EUH 4241 Week 7 Notes
EUH 4241 Week 7 Notes EUH 4241
Popular in The Holocaust
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Johnson on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EUH 4241 at Florida State University taught by Robert Gellately in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see The Holocaust in History at Florida State University.
Reviews for EUH 4241 Week 7 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/14/16
Holocaust 31 1 Review 2 Operation Barbarossa June 22 1941 3 Mass Crimes Fateful Heydrich Instructions 0 September 21 1939 on Jewish Question in Occupied East 0 To the Task Forces ESG o Pacification behind the lines 0 Set up ghettos for Jews I German orders came down through Council of Jewish Elders Hitler Sept 25 1939 o Wants territories cleansed and completely German 0 How leaders go about cleansing is up to them Operation Barbarossa Unleashes Violence in the East The USSR 0 ln Hitler s Plans since 1925 o Aim Crusade v JewishBolshevism 0 Find Lebensraum living space 0 Breed the Master Race War and Poland 0 September 1 Lasts about a month 0 September 3 Great Britain and France declare war 0 September 17 USSR attacks Poland NaziSoviet Pact 0 Germany received 0 Raw materials food ammunition goods 0 USSR wanted 0 Manufactured materials weapons chemicals military secrets 0 Why notjust Hitler s War 0 Industry Army consensus TwoFront War 0 December 18 1940 Hitler signs directive for Operation Barbarossa o Directive No 21 0 Already prepared by Wehrmacht military New about War v USSR 0 A war of ideologies o A Racial War of Annihilation 0 Unlike all past wars PreAttack Directives 0 War on Jewish Bolshevism 0 Army must reject international law 0 Murderous terms of engagement for the Military prepared by Operation Barbarossa o June 22 1941 0 Greatest land assault in history 0 Germans Allies 32 million troops o USSR 26 million troops 0 But Germans use fewer troops than they used in France Question Raised o How could Hitler think a speedy victory possible with so much land to cover 0 International amp Russian experts agreed with AH US Ambassador in Moscow 0 August 5 1941 reports from German embassy that war would last 4 months at the outside 0 Similar views were held by a majority of the foreign observers 0 Based on recent Soviet military feats expert opinions etc What about German Intelligence 0 Good intelligence on border areas and troops 0 Poor on number of machines and types of weaponry o USSR had more and better tanks 0 Did not consider total economic and military capacity nor USSR morale 0 Instead of systematic intelligence assessments o Cliches based on their ideological dogmas that considered Soviet Union and Jewish Bolshevism that had run the country into the ground Germany v USSR 0 Hitler tells Goebbels that victory will come in 4 months 0 Goebbels writes that the USA calculates our victory in 10 days must fight the rumor in hopes of not looking like they selected a weak foe Conference November 29 1941 0 Fritz Todt at Hitler s HQ 0 Todt War can no longer be won by military means 0 Hitler How then shall I end it o Todt It can only be ended politically December 1941 Blitzkrieg failed 0 The battlefront o Leningrad to Rostov 1250 miles 0 Not enough men to take the front especially not in harsh climate conditions Little Known Mass Crimes Wehrmacht 0 Armed services Army Navy Air Force 0 PostWar myth vs Reality starting in Poland 0 Kept Hands Clean 0 War no like other German Reprisal Policy c Wehrmacht policy becomes entangled with ESG policies 0 Ration varied 1100 11000 0 100 Polish killed for every German killed 1000 Polish killed for every German killed 0 Army also did some of the killing role needs to be studied in detail Kommissar Order June 6 o LSH 4267 0 Bolshevik Kommissars 0 Assorted prisoners to be shot on the spot 0 Latest research 3430 shot All Soviet POWs o Expressly not to be treated by Geneva Coventions 0 Germany took more Soviet POWs than USA took ever 0 No way of coping with such a large amount could not feed or house them 0 Left the POWs to eat grass bark and each other Mass Death of Soviet POWs o 57 Million captures German report 0 33 Million died in captivity o 10 times as many as USA lost in whole war 0 Vast numbers shot out of hand 0 No study in English POWs 1942 and later 0 Given acute labor shortages Germany turns first to Poles then to 0st Eastern Workers then to POWs o More on this later 0 Always strict on race mixing 0 any sexual relations execution Military Justice 0 WI Executions of their own people 0 Germany 48 0 Britain 346 0 France 650 0 WW Figures Britain 40 France 100 USA 141 Germany minimum of 20000 executed out of 30000 sentenced to death The USSR I 158000 people consensus figure ESG in Barbarossa Holocaust West amp East 0 West shipped away to Industrial gas facilities 0 Better known more survivors better documentation 0 