Time Space & Chg Human Soc (D)
Time Space & Chg Human Soc (D) ISS 220
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Buster Heller on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 220 at Michigan State University taught by William Lovis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/207749/iss-220-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Social Sci at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Chapter 8 the emergence of the human lineage Family HominidaeThe bipedal primates Genus ArdipithecusThe most apelike Hominids Genus AustralopithecusSmall brained slender gracile hominids with a mixed fruitveggie diet Genus Paranthropus Smallbrained robust hominids with a grassland vegetable diet 1 1912 a Charles DarwinPiltdown England i Missing link between ape and humans 1 annthropus a Fake 1950 s b The large brains of humans appeared relatively late in hominid evolution i Modern size 780000 years ago c The feature first distinguished us from apesour Bipedalism i Over 4 million years old 2 The early hominids Bipedal primates a The first evidence from the dawn of the hominid evolution came in 1952 i South AfricaRaymond Dart ii Face braincase and brain cast of a young primate 1 Apelike but with two important differences a Canine teethwhich are long and large in apes with gaps to accommodate them when the jaws are shutwere no bigger than those of a human child b Position of the Foramen magnumIn the Taung specimen this hole was well underneath the skull rather than toward the back as in apesthis indicates an upright bipedal posture rather than a quadrupedal one i The hole in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord emerges and around the outside of which the top vertebra articulates iii Australopithecus Africanus 1 Hominoidbipedal primate b The earliest known hominid fossils were first discovered in Ethiopia in 1992 and 1993 i 17 fossil fragments ii 4 h hominid genus Ardipithecus Ramidus 1 Ground ape iii 44 million years ago c 1994 more fossil bones in Ethiopia i Ninety fragments 1 Considered a hominid because the foramen magnum is more forward then in apes 2 llMost apelike hominid ancestor known d August 1995 i Australopithecus anamnesis 1 21 specimens from the Lake Turkana region of Kenya 2 Dated 42 to 38 million years ago e Australopithecus afarensis i 32 million year old skeleton ii Ethiopia iii quotLucyquot 1 3 feet 8 inchesweighed 65 pounds iv 1974DonaldJohanson v Single complete skull fossil not found until 1992 vi Lived from 393 million years ago vii Showed signs of sexual dimorphism viii Same Prognathism as found in apes 1 The jutting forward of the lower face and jaw area ix Hint of a Sagittal crest 1 A ridge of bone running from the front of the skull for the attachment of chewing muscles f 1995Chad Northcentral Africa i 353 million years ago ii Australopithecus Bahrelghazalia 1 Suggests that early hominids were more widely spread on the continent than previously thought g Average brain size was about440ml h Couldn t prove Bipedalism until Mary Leakey found a set of footprints made in a fresh layer of volcanic ash that quickly hardened and preserved 37 million years ago i Showed an anatomy and stride no different from ours today 3 Searching for the first hominids a 2001Meave Leakey New hominid genus i Kenyanthropus platyopsFlat faced hominid from Kenya b March 2004 i New subspecies of ArdipithecusArdipithecus Kadabbameans base family ancestor c Orrorin Tugenensisquotoriginal man d Torosmenalla site in northern Chad i 7 to 6 mya ii Placed in genus species Sahelanthropus tchadensis 1 quotToumaiquot 4 Bipedalism a b c Knuckle walking Walking on the backs of the knuckles of the hand typical of the African apes exhibited by modern apes Most primates cannot digest cellulose as can the grazing animals Travel over a wider area to find food d Affected by seasonal change Need for more traveling in search of food No physical evidence of biggame hunting on the plains 5 Explaining the emergence of Bipedalism a 0 Six different models have been proposed 2 lt v39 Carrying model 1 Mothers to carry children Vigilance model 1 By elevating the head helped our ancestor locate potential sources of food and danger Heat dissipation model 1 Helps cool the body by presenting a smaller target to the intense equatorial rays of the sun and by placing more of the body above the ground to catch any cooling air currents 2 Bodies are hairless Energy efficiency 1 More efficiency for walking Foragingbipedal harvesting model 1 Benefits of standing upright to reach sources of food on bushes and trees particularly those difficult or impossible to climb Display model 1 Jablonski and Chaplin 2 Relate mating to success Our earliest ancestors also exhibited traits associated with an arboreal adaptation lt Long arms Heavy shoulder girdles Arm bones Arm muscles Curved fingers and toe bones Variability selectionadaptations that result in quotflexible novel responses to surroundings and diversity The isolation of our ancestors from the ancestors of the modern African apes may have been reinforced by a geological change 6 The hominids Evolve a More Australopithecines Evidence that early hominids dug up rootstocks
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