HIST 111, Week 8 Notes (CH 9)
HIST 111, Week 8 Notes (CH 9) History 111
Popular in United States History to 1865
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Stein on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Nicole Maskiell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 03/14/16
HIST 111 United States History to 1865 Chapter 9 Democracy in America Democracy in the Early Republic 0 Not all of the founders believed in democracy 0 Some believed too much participation would undermine good order 0 Despite these criticisms citizens exercised their right to vote and their right to free speech 0 In many peoples eyes the American republic was a democratic republic the people were sovereign all the time not just on election day The Missouri Crisis 0 In the early 18005 sectional con icts developed across the country 0 In the start of the US the state of VA had lots of in uence over government and northern states got tired of it 0 Mostly over issues regarding slavery When Missouri applied for statehood in 1819 there was a choice whether slavery would be allowed 0 James Tallmadge of NY proposed they would be allowed in only if no more slaves could be brought in and children of slaves would be freed at the age of 25 Opposed slavery for moral reasons Passed in house but was defeated in the senate 0 Jesse Thomas from Illinois and Henry Clay from Kentucky AKA the great compromiserquot proposed a 3 part plan Congress would admit Missouri as a state slave state Congress would also admit maine free state The rest of the Louisiana purchase would be divided along the 3630 line of latitude the southern border of Missouri and slavery would be prohibited in new states north of the line The Rise of Andrew Jackson 0 Andrew Jackson was a child of Irish immigrants and was born on the border between North and South Carolina Fought the british the moved to Tennessee where he worked as a lawyer and gained land and slaves Eventually became a senator and then a general in the war of 1812 0 Was nicknamed quotOld Hickoryquot by his troops bc he was tough In 1818 Jackson invaded Spanish owned Florida 0 In Pensacola Florida he executed two british people This caused an international diplomatic crisis 0 Many people wanted Jackson to retire but secretary of state John Quincy Adams defended Jackson 0 1824 Jackson Adams William Crawford and Henry Clay all ran for President 0 Jackson won more popular votes than anyone else 0 But there was no majority in the electoral college so it was thrown to the house 0 Adams persuaded Clay to support him and therefore won the presidency Jackson supporters called this the quotcorrupt bargainquot 1828 Jackson and Adams squared off in one of the dirtiest elections to date 0 Jackson won easily but his wife Rachel died suddenly before the inauguration Therefore Jackson never forgave the people who attacked his wife s character during the campaign 0 Success as military hero won him the election The Nulli cation Crisis 0 One issue during his presidency was a sectional dispute over national tax policy Southerners expected him to do away with the Tariff of 1828 the Tariff of Abominations 0 Elite South Carolinians were worried that the tariff was going to eventually limit slavery o The VP Calhoun was in a tight position so he secretly drafted the quotSouth Carolina Exposition and Protestquot an essay and set of resolutions that laid out the doctrine of nulli cation o This would give SC the power to leave the union 0 Martin Van Buren from NY was nicknamed quotthe little magician and replaced Calhoun as VP when Jackson ran for reelection in 1832 Calhoun went to SC where a special state convention nulli ed two tariffs 0 Jackson called this action TREASON and vowed to hang Calhoun and any other nulli er who de ed federal power 0 Behind closed doors Clay and Calhoun worked to slightly lower tariffs and SC rescinded nulli cation but nulli ed the Force Bill The Eaton Affair and the Politics of Sexuality Also called the quotpetticoat affair was a disagreement among elite women in DC 0 John Henry Eaton from Tennessee was chosen to be secretary of war 0 He had recently married Margaret O Neale Timberlake and she was the source of gossip 0 During her rst marriage there were rumors she was sleeping with Eaton while her husband was at sea with the Navy Her husband committed suicide and she married Eaton 9 months later 0 The VP s wife refused to interact with her 0 Jackson tried to call a meeting to put an end to all of the drama but it didn t work and four cabinet members resigned including Eaton The Bank War 0 As a president he waged a quotwarquot against the Bank of the US 0 Hamilton s Charter expired in 1811 but then ve years later congress gave a new charter o The bank was lending irresponsibly and hoarding gold when the panic of 1812 hit 0 Jackson vetoed an early voting in congress to renew the charter o Believed