Week 4, 5, and 6 Monserud
Week 4, 5, and 6 Monserud 3373
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This 129 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Notetaker on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3373 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Maria Monserud in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Comparative Family Stuctures in Sociology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 03/14/16
Diversity Among American Ethnic Fmilies Z Monserud M Family Lecture 2 r Gerstel amp SarkisianzThe Color of FamilyTies 33 Extended family ties l o Whites Exchanges of financial support 0 White women Exchanges of emotional support 0 Blacks and Hispanics in particular women Exchanges of help with practical tasks 0 Black and Hispanic men Live near relatives and stay in touch with them More so than White men 0 Regardless of race men Exchanges of practical help and emotional support Gerstel amp SarkisianzThe Color of Family Ties 33 cont Explanations for differences in extended family ties 0 Raceethnicity vs social class Gerstel amp SarkisianzThe Color of Family Ties 33 cont Explanations cont 0 Raceethnicity Differences in cultural values Extended family is relatively more important for Blacks and Hispanics 0 Social class Differences in socioeconomic status Less income and education among Blacks and Hispanics Gerstel amp SarkisianzThe Color of Family Ties 33 cont 0 Research by the authors 0 The same amount of income and education Similar patterns of involvement with extended families 0 Regardless of race Lower SES 39 More liker to exchange practical assistance and visit with extended kin 39 Need for practical help from kin 39 Willingness to give help in return Gerstel amp SarkisianzThe Color of Family Ties 33 cont 0 Research by the authors 0 Nuclear family vs Extended family 0 Marriage as a greedy institution Involvement with extended kin and marital ties Marriage diminishes ties to extended kin 39 Married 39 Less involved with their parents and siblings Gerstel amp SarkisianzThe Color of Family Ties 33 cont 0 Research by the authors 0 But Support to relatives sometimes comes at the expense of nuclear family 0 Involvement with extended families Less liker to get married Less liker to move up economically Less liker to get ahead Less liker to pursue individual opportunities 0 Discouragement from the kin under certain circumstances Gerstel amp SarkisianzThe Color of Family Ties 33 Policies supporting the family 0 Different experiences of families of color 0 Extended families provide various kinds of support Need the rights and support systems usually reserved for spouses Gerstel amp SarkisianzThe Color of Family Ties cont 33 Governmental programs 0 Do not take into account important variations in kinship patterns in families 0 The Famin and Medical Leave Act 39 Guarantees unpaid leave from jobs to provide medical care to only spouses children or elderly parents 0 Medicaid 39 Pays only for nonfamilial care of ill injured or disabled individuals 0 Solutions suggested by the authors 0 Include extended kin lnu igl mil u l x A 1 Rubin Families on the Fault Line I 7 Why do upperclass and workingclass Americans respond so differently to the topic of immigration according to Rubin What paradox does Rubin see in how nativeborn Americans view immigrants How does Rubin explain the recent tendency for whites to reclaim their ethnic roots Rubin argues that economic stresses encourage white workers racial bias In your opinion are the racist sentiments often expressed by white workers better explained by their racism or by the economic stress they face Why or why not Moran Interracial Intimacy 7 How did antimiscegenation laws reinforce the racial hierarchy between blacks and whites in the slaveryera South Moran shows that federal laws racialized Asian immigrants How did response strategies to this racialization vary for ChineseJapanese and Filipino immigrants A Then and Now Overview of the Immigrant Famin in America M Famiiy Push and Pull Factors l9th Century Push 0 Social and historical changes in Europe A shift from laborintensive to capitalintensive enterprIse 0 The US welcomed the surplus labor energies hopes and aspirations of dislocated migrationprone Europeans Push and Pull Factors I9 Century 0 Full 0 The US as a distant magnet Land of opportunity A dreams would come true Family and friends already in America N Immigration Waves The mid 9th century the beginning of the 20th century 0 3035 million immigrants 0 3 of the former immigrants went back to Europe Failed to find fortune Accumulated enough wealth to return Immigration Waves cont Old immigration I830 882 0 IO million Irish German Scandinavian English Scottish and ScotsIrish N Immigration Waves cont New immigration I 882 I 930 0 Slavs Italians Greeks and Eastern European Jews Greater social and cultural differences between them and Americans Burden to the US Immigration laws I92I I924 39 Discriminated against the