entail In the case of rsthand this is the type of knowledge based on experience with secondhand knowledge this is the shared knowledge that is agreed upon For secondhand knowledge discuss both tradition and authority Tradition is the accepting knowledge about the workings of the world and the values that guide our participation in it Authority is those with certification such as a doctors warning against eating too much sugar or catching a cold by kissing a person with one Discuss advantages and disadvantages of each In the case of tradition by accepting what everybody knows we avoid the overwhelming task of starting from scratch in our search for regularities and understanding however it can be detrimental if we seek fresh information of something that everybody already understanding and has always understood and one can be marked as foolish This is due to people rarely think of seeking a different understanding of something we all quotknowquot to be true In the case of authority although we trust the judgement of the person who has special training expertise and credentials they are also subject to make mistakes This inquiry can be hindered when we depend on the authority of experts speaking outside their realm of expertise For example when a politician or religious leader declares that marijuana is a dangerous drug Also the use of popular athletes to promote nutritional values of breakfast cereals or actors promote the performance of automobiles What is social scienti c research It investigates human behavior explains the methods used and the topics studied within the eld Scientists accept the reality of things that they don39t necessarily experience but they have special standards for doing so What criteria do scientists rely on to accept the reality of things that they do not actually experience The two pillars of science are logic and observation the scienti c understanding of the world must make sense and correspond with what we observe and both elements are essential to science and relate to three major aspects of the overall scienti c enterprise theory systematic explanation for the observation that relate to a particular aspect of life data collection process of gathering and measuring information on targeted variables in an established systematic fashion which then enables one to answer relevant questions and evaluate outcomes and data analysis the process of systematically applying statistical andor logical techniques to describe and illustrate condense and recap and evaluate data What does it mean to say that the end product of research is provisional The end product knowledge that addresses questions but not xed absolutes or results only provisional truths always subject to change and discovery resulting in an entirely different conclusion that occurs Research involves critical thinking What are some characteristics of critical thinking Judging carefully and questioning healthy skepticism discourages us from premature closureUnderstanding ambiguities and nuances and being open minded and willing to look at an issue from various perspectivesentais logical thinking and an examination of one s assumptions and biases and is contra ideological thinking What does each error in inquiry entail Discuss an example of each error as well as how social scienti c research protects us from making an error Inaccurate observations overgeneralization selective observation and lllogical reasoning We can make grave errors in inquiry when we set out to learn from our own understanding basically without the facts Inaccurate observations occur because most of our daily observations are casual and semiconscious leading to disagreements about quotwhat really happenedquot To guard against inaccurate observations both simple and complex measurement device thus adding a degree of precision well beyond the capacity of the unassisted human senses In the case of overgeneralization we often assume that a few similar events are evidence of a general pattern overgeneralization occurs on the basis of limited observations impeding or misdirecting inquiry knowledge To guard against overgeneralization scientists seek a sufficiently large sample of observations replication of the inquiry repeating a study to see if the same results occur each time and as a further test the study can be repeated under slightly varied conditions Selective observation is the result of overgeneralization instead focusing on future events and situations that t the pattern ignoring those that don39t racial and ethnic prejudice depend heavily on selective observation for their persistence lllogical reasoning deals with exceptions which can draw attention to a rule or to a supposed rule but in no system of logic can it validate the rule it contradicts Scientists avoid this pitfall by using systems of logic consciously and explicitly protection from the common pitfalls of ordinary inquiry What is empiricismempirical evidence Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience also known as empirical evidence data or knowledge also known as sense experience is a collective term for the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the senses particularly by observation and experimentation What does it mean to say that sociologists seek social regularities The vast number of formal norms in society create a considerable degree of regularity For example those are Republican vote for other Republicans What are some objections to this and how are these objections to this and how are these objections refuted What is a fool39s experiment Is it worth conducting Why First some of the regularities may come off as trivial Second contradictory cases may be cited indicating that the quotregularlyquot isn39t totally regular some laborers make