it didn t do enough to protect the people and was a way for wellconnected people to get richer at everyone else s expense 0 Believed in limited government Increasingly supporters ofJackson called themselves Democrats and this became a political party 0 Centralized leadership structure and consistent ideological program for all levels of government Opponents ofJackson named themselves after the patriots of the American Revolution and became the Whigs The Panic of 1837 Jacksons victory over the bank worsened economic problems 18341836 there was an economic boom and a real estate bubble in the west Number of state banks grew from 329 to 713 in 6 years and therefore there was more paper money British investments also surged putting America over 220 million in debt June 1836 congress decided to increase the number of banks receiving federal deposits 0 This undermined the banks Treasury department issued an order called the Specie Circular in July 1836 requiring payment in hard currency for all federal land purchases Panic led to a general economic depression from 18391843 Rise of the Whigs Party bene ted from the panic of 1837 Adams and Clay started the party and included both proslavery angry southerners and antislavery Yankees Held their rst national convention in Harrisburg in 1839 0 Goal was to win over seats in congress and stop the Dems from outside the presidency 0 Party nominated William Henry Harrison of Ohio for the 1840 presidential election 0 Platform was quotlog cabin and hard ciderquot To balance the ticket they nominated a southern John Tyler from VA 0 quotTippecanoe and Tyler tooquot easily won the election 0 Harrison became ill possibly from a long inauguration address without a coat and died afterjust 31 days in office 0 Tyler tended to have more Democratic decisions and his entire cabinet resigned o The whigs kicked him out of the party Realized whigs didn t have real issues to rally around except their dislike of dems AntiMasons AntiImmigrants and the Which Coalition AntiMasonic Party formed in the 18205 to destroy the Freemasons o Freemasonry was an international network of clubs with traditions and rituals as a trade organization for stonemasons o By the 18th century it became an organization for people aligning with ideals of the Enlightenment o Secrecy caused suspicion 0 After an author went missing for an expose on the freemasons the anti mason party formed 0 Believed the republic was controlled by a secret society 0 Eventually folded the party into the Whig party 0 American or quotKnowNothing party was formed as an anti immigration party 0 Many were threatened by Catholicism and protestants attacked 0 Saw pope as a dictator 0 Thought Catholicism would destroy the government Race and lacksonian Democracy Racial inequality exposed American democracy s limits 0 At the time of the revolution only 2 states explicitly limited black voting rights 0 By 1839 almost all states did Racial and ethnic resentments led to a wave of riots in American cities during the 18305 Entertainment had cruel performances with black face and the characterJim Crow Chapter 9 Supplemental Missouri Controversy Documents 18191920 Southerners dominated the highest federal of ces in the early US as VA held the presidency 32 of the rst 36 years of the nation s history 0 In 1820 Tallmadge included the amendment in Missouri s application for statehood o No new slaves in and all children of slaves a free once they turn 25 o The 3630 line maine and Missouri both admitted in one slave and one free ThomasJefferson letter toJohn Holmes April 22 1820 0 He was very upset by the Missouri territory agreement Rhode lslanders protest property restrictions on voting 1834 0 Many poor white men gained voting rights suffrage for the rst time in the 1830s 0 RI voting rights only changed after poor citizens raised a militia and threatened violence Talks about the hardships of a mechanic and says he should be able to vote Black Philadelphians defend their voting rights 1838 0 Expansion of voting rights to poor white men brought a loss of voting rights for black men 0 Race became the most important social distinction in the US 0 Even wealthy black men lost their right to vote and protested this Andrew lackson s veto message adainst recharterind the bank of the United States 1832 Jackson was highly suspicious of the Bank of the United States and blamed the bank for the Panic of 1819 and for corrupting politics with too much money After congress renewed the bank charter Jackson vetoed the bill Samuel Morse fears a Catholic Consoiracv 1835 Irish immigrants lled jobs created by the Market Revolution Samuel mores an inventor who contributed to the development of the telegraph and morse code feared that Irish immigrants represented the front line of a Catholic conspiracy to destroy the United States
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