people of southern and eastern Europe through a nationquota system 39 2 of the number of a country s nationals in the US in I890 lnu ll mil u Characteristic Features of Immigrant Families 1 o PossessionszThe baggage 0f life 0 Take the essentials leave the rest behind Cookware bedding clothing tools Mementos such as pictures Transitory Existence 0 Some settled down quickly 0 Others constantly moved Characteristic Features of Immigrant Families cont 0 Importance of famin 0 Busts amp booms in the American economy 0 Ordeal of assimilation 0 Families as buffers to fears and the lack of guaranteed success in the US Characteristic Features of Immigrant Families cont Generational Frictions 0 Children were more liker to rapidly Americanize 0 Frustrations 0 Generation gap y f The Famin Life Cycle cont Ihe Marriage Institution 3 0 A serious and important event 0 A way to establish independence The Famin Life Cycle cont Mate Selection 0 Endogamy Marriage within a specific group 0 Gender imbalance Bachelors 0 Parental influence on marital choice The Family Life Cycle cont Children and Childhood 0 A large number of children 0 Mother s responsibility to raise children 0 Extended kin networks 0 Little concern about the rights of children 0 Embarrassment in school because of poor English 0 Feelings of resentment The Famin Life Cycle cont 0 Coming onge 0 Children were legally able to begin working at l4 years of age 0 Already worked part time 0 Marriage of children was a loss of income for families The Famin Life Cycle cont Adulthood 0 Males achieved their status through work and marriage 0 Females achieved their status through motherhood The Family Life Cycle cont Old Age 0 Impossible to stay above the poverty line Old age pensions were rare 39 Laidoff or fired prior to eligibility 0 Retirement package Paidfor house A savings account Burial insurance 0 Poor health and short life expectancy lnu ll mil u Family Controls Functions and Dysfunctions Most Europeans left behind rural societies 0 Local folkways and mores provided the boundaries for and set the controls over everyday life In American society 0 Immigrants found that external authorities could and did affect their lives 39 School health and sanitation police and taxing authorities Distrust noncompliance avoidance rejection indifference i nu igl mil u Family Controls Functions and Dysfunctions cont 1 Immigrant families resisted change 0 At the same time immigrant families 0 Accepted public education 0 Encouraged ambition and social mobility 0 Helped family members to improve their lives 0 Accepted certain elements of American culture The Great Lull I925 I965 The Immigration Law of I924 0 Nationquota system 39 2 of the number of a country s nationals in the US in I890 39 The goal was to preserve the Nordic character of American society 0 Discriminated against 39 Jews Intelligence and political views 39 Japanese and Chinese Diligence and ambition 39 Eastern and southern Europeans Poverty ignorance and clannishness inu igl mil u Ethnic Immigration Since I965 Amendments to the Immigration Acts of I920 ancl I924 0 Abolished the national origin system and all restrictions against Asian and Pacific people 0 Since I965 immigrants are more ethnically diverse Pyke Immigrant Families in the US I 3 lWhat are some of the main differences in background between 1 current immigrants and previous generations of immigrants to the US 2 How does segmented assimilation theory differ from straightline assimilation theory 3Why do some immigrant groups see traditional gender relationships as crucial to the maintenance of their ethnicity How are these gender relationships complicated by women39s participation in paid employment 4What factors explain the often complicated relationship between first and secondgeneration immigrants 5What are some of the distinctive issues facing laterlife first generation immigrants ie those who immigrate in older ages Ethnicity Social Class and Family Monserud M Family Lecture 4 Raleszeenage Pregnancy 23 The US the highest rate of teenage childbearing in more developed countries 0 Rates of teenage childbearing and teenage abortion have been falling 4O births per OOO teenage girls US 0 22 in Canada 0 l3 in Germany 0 4 inJapan Raleszeenage Pregnancy 23 cont 0 Teenage childbearing is a problem 0 More so today than in the past 0 Why Raleszeenage Pregnancy 23 cont Racialethnic differences in teenage childbearing in the US 2005 O Hispanics 8 5 per one thousand 0 AfricanAmericans 609 0 NativeAmericans 525 0 Whites 260 Raleszeenage Pregnancy 23 cont 0 Consequences of teen childbearing o Mothers 39 Poor 39 Welfare recipients 39 Do not finish high school 0 Children 39 Low birth weight 39 Behavioral problems 39 Do poorly in school 39 Do not finish high school 39 Become teen mothers 39 Go to prison Raleszeenage Pregnancy 23 cont 0 To reduce the rate of teen childbearing 0 Reasons for teen childbearing Not moralcultural valuesculture of poverty But social context concentrated