more money than some professors do Third it may be argued that the people involved in the regularity could upset the whole thing if they wanted to How is sociological research different than psychological research De ne and differentiate the various components of each dialectic of social research 1 Idiographic and nomothetic explanation Idiographic are thick descriptions rich detaisNomothetic are casual relationships 2 Inductive and deductive theory and research Inductive When you realize that you actually do better on test when you study with others it moves from the particular to the general from a set of speci c observations to the discovery of a pattern that represents some degree of order among all the given events Deductive This is the second mode of inquiry that moves from the general to speci c moving from a pattern that might be logically or theoretically expected to and observations that test whether the expected pattern actually occurs An example of an inductive theory would be to see if studying alone versus study with a group yields a better test grade knowing that not studying would yield a failing grade in order to test this theory one would divide the test given in a semester in half with a group and the other alone 3 Qualitative and quantitative data Qualitative logic literally not numbers Quantitative logic literally numbers 4 Determinism and agency Agency is choice or free willThe philosophical question remains if humans are determined determinism by their particular environment or whether they feel and act out of their personal choice agency 5 Pure and applied research Pure research is research done simply to determine why something happens ie what Franklin was doing with a key and a kite Applied research is taking knowledge that we have and applying to use like what Edison did with the light bulb Franklin was the pure researcher Edison used that research and applied it How are the rst three dialectics related to one another Paradigms Theory and Research What are three functions of research 1 Identifying general patterns and relationship 2 Testing and re ning theories and 3 Making predictions What is a paradigm A model or framework for observation and understanding which shapes both what we see and how we understand it What is the positivist paradigm and how does it related to social research Auguste Comte coined the term positivism to describe the scienti c truths could be positively veri ed through empirical observations and the logical analysis of what was observed The idea of positivism has come under serious challenge FYI This is in conjunction to St Simon39s belief in the need to let science operate as a guiding principle of social organization PositivismComteis the sovereignty of positive proven con rmed scienti c fact against superstition and prejudice with its key objective being politically conservative stating quotthe only guarantee against the communist invasion geared toward the preservation of capitalismquot The intention was to insert it into the conservative trend with the belief in science and the loss of con dence in religion as a force able to ensure social cohesionto combine traditional French rationalism with a exible empirical approach What is one criticism of this paradigm It ignores the power of such matters as tradition loyalty and image that compete with reason in determining human behavior It also challenges the idea that scienti c ideal assumes there is a radical critique of objectivity Positivism is based on knowledge that has been gained through investigation There is no quotpreconceived notionquot on which the entire system turns there is only method and empirical facts thus turning sociology into an quotinvestigativequot instead of a dogmatic guardian of the ideological community on which social cohesion is premised Reading and Writing Social Research Who and what de nes what literature is relevant for a sociological study Describe what is typically found in each part of a research articles in sociology ie abstract Parts of a Research Article areABSTRACT INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW METHODS FINDINGS DISCUSSIONCONCLUSION and REFERENCES In sociological research articles are the parts always explicitly labeled the abstract always labeled quotAbstractquot If not what are some other terms What is particularly important about the references section especially when thinking about writing a sociological research paper When reading a sociological research article that uses survey methods what are some important questions to ask What about an article that uses eld research methods The Literature Review Laboratory Session with Librarian What is a literature review Why do you conduct a literature review What can do it foryou What is a peerreview What does it mean to say that an article is peer reviewedrefereed How should literature reviews be structured How should they not be structured What does a proper ASA bibliographic entry look like Research Design Explain four purposes of research What is your goal when conducting each type of research What are the key components of the research process See owchart 1 What does each step entail Is the research process linear and unidirectional What is theory Where do researchers turn to understand theories about their topics What is a variable What are attributes What is an independent variable Dependent variable Nomothetic Explanation Nomothetic explanation and casual relationships the criteria involves correlation one is predictive of the other it could be positive or negative independent variable moving in the same or opposite order in the dependent variableneed to establish a relationship time order has to do with the sequence of what comes rst for example we must see the independent