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HIST 278

by: Lynde Wangler
Lynde Wangler
GPA 3.836
History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade
Lisa Lindsay

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Tuesday's Lecture Notes
History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade
Lisa Lindsay
Class Notes
History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lynde Wangler on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 278 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Lisa Lindsay in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in History at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 03/14/16
EXSS 175 Week 9 Notes 73 The Digestive System Stomach anatomy function Small intestine Large intestine Accessory Digestive Organs liver pancreas and gallbladder Stomach jshaped pouch which empties into the small intestine most distensible part of the GI tract 0 Functions stores food prior to entry into small intestine moves to SII as quotchymequot mechanically churns food and gastric secretions partial digestion of proteins limited absorption alcohol water drugs and electrolytes o Stomach Regions Cardia upper narrow region just below lower esophageal sphincter Fundus dome shaped portion in contact with diaphragm superior to and left of cardia Body main central portion Pyloris funnelshaped terminal portion Pyloric antrum wide Pyloric canal narrow Pyloric sphincter junction of stomach and small intestine Greater curvature Lesser curvature 0 Application Vomiting forcible expulsion of the contents of the upper GI tract stomach and sometimes duodenum though the mouth prolonged vomiting results in the loss of gastric juice and uidD disturbances in uid and acidbase balance especially serious in infants and elderly people 0 Small Intestine primary site of digestive and absorption events absorption of nutrients enhanced due to large surface area 0 Segments Duodenum originates at pyloric sphincter Cshpaed receives bile from the common bile duct that arises from the liver and the gallbladder receives pancreatic juice from the pancreas via the pancreatic duct jejunum connects duodenum to ileum primary region of absorption Ileum distal portion ileocecal valve between small and large intestines Large Intestine preparation of chyme for elimination absorption of water and electrolytes cecum initial segment inverted pouch vermiform appendix lymphatic tissue 0 Appendix in ammation of the appendix due to blockage of the lumen by chyme foreign body carcinoma stenosis or kinking 0 Symptoms high fever elevated WBC count neutrophil count above 75 referred pain anorexia nausea and vomiting pain localizes in right lower quadrant D infection may progress to gangrene and perforation within 2436 hours 0 Large Intestine o Colon ascending colon from the cecum up right abdominal wall to transverse colon hepatic exure transverse colon Splenic exure to DC descending colon runs down left abdominal wall sigmoid colon S shaped attachment with rectum o Rectum 0 Anal Canal anal columns sphincters internal involuntary amp external voluntary anus external opening for defecation Defecation Problems 0 Diarrhea chyme passes too quickly H20 not reabsorbed underdeveloped countries most common cause of death for children 0 Constipation decreased intestinal motility too much water is reabsorbed remedy ber exercise and water 0 Colonoscopy visual examination of the lining of the colon using an elongated exible ber optic endoscope Accessory Digestive Organs 0 Not part of GI tract but aid in digestion Liver 2nCI largest organ in body 34 lbs heaviest gland metabolic and regulatory functions inferior to diaphragm on right side of abdominopelvic cavity protected by rib cage lobes right lobe left lobes caudate quadrate Liver Functions 0 Carbohydrate metabolism glycogen to glucose glucose to glycogen gluconeogenesis o Lipid metabolism bile secretion and production released into gall bladder via hepatic duct essential for fat digestion 0 Protein metabolism 0 Filtering of drugs and hormones 0 Storage vitamins A 812 D E K and minerals Fe Cu 0 Phagocytosis redwhite blood cells and bacteria Gall Bladder sacklike organ on inferiorposterior surface of liver storesconcentrates bile into the duodenum via the common bile duct Pancreas soft lobulated glandular organ exocrine and endocrine function lslets of Langerhans control of blood glucose levels divided into a head body and tail connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic duct Duct of Wirsung and accessory duct Duct of Sanitorini o Pancreatic islets lslets of Langerhans secrete hormones lnsulin high blood glucose levels Glucagon low blood glucose levels 0 Acini secrete a mixture of uid and digestive enzymes called pancreatic juice pancreatic juice into duodenum assists in digestion of triglycerides 8A Cardiovascular System 0 Cardiovascular System strong emphasis placed on this system imperative knowledge base for ALL exercise based coursework within the department 0 Focus on D heart vessels blood and circulation Peripheral circulation blood supply for the extremities cerebral circulation blood supply for the brain coronary circulation blood supply to the heart muscles hepatic portal circulation role of liver and other abdominal organs fetal circulation clinical assessment of cardiac function scattered throughout General central component of CV system functions to propel blood through vessels hollow coneshaped organ the size of a person39s st heart pumps over 1 million gallons per year through over 60000 miles of blood vessels Location of the Heart located in the mediastinum anatomical region extending from the sternum to the vertebral column the rst rib and between the lungs Pericardium o Membrane surrounding and protecting the heart con nes while still allowing free movement two main parts Fibrous pericardium tough inelastic dense irregular connective tissue prevents overstretching protection and anchorage Serous pericardium thinner more delicate membrane double layer parietal layer fused to brous pericardium visceral layer also called epicardium Pericardial uid reduces friction secreted into pericardial cavity Layers of the Heart Wall 0 Epicardium external layer visceral layer of serous pericardium smooth slippery texture to outermost surface 0 Myocardium 95 of heart is cardiac muscle 0 Endocardium inner layer smooth lining for chambers of heart valves and continuous with lining of large blood vessels Four Chambers of Heart Receives blood from 0 Two superior chambers receiving chambers Right atrium superior and inferior vena cava