poverty 39 Neighborhoods 39 Limited access to adequate schools and secure jobs 39 Poorest areas of the country 39 No prospects for the future 39 Lack access to other fulfilling and rewarding social roles 39 No control over their lives 0 Do not have much reason to put off childbearing RaleyTeenage Pregnancy 23 cont o The I996 Personal Responsibility and Work 1 Opportunity Reconciliation Act PRWORA The Temporary Assistance to Needy Families TANF 0 Ended welfare as we know it 39 Reasons Welfare causes the rise in femaleheaded households Encourages a culture of poverty Unwed childbearing especially among African Americans PRWORA and TAN F 0 To receive benefits 39 Live with parents 39 Stay in school 39 A lifetime maximum of 5 years lnu igl mil u Raleszeenage Pregnancy 23 cont 0 Not welfare receipt but socioeconomic backgrounddisadvantage 0 Welfare payments declined femaleheaded families increased the l960sl980s 0 Europe more generous welfare benefits Lower rates of teenage pregnancy 0 A racialized culture of poverty Poor White teens have the same patterns of teenage childbearing Raleszeenage Pregnancy 23 cont Racialethnic minorities 0 More likely to be more poor 0 More likely to reside in areas of concentrated poverty 7 of poor Whites live in extreme poverty areas 32 of poor Latinos 39 of poor African Americans 0 Not differences in cultural values 0 But differences in socioeconomic resources lnu ll mil u Raleszeenage Pregnancy 23 cont Social class 0 Not only income and education 0 But social relationships One group of people finds itself in a certain pattern of interaction with other groups The members of this group get a set of shared experiences expectations problemsolving habits vulnerabilities and privileges Social values are modified on the basis of practical experience Raleszeenage Pregnancy 23 cont Few costs to having had a baby in their teens 0 In terms of social and economic mobility 39 Little if any socioeconomic advantage accrues to poor women who delay motherhood They can meet the challenge of pregnancy and motherhood An avenue to adulthood 0 Lack access to other fulfilling and rewarding social roles 0 Attracted to motherhood lnu igl mil u Roy and Burton Mothering Through Recruitment 24 0 Why is it important to encourage paternal involvement in lowincome families 0 How do mothers quotrecruitquot fathers and father figures for their children 0 What are some of the barriers to recruitment mothers experience 0 What positives and negatives do mothers experience in the recruitment of paternal kin Lareu Unequal Childhoods 29 M oooo rud M Family Lecture 4 Lareau Unequal Childhoods 29 Explain the differences between the concerted cultivation 1 and accomplishment of natural growth models 2 Lareau argues that kids raised with concerted cultivation gain a sense of entitlement in regards to institutions while children raised with the quotnatural growthquot viewpoint develop a sense of constraint in institutionsWhy Explain her argument 3What are the burdens of the concerted cultivation model What are the advantages of the natural growth model 4Why does Lareau think that many parents feel so much pressure to engage in quotconcerted cultivation Review 0 Push and pull factors for immigration from Europe to the US in the l9th century 0 Old immigration l830 l 882 vs new immigration l882 l 930 Review cont 0 Immigration Acts of I92l I924 Immigration Act of I965 Characteristics of current immigrants Segmented assimilation theory vs straightline assimilation theory N Review co nt Importance of family for immigrants Generation gap 0 Old age in the past 0 Elderly immigrants today Th Irish American Family Monserud M Family Lecture 5 Introduction 0 Immigration to America for over 200 years 0 2008 over 363 million Irish Americans 0 Second in number only to those of German ancestry High population presence in most states 0 Extensive assimilation Immigration Began in the 8th century 0 3000 to 5000 per year 0 Loss of leases on land Rising rents and crop failures A serious potato crop failure in 740 74 0 Mostly men Small farmers Tradesmen Indentured servants Convict transportees Immigration cont 9th century 0 Tradesmen fishermen domestic servants shopkeepers amp small farmers O From nearly every county in Ireland Slow assimilation 39 Temporary employment in mills O 39 Transient jobs constructing roads or canals 39 Transient jobs on ships 0 Extensive network particularly in New England 0 An increasing number of women lnu ll mil u Immigration cont l9th century cont 0 The Great Hunger of the late I840 The ruination of the potato crop in I845 39 Continued each year till I848 Basic staple in the Irish diet About 5 million Irish immigrated between I846 I855 Migration continued for the remainder of the l9th century 39 Over 500000 people every decade Poor and young 39 50 women Family System in Ireland One sondaughter inherited the land Patriarchal O The father was the head of the family 39 Until he retired or died 0 Enforced celibacy delayed