variable rstthe cause preceding what comes next then would have to establish that the independent came rst and nonspuriousness not a true relationship summer drives both of the things of ice cream sales and murder spike in the summer something else a third variable causing this False criteria for nomothetic causality Complete causation Exceptional cases If you nd a causal path you can still nd a case where there is no violence or depression Majority of cases For example unsupervised children are more likely to become deviant Supervision is Independent Delinquent is dependent lower supervision equals high delinquent children In the criteria of quottime orderquot types of designs Crosssectional studies Is a snapshot of one time period observation of a sample or phenomenon at one point in time Snapshot one time for example the 655 is an example of a snapshot Longitudinal studies studies conducted over several periods of time Panel studies studied at two periods of time example could be a two different times following up with them the same group over a period of timethe disadvantages consist of people that my die by the end of the study the demographics have changed panel attritionreally hard to nd people to participate in the original and another drawback for panel studies is panel conditioning they are sensitized to the instrument that you useit may not be truevalid in their responses due to repeated data collection Trend studies are a study design that is study twice with different personpopulation more cost effective Cohort studies involve those persons born in the same era called quotage cohortquot people who experience the same life events similarities can be trend studies you will nd that all people would be born in the 705 in group one and two and panel studies Unit of Analysis what and whom you are studying survey the individual Eg individual group organizational artifact nation state etc We are concerned because we do not want to draw invalid conclusions Ecological fallacy the assumption that something learned about an ecological unit says something about the individuals that make up the unit You can only draw conclusion about whom you are studying IF you study cities you can39t draw conclusions on something that is not your quotunit of analysisquot Christina Corruthers SOC 3401 Intro to Sociological Research February 9 2016 1 Lab 4 Research Questions and Rationale Why do people volunteer at nonprofit organizations 2 Rationale The object of volunteering can be seen as a moral issue opposed to just giving 9 time The personal experience of using these organizations for help can be another key factor A persons past experience can promote a feeling of guilt geared toward helping others There is also the issue of being assigned to work or give hours to volunteer for breaking the law In many cases students give up their time to accumulate volunteer hours toward high school and college transcripts Some employers mandate employee participation in company sponsored events However those who volunteer often use their experience of volunteering at nonprofit organizations to start their own Does religiosity motivate people to volunteer at nonprofit organizations Rationale Many people volunteer due to their religious beliefs As the church is a normative organization some people tend to be in agreement that it is their duty to assist those who are less fortunate than others receiving no financial reward in the process Due to the fact that religion is an internalization of belief systems within a particular society people all over the world justify their volunteering directly in line with whatever religion they practice However most of their volunteering is the strong effect of social and political power of religious movements but not limited to family in uence SOC3401 Introduction to Sociological Research Spring 2016 Lab 3 7 percent Part 1 Attendance 1 percent Literature reviews are a crucial component of conducting sociological research The research literature can inform you of relevant theoretical and empirical discoveries on your research topic and questions It can also help you develop your research questions A proper literature review is organized conceptuallythematically and should not merely provide a summary of previous studies However because time restrictions do not permit students to conduct a thorough literature review for the final research report students will provide a summary of three peer reviewed research articles related to their research topic Again this is an exception a proper literature review is organized conceptually In today s lab the sociology librarian will 1 Discuss what a literature review is 2 Explain what peerreviewed research is 3 Help you identify peerreviewed research studies related to your research topic and 4 Demonstrate how to properly cite intext and to create a reference list compliant with the American Sociological Association Style Guide To complete the lab assignment you must locate three relevant peerreviewed research articles Theoretical pieces and review pieces are not permitted for this assignment All pieces must contain original research regardless of method ie interviews experiments surveys content analysis etc If you are confused about whether an article qualifies please ask the librarian You are strongly encouraged to show the librarian your three articles as you will not be awarded full points for completing the homework using an article that does not fit the criteria Homework After selecting three articles that fit the criteria complete Part 11 Submit Part II by 1 pm February 16 for Tuesday lab or February 18 for Thursday lab through Turnitin Part 11 Literature Review Preparation 6 percent Identify Three Peer Reviewed Research Articles 6 points