East Soviet Union 0 About 12 are shot outside of camps o Organized by ESG I Predominant killers Local militias SS German police Wehrmacht soldiers OOOOO Numbers in ESG o 4 to 6 Task Forces 0 3000 or so volunteers from Security Police Sipo and others 0 Highly educated many had doctorate andor advanced law degrees ESG Areas 0 A Latvia Lithuania Estonia 0 B In direction of Moscow 0 C Ukraine 0 D Ukraine south to Crimea Evidence of ESG ESG Methods 0 Direct killing by shooting 0 lnstigation of spontaneous pogroms o Reveal truth about BolsheviksJews 0 Show Nazis as liberators General Order 0 Combating all antiGerman elements in hostile country behind troops in combat o Infinitely expanded killing compared to September 1939 ESG Reports 0 July 1941 April 1942 0 About 195 reports 0 Too graphic to read aloud Kovno Kaunas Kauen 77 o Capitallargest city of Lithuania 0 Jewish population 3500040000 or V5 of city s total population ESG A in 1941 0 Arrive in July Pogroms 0 Use forts to hold 0 October 4 alone shoot 9200 0 Ghetto and and forced labor for a few Transition 0 From end of July 1941 0 Kill all the men 0 Women and children also to be shot 0 No written order evidence from all over 0 Why did they transition from killing men and leaving women and children to killing everyone Himmler 0 Visit to Minsk August 1415 1941 c He was an uncomfortable witness they needed to find a more efficienthumane method 0 One that wouldn t be so hard on the killers ESK 3 in Lithuania Jager Report 0 To December 1 1941 o 1 Area 5 Months 0 Note soon include women and children March 3 Evidence of ESG ESG Methods 0 Direct killing by shooting 0 lnstigation of spontaneous pogroms o Reveal truth about BolsheviksJews General Order 0 Combating a antiGerman entities behind the lines of war ESG Reports 0 Juy1941Apri 1942 0 About 195 reports 0 Too graphic to read aloud Transition 0 From end ofJuly1941 0 Women and children also to be shot 0 Previously only killed males 0 No written order just evidence from all over Himmler o Uncomfortable witness to a killing decides they need to find a way to make murder easier on the killers ESG A Stahlecker Report Oct 31 1941 c From the exhibits for the prosecution at Nuremberg Trials 0 Map following Dec 1921 Worse Reprisal Case 0 October 3 1941 o ESG C decides to kill all of the Kiev Jews 0 Babi Yar women s valley or gorge 0 33771 Jews shot 0 In one weekend Rumbala Massacre 0 November 30 December 8 1941 0 25000 Jews in and near forest close to Riga Latvia 0 The worst next to Babi Yar Rovno Ukraine Today Pibhe o Largest city in Polish province Volhynia Wolyn o Included about 25000 Jews 0 Captured June 1941 o JuneAugust killed about 2000 J Burds book Rovno 0 November 67 1718000 Jews 0 told to report for work 0 Marched to nearby forest and shot c Total by 1942 23500 o ESK 5 of ESG C 0 Main killers Police Battalion 320 and the Ukrainian Militia 0 Some Reserve Police Battalion 33 Berdichev ESK 5 0 July 7 1941 Captured o 1618000 Jews still there 0 August 25 Ghetto established 0 September two mass murders 0 September 4 amp September 14 See Arad 169 USSR Sevastopol Prewar Jewish Population 6000 0 July 3 1942 captured July 6 Jews ordered to register July 12 1200 to 1500 trucked out of town and shot Other groups taken to different locals c Total 4200 shot USSR Rostov Jewish Population 1618000 0 July 24 1942 recaptured Aug 1 Military Orders Jews to register only 2000 did Aug 10 Jewish Council created to protect the Jewsresettle Aug 12 All to report by 8am o Trucked out of town shot gassed in gas van 0 Resisters tracked down USSR Krasnoder Jew Pop 10000 0 Aug 12 1942 captured 0 Aug 2122 Jews ordered to register for transfer 0 Trucked out of town and shot The Killers 0 Usually identify with ESG and SS 0 Also trained locals 0 German Reserve Police Battalions 0 Ordinary Men Ordinary Men 0 Browning s Book suggests o Vast Numbers killed outside of camps o OneThird or more od all deaths 0 Hence the value of Ordinary Men Old Insufficient Answers 0 SS was culpable but 0 Many more Germans in uniform were involved I Like Reserve Police Battalion 101 Why Ordinary o Meant to convey two points 0 1 Personnel of Police Battalion Not in the SS many not even in Nazi Party I Battalion 101 From Hamburg which was very antiNazi and not particularly antiSemitic 0 Second Point under Ordinary M Browning 0 Were the police just following orders 0 Before killing started men were given a choice to participate 0 Not kill or be killed Ordinary w o 2 Motives Unclear 0 He found little evidence of antiSemitism in the sources 0 Source 210 postwar interrogations I Never said I did it because I hated the Jews 0 This would introduce motive o Manslaughter gt Murder Women 0 German women involved 10000s 0 Mostly not direct killers 0 Wendy Lower Hitler s Furies German Women in the Nazi Killing Fields 2013
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'