marriage 0 Migration of unmarried noninheriting siblings 0 Familism 39 The family welfare is above individuals wellbeing 39 A strong sense of sibling loyalty 39 Not emotional closeness but responsibility ind ll in i H Li FJquot y Family System in Ireland cont 0 The family could provide for only one dowry l o More autonomous single women Left home Found employment 39 Emigrated independently Family System in America The wife was more employable 0 The husband s role as provider and leader diminished The number of absent fathers was high 0 The importance and power of the Irish mother increased Implications of Immigration for Ireland 0 A high net decrease of the population 0 Prior to I845 nearly 9 million in Ireland 0 By I92lmore than 46 million emigrated Historical Background 0 Restrictions of the I9ZOs the Great Depression I and World War ll 0 Irish immigration declined steadin Immigration to Britain 0 Late inheritance O Delayed marriage 0 Stagnating industrialization 0 New agricultural techniques 39 Less need for manual labor Immigration to America 0 To join the family lnu ll mily u Historical Background cont 0 The 970sz 0 Reforms in Ireland 0 Return migration Improved academic opportunities A rising standard of living Improvements in tourist industry Immigration cont The I 9805 0 New influx of Irish immigrants Debtridden economy High unemployment Oppressive taxation 0 The New Irish More stratified A wide variety of class education and legal statuses lnu II in i I u Immigration cont 0 The I 9905 0 The Irish economy recovery Return migration 0 Currently membership in the EU New immigrants 0 Difficult to assimilate into an established Irish American community Perceptions of Ireland as a premodern society But it is a modern cosmopolitan society The Experience of Irish Immigrants l8th l9th centuries 0 The urban Northeast Ghettoes Widespread discrimination Conflict Delayed upward social mobility 0 Other regions of the US Different experience Midwest California Montana South Less discrimination better economy More educated more successful Irish American Family Characteristics 0 Diversity in size scope and length of the Irish immigration 0 Difficult to generalize about Irish Americans Irish American Family Characteristics cont 0 Traditionally described as 0 Authoritarian and less affectionate families 0 Subservient mothers 0 However Irish mothers have been very important in families 0 While fathers have been less prominent figures in families Irish American Family Characteristics cont 0 Irish American women delayed marriage 0 Reluctant to give up economic and emotional independence 0 Strived for selfsufficiency 0 Education was encouraged for both male and female children Irish American Family Characteristics cont Siblings and all other family members show loyalty to each other 0 Loyalty is more dutiful than emotional Irish American Family Characteristics cont 0 The Irish are very respectful of a person s right to privacy Their sense of pride leads them to be selfsufficient 0 Don t turn to family members for support Even in times of need The Catholic Church o In the first half of the 20th century the Irish dominated the Catholic Church in America The Catholic Church cont 0 A unifying force within communities of Irish immigrants Provided 0 A variety of support 0 Opportunities for advancement and learning 0 Organized events for families to gather together Particularly true in urban areas 0 Catholic communities encompassed home church work and education The Catholic Church cont 0 As time went on changes occurred in both the Irish population and religious rituals 0 Irish Americans left urban areas and churches expanded to the suburbs The Catholic Church cont Policy changes within the Second Vatican Council 0 Transformed things such as masses altars and food restrictions 0 Made certain Catholicbased rituals optional A more relaxed atmosphere 0 Catholics began to make more life and religious choices on their own lnu ll m i l u The Catholic Church cont The relationship between the Catholic Church and the power Irish Americans hold within Catholicism in the US continues to evolve 0 Especially in recent times of sexual child abuse cases and related coverup scandals Health and Illness Health is of utmost importance to the Irish Tend to be stoic patients Minimizedeny pain and accept it without complaint 0 Irish Americans fear physical disability and internal disease 0 Because their ability to work is important Health and Illness cont 0 Irish Americans respect privacy 0 0 Family ties are described as somewhat loose Tendencies toward emotional and physical distance Information about each other s illnesses within families is not always communicated Family support is not expected and not necessarily offered Care of the Elderly Elder care tends to come from religious and other types of organizations and care centers 0 Not from the family directly Care of the Elderly cont Immigrants from Ireland were often young and poor particularly in