Artide 1 Nesbit R 2013 Nonpro t and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 426 1134 ASA Retrieved from C39Onfpliant httpsearchproquestcomezproxylibuhedudocview 1467684070 Blbhogmphl accountid7107 c Entry Article 2 Taniguchi H amp Thomas L D 2011 The influences of religious attitudes on ASA volunteering Voluntas 222 335 355 doihttpdxdoiorg101007s11266 010 Compliant 91 5 80 Bibliographi c Entry Article 3 Johnson Kathryn A Adam B Cohen and Morris A Okun 2013 Intrinsic ASA 39 Religiosity And Volunteering During Emerging Adulthood A Comparison of gz ffphanth39 Mormons with Catholics and NonCatholic Christians Journal for the Scientific 1 lograp 1 c Entry Study ofRelzgzon 524842 51 Article 1 10 points Research Questions andor Objectives 2 points What is the researcher trying to understand What research questions is the researcher trying to answer The researcher is trying to understand does family who volunteer in uence other family members to volunteer Does strong family ties promote volunteering of family members Methods 3 points What method does she use Brie y describe Who participated in the study What are some characteristics of the sample What was the sample size What type of analysis did she conduct The study consisted of married couples single females native and foreign born participants children over the age of 15 nuclear and non family members The researcher also included the family members age education race and gender The sample size consisted of 150000 but was reduced to 93000 for those participants who responded to the volunteering questions The researcher used a quantitative data analysis survey Key Findings Theoretical andor Empirical 3 points What did the researcher find What are some key findings The researcher found that families with higher education and socioeconomic status were more likely to volunteer Women were more likely than men to volunteer in religious organizations while most men were more likely to volunteer in secular organizations more likely to volunteer due to their spouses Black and Hispanics were less likely to volunteer however religious affiliation promoted a strong social and cultural capital than Whites who volunteered in secular organizations Foreign born people were less likely to volunteer than nativeborn people Households with children over the age of 15 were more likely to volunteer opposed to households with preschool children LimitationsOpportunitie s for Future Research 2 points Are there any limitations with this study Does the study identify avenues for future research If so what The study raises the question of accommodating families with small children that volunteer The study poses that volunteer coordinators in public and nonprofit organizations to provide more opportunities for nuclear and extended family members mostly to those families that already volunteer with their respected organizations It is duly noted that incentives should be used to recruit the family of volunteers thus are they challenging volunteer coordinators to cater the smaller families Article 2 10 points Research Questions andor Objectives 2 points What is the researcher trying to understand What research questions is the researcher trying to answer The researcher is trying to understand whether or how religious attitudes affect volunteering The researcher wants to find out if feeling of religious exclusiveness and inclusiveness attitudes contribute to why people volunteer including those open to other religious teachings Methods 3 points What method does she use Brie y describe Who participated in the study What are some characteristics of the sample What was the sample size What type of analysis did she conduct The study included a sample size of 1612 respondents The participants ranged in age from 2574 The concentration was aimed primarily English speaking adults who were not institutionalized to participate in a 10 year qualitative survey study However the data used from MIDUS I was combined with MIDUS II It focused on SES education marital status gender age and the number of kids in the family including their ages Respondents were administered a 4 point scale to measure exclusiveness ranging from very to not at all As for measuring inclusiveness respondents were administered a 5 point scale ranging from stronglyagree to stronglydisagree In the case of openness to other religions 5 categories ie Conservative Protestants moderate Protestants liberal Protestants Catholic and a residual category were implemented Key Findings Theoretical andor Empirical 3 points What did the researcher find What are some key findings The researcher found that there was a significantly positive in uence that exclusiveness was displayed only in religious areas Religious inclusiveness however was more prominent in both religious and secular volunteering thus supporting the researchers hypothesis The researcher found that those open to other religious faiths were more likely to volunteer in religious and secular areas LimitationsOpportunitie s for Future Research 2 points Are there any limitations with this study Does the study identify avenues for future research If so what are they The limits of the study proved problematic in the area of linking religious attitudes directly to deciding to volunteer The researcher states that additional research is needed to study the differentials between the religious and nonreligious context of volunteer work According to the researcher crosssectional approach limits the causality which could be the consequences of volunteering The researcher proposes that further research can be improved with better longitude data which addresses the causality between religious attitudes and volunteering decisions One major setback of the study is that it is USbased Due to our liberal traditions our limited social services catapults volunteer into the forefront The population is increasing in elderly persons placing economic strain of governmental support thus leaving the door open for more volunteers services Article 3 10 points Research Questions andor Objectives 2 points What is the researcher trying to understand What research questions is the researcher trying to answer The researcher is trying to understand to what length is the internalization of religious group values is associated with the frequency of volunteering among young adult Mormons Does religious groups moderate participation using intrinsic values in the Mormon religiosity Methods 3 points What method does she use Brie y describe Who participated in the study What are some characteristics of the sample What was the sample size What type of analysis did she conduct Mormons Catholics and nonCatholics were surveyed on their perceptions of God including intrinsic and extrinsic The sample size consisted of 964 college students participations was rewarded for extracredit Eligible students had to selfidentify their religious affiliation ie Mormon Catholic nonCatholic and be 1829 years of age A five point scale was instituted and participants had to score a 3 or higher on their belief in God The researcher measured the frequency of volunteering using a 7 point scale Intrinsic and Extrinsic religiosity was measured by using the l4item Gorsuch and McPherson scale The last variable measured was church attendance which used a 7point scale ranging from never to daily or almost daily The researcher used a quantitative survey using several point systems Key Findings Theoretical andor Empirical 3 points What did the researcher find What are some key findings Controlling for extrinsic religiosity and worship attendance the relationship between intrinsic religiosity and frequency of volunteering was greater among Mormons than Catholics and nonCatholic Christians in the context of religious and family volunteering However intrinsic religiosity was not a significant predictor of secular volunteering Our findings suggest that Mormon culture in uences the frequency and type of volunteering engaged in by young Mormon adults LimitationsOpportunitie s for Future Research 2 points Are there any limitations with this study Does the study identify avenues for future research If so what are they One limitation of the present study is that we included only those participants who said they believed in God This was done so that we could eliminate participants who were apparently nominally religious but who did not necessarily adhere to their group s religious beliefs A second limitation is that we treated nonCatholic Christians as a homogeneous group Mormons are often married at a younger age than the national average Pew Forum 2009 and that some Mormon emerging adults in our study may have had families of their own which might explain their preference for volunteering for the bene t of family members The researcher does not specify the need for further avenues of future research Literature Review 30 points Now using your notes from the tables above provide a summary of each article in your own words Again do not quote the article verbatim If you need to quote the article directly cite properly ie following the ASA Style Guide Each summary should be approximately 300 words In your summary you should clearly identify and discuss the author s research questionsobjectives and methods as well as the key theoretical and empirical discoveries of the study In the article The In uence of Family and Household Members on Individual Volunteer Choices 2003 Rebecca Nesbit attempts to understand if the household composition plays an important role of how the families volunteer This study consisted of married couples single females native and foreign born participants children over the age of 15 nuclear and nonfamily members The researcher also included the family members age education race and gender The sample size consisted of 150000 but was reduced to 93000 for those participants who responded to the volunteering questions The researcher used a quantitative data analysis survey The study revealed that there was a strong correlation to education and socioeconomic factor that contribute to those attitudes of volunteering Although the focus of the study remained concentrated on those married couples who volunteer women were more likely than men to volunteer in religious organizations than men preferring to volunteer in secular organizations Duly noted were the differences of nonWhite volunteers attitudes from that of Whites It can be assumed that this is where socioeconomic status comes in to play Due to the fact that Blacks and Hispanic are less likely to volunteer their religious affiliations promoted strengthened social and cultural capital to that of Whites The study brie y touched on some other variables such as children in the household The study revealed that households with high socioeconomic status and education were most likely to volunteer foreignborn persons were less likely to volunteer The limitations exposed in the study relate to accommodation of families that volunteer with small children Volunteer coordinators of nonprofit and public organizations must utilize more opportunities for those family members who have a member that volunteers for their organizations More accommodations should be afforded to those small volunteer families including those with preschool age children The researcher fails to submit a recommendation for further studies and is not found in the study itself Leonard D Thomas and Hiromi Taniguchi s article The In uence of Religious Attitudes on Volunteering 2011 asks how religious attitudes