previous centuries 0 Caretaking of the elderly was not a big issue A smaller number of older immigrants Died early due to health conditions related to poverty Care of the Elderly cont The Catholic Church began establishing elder care centers by the late l9th century 0 Not based on ethnic identity But the Irish abounded in these institutions The close relationship between Irish Americans and the Catholic Church 0 Church officials often took over certain clain needs for elderly people in their parishes Assistance with paying bills and shopping Care of the Elderly cont Irish Americans can possibly feel guilt over family obligations 0 Including those for elderly family members The elderly lrish are reluctant to lose their independence and rely on relatives 0 Prefer assisted living facilities over family care The childless nevermarried or widowed turn to siblings for support and cohabitation Conclusion 0 Have gone through many changes and adaptations Family loyalty hard work and education are still greatly valued Catholicism has a significant but evolving in uence 0 Continue to value independence and self sufficiency throughout their lives Conclusion cont Assimilated 0 Became more American than Irish 0 A symbolic rather than actual identity 39 No actual purpose It is not important for survival or confronting prejudice 39 It has little effect on lifestyle family structure or behavior Mintz Laboring Children 5 I How did the Industrial Revolution change the relationship between middleclass parents and their children Between workingclass parents and their cthren 2 What freedoms did urban workingclass youth experience after the decline of the apprenticeship systemWhat social vulnerabilities came along with this freedom 3 What types ofjobs did lrish young immigrants hold in America 4 What was the effect of immigration on Irish families Review 0 Family system in Ireland in the l9th century 0 Family characteristics of Irish immigrants 0 Important individual characteristics 0 Experience of Irish immigrants 0 Northeast vs other regions 0 Importance of the Catholic Church for the Irish Care of the elderly among the Irish re e k A m e ri c a n F min Monserud M Family Lecture 6 Family Characteristics Regional variation Smaller families 0 More liker to be marriedcouple families 0 Less liker to experience divorce or separation Less liker to be singlemother families Family Characteristics cont Higher rates of education 0 Higher rates of employment Higher median income 0 Lower poverty rates 0 Even among femaleheaded households Immigration Three Waves I The end of I9th century and beginning of the 20th century 2 AfterWorId War II 3 In the post I965 period The end of I9th century and beginning of the 20th century 0 Men to stay temporary 0 By I930 3 returned to Greece Women picture brides Created community 0 Men moved a lot 0 Settled in various parts of the US 2 AfterWorId War II o The Midwest and Northeast 0 Largest communities 0 Opportunities for maintaining their ethnic identities 3 In the post I965 period 0 2000 new immigrants annually Settle near family 0 The Midwest and Northeast Family Patterns 0 Rates of intermarriage high 0 Especially in western US Greatly assimilated Distinctive GreekAmerican culture among 3quotd and 4th generations of immigrants 0 Live in families of mixed cultural backgrounds Family Patterns cont Greece is regionally diverse in terms of gender relations 0 Key expectation 39 Woman s primary responsibility is to her family s wellbeing 0 Greek patriarchy 39 Traditionally patriarchal families 39 Strong and dynamic woman inside and outside the home and family 39 Women have authority and power within families and outside families In charge of family finances and family consumption 39 The mother is a central actor in the family A superwoman lnu ll mil u Family Patterns cont Increasingly value education 0 For sons and daughters 0 Before the I960570s the majority were workingclass families 0 The American Dream 0 Indicator for women Stay at home and become a fulltime homemaker Often establish a small business 39 Women lose control of families finances The Italian American min Monserud M Family Lecture 6 Introduction 0 Mass immigration beginning in the 880s 0 Greatly assimilated But maintain an ethnic identity in some form 0 The structure and role of ethnic families in individual lives 0 Immigrant generation vs Americanborn children and grandchildren Italian Immigration and Family Life 0 Migration to the US in the late l9th century through the postWorld War II period 0 Economic reasons 0 Economic gain upward mobility family maintenance in the homelands Temporary migration 0 H3 to 392 from I880 through the 920 returned to Italy Italian Immigration and Family Life cont 0 Importance of families and villagebased chain migration 0 Over 90 at the beginning of the 20th century joined their relatives or friends in the US 0 Information and assistance 0 One of the largest ethnic groups in the beginning of the 20th century Italian Immigration and Family Life cont 0 Push and pull factors 0 Fewer opportunities in Italy 0 Abundant economic opportunities in the US Italian Immigration and Family Life cont 0 After the I9ZOs 0 Italian immigration considerably decreased Immigration laws in the US Italian government discouraged migration abroad 39 Nationalism 39 Italian colonies in North Africa Great Depression World War II Italian Immigration and Family Life cont 0 AfterWorld War II 0 Immigration increased although at lower rates Wartime damage in Italy Loss of Italian colonies Italian government wanted to avoid unrest 0 Goal to improve their lots 0 Family unification The Family and Household within Italy and the US The Italian immigrant family within a transnational context in the beginning of the 20th century 0 Participants in several societies 0 Maintain families across borders The Family and Household within Italy and the US cont Transnational families cont Young single men or married male heads 0 Seasonally or semipermanently migrated without families for shortterm economic gain A strain on familial relationships Bene t 0 Parental authority through the provision of resources and upward mobility I s A I The Italian American Family within the Ethnic Community 0 The transnational nature of Italian American families changed after I9ZOs 0 Stricter immigration laws put into effect in the US Limited the ability to go back and forth to Italy 0 Ethnic enclaves were established 0 Similar to the family and villagebased neighborhoods in Italy 0 Reflected the regions from which Italian Americans came The Italian American Family within the Ethnic Community cont Resettlement decisions based on several factors 0 Shaped by family economic and labor patterns l s A I The Italian American Family within the Ethnic Community cont 0 Italian men and women often occupied distinct social spheres 0 Women socialized with female relatives and neighbors in their homes at work And in neighborhood shops and public spaces 0 Men had more time for socialization with other men in a recreational setting Endogamous marriages 0 Met one another at neighborhoodsponsored events and through family connections Italian American Families and Gender Roles The vast majority of Italian immigrants had been rural peasant farmers in Italy Came from relatively large families headed by men with a low earning capacity 0 Pull family members resources to survive Maintaining ethnic identity 0 Through traditional gender roles Women often worked and raised children Italian American Families and Gender Roles cont 0 Throughout the first half of the 20th century Italian Americans were largely working class 0 Women in the family worked for pay in order to contribute to family finances A largely patriarchal family structure within the home 0 But Women were the primary managers of family money Italian American Families and Gender Roles cont Immigrants and women s work experiences were not Americanizing Had an average of 56 children in the early 20th century 0 Mothers stayed home 0 Working daughters were expected to give most of their money to their family while working sons gave about half r The Italian American Family and the Catholic Church in America 0 The Catholic Church provided a social space for I 0 Family gettogethers via religious rites and rituals Marriages deaths baptisms etc 0 Due to the strong tie between these rites and rituals and the family 0 Italian American women were often paramount figures in fostering these connections 0 Italian Americans particularly embraced Catholic religious symbols and icons representing the family 0 Madonna with the infant Christ symbol of motherhood 0 The Trinitszhe Holy Family lnu Ill mil Ll Contemporary Italian American Families 0 Italian Americans continue to cluster in certain areas of the United States 0 About 70 living in the Northeast 0 H6 of NewYork City s population Disappearance of ethnic neighborhoods 0 Declining rates of new Italian immigration 0 Incorporated into the American mainstream Symbolic Ethnic Identity Incorporation into the American mainstream 0 Increased interactions with members of other ethnic groups Geographic and residential mobility Participation in American labor unions Participation in national political parties Service in the army and jobs in wartime industries WWII College education Increasing social mobility N Symbolic Ethnic Identity cont Assimilated into the mainstream American society l 0 Know little about their ethnic roots 0 Increasing upward social mobility Increasing cultural acceptance by olderstockWhite Americans 0 Ethnic tolerance and cultural pluralism Increasing rates of outof group marriages 0 White ethnic intermarriages At lower rates than for other White ethnic groups Symbolic Ethnic Identity cont x 0 Ethnic identity continues to be important for many individuals and families 0 Express it or suppress it when they choose Voluntary ethnic identity Fluid changing identity Perceive themselves as a member of an ethnic