affect volunteering The researchers want to find out if the feeling of religious exclusiveness and inclusiveness attitudes contribute to the action of volunteering including those persons of other religious teachings This study was conducted over a 10 year span using data comprised of MIDUS I and MIDUS II compiling a qualitative survey study The number of participants were modified with a final number of 1612 This was a safeguard in the study due to the original number of participants either dropping from the study this included missing and deleted files Exclusiveness and inclusiveness were measured with 5 and 4 point scales other religious teachings were included with a nonresidual category The researchers found that there were significant in uence that exclusiveness was demonstrated only in religious volunteering Inclusiveness was more than likely to be found in both religious and secular volunteering and supports the researchers hypothesis However those who practiced other religious teaching were more likely to volunteer in both areas The limitations of the study were in the area of linking religious attitudes to deciding to volunteer The researchers proposed further research in the area that better longitude data would provide a better insight to studying the differentials between the religious and nonreligious connections of volunteer work The major setback of the study is that it was US based US liberal traditions limits social service organizations and catapults volunteers into the forefront The aging US population is an example into the need for more volunteer and their service In the article Intrinsic Religiosity and Volunteering During Emerging Adulthood A Comparison of Mormons with Catholics and NonCatholic Christians 2013 Johnson Cohen and Okun tries to understand to what length does internalization of religious group values that are present in young adult Mormons Does religious groups control their participation of volunteering with intrinsic values in Mormon religiosity The study consisted of 964 college students whose participation was rewarded with extracredit In order to participate in the study these students had to selfidentify their respected religious affiliations The researchers were interested only in those students who identified as Mormon Catholic nonCatholic with an added specification of age that ranged from 18 to 29 years old As a safeguard against error in the study those respondents had to score a 3 of higher in order to be further eligible this measurement was issued on a 5 point scale The frequency of volunteering using a 7 point scale while intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity was measured by using the l4item Gorsuch and McPherson scale Church attendance also used a 7point scale that ranged from never to daily or almost daily This study was done using several point system surveys using a quantitative survey The researchers concluded that Mormon culture in uences the frequency and type of volunteering that a young adult Mormon pursues This is done by controlling the variable for extrinsic religiosity and worship attendance the relationship between Mormons were greater than that of Catholics and nonCatholics when addressing intrinsic religiosity and volunteering regularity Intrinsic religiosity was not a viable predictor of those who volunteer in secular areas The limitations of the study is that only those who believed in God were permitted This was a precaution to the study to eliminate those participants who did not adhere to the group s religious beliefs NonCatholic Christians were treated as homogenous groups CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES ON VOLUNTEERING FOR NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS You are being invited to participate in a research project conducted by Christina Corruthers at the University of Houston This study is for a spring 2016 course project SOC3401 To participate in this study you must be an active member of a church NONPARTICIPATION STATEMENT Your participation is voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which you are otherwise entitled You may also refuse to answer any question If you are not a church member a decision to participate or not or to withdraw your participation will have no effect on your standings PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of the study is to understand why people volunteer at non profit organizations and if religiosity plays a role is this decision The duration of the entire study is one semester approximately 4 months PROCEDURES You will be one of approximately 25 subjects to be asked to participate in this project You will be asked to take one short paper and pen survey There are no followups and your total time commitment is approximately 5 minutes CONFIDENTIALITY Your participation in this project is anonymous Please do not write your name on any of the research materials to be returned to the principal investigator RISKSDISCOMFORTS There are no foreseeable risks in this study This survey examines how your religiosity determines whether you volunteer or not This can be viewed as private and sensitive The survey may pose some emotional discomfort The emotional harm is minimal and you are reminded that you can skip any question that you are not comfortable in answering BENEFITS While you will not directly benefit from participation your participation may help investigators better understand church members perspectives on volunteering in nonprofit organizations ALTERNATIVES Participation in this project is voluntary and the only alternative to this project is nonparticipation INCENTIVESREMUNERATION There are no incentives or remuneration for your participation PUBLICATION STATEMENT This study is for pedagogical