group 0 Maintain an ethnic identity in private life to a certain extent 0 Not a determining factor in their everyday or m lives Symbolic ethnicity 0 Ethnic ancestry 0 Family memories 0 Family relationships 0 Private ethnic attachments Ethnic foods Periodic ethnic celebrations The Polish American Fmin Monserud M Family Lecture 7 Introduction 0 Prior to World War 0 About 5 million Poles immigrated to the US 0 Mostly a labor migration Displaced in their home country 0 Settling primarily in the MidAtlantic amp Midwestern regions Industryrich areas Introduction cont 2000 census 0 About 9 million Americans identified themselves as Polish in ancestry Chicago continues to have the largest Polish American population Ethnic Name and Traditions The name as being the only thing left that is Polish 0 Some hid their Polish roots by changing their last name Social desirability of the ethnic group 39 Prejudices discrimination stereotypes because of the ethnic last name Affection for being Polish but not doing Polish things 0 Kept few Polish traditions Food and holidays N Socioeconomic Status in the Past In the early 20th century Poles and other new immigrants occupied lower class rung 0 Subject to prejudice discrimination amp racist beliefs of inferiority 0 Underrepresented in corporate political academic and ecclesiastical hierarchies Hybrid Symbolic Identity 0 Ethnicity is the culture 0 Culture is a set of routines and values 0 Requires ingroup members to teach each other these values and participate in routines Ethnic identity changes over time 0 Younger generation are less likely to maintain ethnic routines and values 0 Ethnic identity is constantly constructed and reconstructed Hybrid Symbolic Identity cont Suburbanization affected their ethnic identity 0 Pulled them away from their ethnic neighborhoods Cultural roots were left behind Hybrid Symbolic Identity cont 0 An internal desire and ability to be part of the dominantWhite American group 0 Assimilation as a means of upward social mobility Individuals choose to change in order to take advantage of opportunities A reaction to discrimination Assimilation 0 Through intermarriage suburbanization mass consumer culture Hybrid Symbolic Identity cont 0 Polish American values and culture 0 Polishness does not necessarily derive from Poland 0 No connection to Poland 0 Political social or intellectual 0 No memories of Poland 0 No understanding of Polish history 0 Ethnicity has been structured over time in the US Hybrid Symbolic Identity cont 0 Do not do much that is Polish 0 Hard to distinguish a thirdgeneration Polish family 0 From a thirdgeneration Italian family Few distinctions 39 Different religious icons on the walls 39 Different aromas coming from the kitchen Hybrid Symbolic Identity cont o By the end of the 20th century 0 Polish Americans were similar to other European descendants On indicators such as income occupation and education 39 But distinguishable from other groups eg descendants of Latin American migrants Hybrid Symbolic Identity cont Eastern and southern Europeans as well as the Irish 0 Originally were discriminated against on the basis of national origins Eventually lost their ethnic markers 39 Became white Ethnic Identity Hidden in the Family 0 The family is a site for the reproduction of ethnicity Ethnic identity changes over time and space 0 Different meaning for different generations 0 A means of connecting generations and providing history to the family 0 Psychologically beneficial Feelings of belonging Need for roots Ethnic Identity Hidden in the Family Cont Ethnicity passed down through women s work 0 Play a primary role in the construction and continuation of both ethnicity and the family 0 What did they pass down 0 Didn t keep much 0 Laughter religion names family relations 0 Set of family values amp routines that help reaffirm their ethnicity Women s Work of Maintaining Ethnicity Discussion What activities in the families are women responsible for that help maintain ethnicfamily traditionsrituals ls more pressure put on females compared to males to undertake these types of tasks Has the gendered part of this work disappeared 0 Are both genders expected to equally participate in these tasks today 0 Is it easier nowadays for both gender to participate in these tasks Ethnic Identity Hidden in the Family cont 0 Ethnic identity is a family history Ethnicity is in a constant state of construction 0 The sense of Polishness 0 Need for roots 0 Ethnicity is not about what gets passed down It is the process of passing down 39 Strengthens family ties Ethnicity is a process of passing down Discussion What types of ethnic artifacts and practices are usually passed down Whose responsibility is it to pass down How much ethnicallybased culture can be lost generationally What types of things are lost Why do many people continue to believe that ethnic authenticity is directly linked to speaking a foreign language
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