purposes As such the results will not be published If you have any questions you may contact Christina Corruthers at ccorruthers00vahoocom You may also contact the instructor Professor Samantha Kwan at 713 7433948 Thank you for your time and assistance Principal Investigator s Name Signature of Principal Investigator SOC 3401 Introduction to Sociology Research Spring 2016 Lab 6 Ethics Paragraph Example 9 2 Percent I will be conducting surveys with church members and nonmembers to understand their perspectives on why people volunteer in nonprofit organizations I acknowledge that the subject matter in one that some survey respondents may be sensitive to As such in my informed consent document I will mention that the survey addresses does religiosity determines whether you volunteer or not My informed consent document will also provide a summary of key elements of the study so that a potential respondent can make an informed decision about participation I will write the informed consent document at a 8th grade level since my populations is members and nonmembers of a church This will ensure comprehension I will also mention in my informed consent document that the study is voluntary and stress that respondents can withdraw from participation at any time or skip any survey question they are not comfortable addressing My study does not pose any physical harm to respondents There are also no foreseeable harms e g reputational or legal However because of the sensitive nature of the topic the survey may pose some emotional discomfort However this harm is minimal and again I will remind my respondents before they take the survey that participation is voluntary and that they can withdraw at any time or skip any question they are not comfortable addressing Christina Corruthers SOC 3401 March 3 2016 DrKwan 1 9 Lab 7 Measurement Why do United Methodists volunteer at nonprofit organizations How does religiosity impact people s motives to volunteer at nonprofit organizations Volunteerism refers to a person s belief to dedicate their time toward helping others Religiosity refers to a person s dedication to their religious beliefs and its doctrines Religiosity I Motivation on volunteering for nonprofit organizations ReligiositV Dimension 1 Practice Indicator 1 Church attendance Indicator 2 Experiences Indicator 3 Dedication Dimension 2 Belief Indicator 1 Tradition Indicator 2 Morality Motives of volunteering Indicator 1 Time Indicator 2 Effort Indicator 3 Motivation Indicator 4 Organizations Other relevant variables that might be driving the outcome Location Age Family Income Raceethnicity Christina Corruthers SOC 3401 March 6 2016 5 Percent Test I Bonus Questions 1 A representative sample is selected from a larger population of study However it must contain the same distributions of characteristics as the population it was selected from re ecting the members of the entire population Due to the fact that human beings are heterogeneous EPSEM equal probability of selection method ensures that each member of a population has the same chance of being selected into the sample Probability sampling is used in order to provide useful descriptions of the total population and the sample of individuals from a population must contain essentially the same variations that exist in the population For example the sample must be as diverse as the population it is taken from A researcher cannot simple pick whatever they want they must include all facets of the total population This is why random sampling works the best However it does not guarantee a perfect representation of the population It is most effective when using random sampling techniques Representativeness only concerns those characteristics that are relevant to the interests of the study not knowing in advance which characteristics are relevant By using probability sampling we know the odds or probability that we have represented the population well There are 5 random sampling strategies used simple stratified systematic cluster and multistage Therefore there is no perfect representation There is only the sample closely being approximately those same aggregate characteristics in the population Using random selection methods checks conscious or subconscious bias on the part of the researcher This eliminates the researcher selecting cases that support their own research or hypotheses providing estimates and accuracy of samples A sampling frame is a list or quasi list of elements from Which a probability sample is selected It must be in agreement With With the population in study Thus the samples representativeness depends if a sampling frame contains all members of the total population that the sample intends to represent In this instance the researcher must use systematic sampling This technique is frequently chosen by researchers for its simplicity and periodic quality Of the quasi list of elements every kth element in the total list is systematically chosen for inclusion in the sample EPSEM is important as stated earlier as it provides that each member of a population has the same chance of being selected into the sample Systematic sampling is more representative and convenient If the first element is chosen at random systematic sampling could yield favorable representativeness However the arrangement of elements in the list can produce a biased sample When using systematic sampling the researcher should consider the arrangement of elements in the sampling frame avoiding periodicitythe repetition of an element in a sample This could lead to overrepresentation Incorporation of stratification of a sample can improve representativeness of a sample by reducing the sampling error of a study Although problematic at times these ramification can remedy biases quite easily