coronary sinus Left atrium four pulmonary veins Separated by ineratrial septum 0 Two inferior chambers pumping chambers Right ventricle right atrium Left ventricle left atrium Separated by interventricular septum Valves of Heart prevent back ow of blood Atrioventricular and semilunar valves openclose alternately Le AV opens SL closes o Atrioventricular valves prevent back ow within heart Tricuspid right side located between right atrium and right ventricle BicuspidMitral left side located between left atrium and left ventricle o Semilunar Valves prevent back ow into the heart Pulmonary semilunar located between pulmonary trunk and right ventricle Aortic semilunar located between aorta and left ventricle O O Papillary Muscles conical muscles attached to the wall of the ventricle that insert on the chordae tendinae contract just prior to ventricular contraction Chordae Tendinae CT tendonlike chords connecting papillary muscles to ventricular surfaces of valves cusps close due to pressure associated with ventricular contraction prevent back ow into atrium CT prevent valve cusps from opening into atria during ventricular contraction Heart Sounds 0 Auscultation sound of heartbeat comes primarily from blood turbulence caused by closing of heart valves 4 heart sounds in each cardiac cycle only loud enough to be heard Lubb AV valves closes Dupp SL valves close 0 Systematic and Pulmonary Circulation 2 circuits in series 0 Systematic circuit left side of heart receives blood from lings rejects blood into aorta systematic arteries arterioles gas and nutrient exchange in systematic capillaries systematic venules and veins lead back to right atrium Pulmonary circuit right side of heart receives blood from systematic circulation ejects blood into pulmonary trunk then pulmonary arteries gas exchange in pulmonary capillaries pulmonary veins take blood to left atrium Intrinsic Cardiac Conduction System 0 O O 0 Cardiac muscle bers form 2 networks networks are described as quotsyncytiumquot areas that conduction signal spreads through easily All cardiac muscle bers in a network are physically connected by intercalated discs Gap junctions aid in conduction between networked cardiac muscle bers Two Functional Systems atrial and ventricular syncytium atrial and ventricular syncytia exclusive except for small area in oor of right atrium Stimulation of one syncytium causes contraction of all cells in that network atria contract as a unit ventricles contract as a unit Intrinsic Cardiac Conduction System 0 O O Sinoatrial node SA node located near right atrial wall quotpacemakerquot sets heart rate initiates each heartbeat stimulation from SA node spread over both atria and to AV node Electrical signal atrial musculature within atrial syncytium Atrioventricular node AV node located I interatrial septum oor of right atrium small area on right atrium oor where atrial and ventricular syncytia are not exclusive only normal electrical pathway between atrial and ventricular syncytia Atrioventricular Bundle aka quotAV bundlequot or quotbundle of hisquot large group of bers sitting in interventricular septum receives electrical signal from AV node spreads electrical signal over ventricles does not cause ventricular contraction AV bundle enters upper part of interventricular septum and divides into right and left bundle branches Right and Left bundle branches receive electrical signals from AV bundle of His branches extend through interventricular septum sends electrical signal to Purkinje bers Purkinje Fibers arise from bundle branches midway down septum large sized bers allows for rapid signal transmission to distant regions of ventricular myocardium Then the ventricles contract pushing the blood upward toward the semilunar valves Electrocardiogram ECGECG recording of electrical activity of cardiac muscle uses study of cardiac function identify disorders of myocardium and conduction system detects electrical currents between H charged depolarized cells and charged repolarized cells 0 ECG P Wave small upward de ection on the ECG represents atrial depolarization spreads from SA node through contractile bers in both atria o ECG QRS Complex 3 parts to it 1 starts with downward de ection 2 followed by large upright triangular wave 3 ends with a downward wave represents rapid ventricular depolarization action potential spreads through ventricular contractile bers 0 ECG T Wave domeshaped upward de ection indicates ventricular repolarization occurs as ventricles are starting to relax smaller and wider than QRS complex repolarization occurs more slowly than depolarization 83 Cardiovascular System 0 Function of Blood 0 3 Primary Functions Transportation oxygen from the lungs to tissues carries nutrients from GI tract and hormones from endocrine glands to body s tissues transports heat and waste products for organs to eliminate from the body Regulation helps to regulate body s pH levels blood osmotic pressure affects water content of cells Protection blood clots in injury repair WBCs protect against disease 0 Physical Characteristics of Blood thinker and denser than water feels slightly sticky 38C 1004F D 1C warmer than oral or rectal temperatures amounts to about 8 of total body mass volume in average males and females D males between 56 liters females between 45 liters Components of Blood Two components of blood 0 Blood plasma watery liquid containing dissolved substances 0 Formed elements cells and cell fragments Composition of Blood Plasma 0 Makes up 55 of blood contains 2 substances water 915 solutes 85 plasma proteins 7 blood osmotic pressure hepatocytes liver cells synthesize plasma proteins Albumins 54 transport steroid hormones Globulins 38 antibodies help attack viruses and bacteria Fibrinogen 7 plays essential role in blood clotting Other solutes 15 electrolytes nutrients gases regulatory substances waste products 0 Components of Blood Formed Elements 0 Makes up 45 of blood include 3 principal components Erythrocytes red blood cells RBCs contain oxygencarrying protein hemoglobin accounts for 99 of formed elements mature cells enter circulation at a rate of 2 millionsec RBC destruction occurs at this same rate Leukocytes white blood cells WBCs protect and ght against diseases Platelets thrombocytes release substances essential for initiation of blood clotting plug leaks in vessels 0 Shock failure of CV system to deliver enough oxygen and nutrients to meet cellular metabolic needs39 if shock persists cells and organs become damaged cells may die unless proper treatment begins quickly 4 types of shockD o Hypovolemic decreased blood volume 0 Cardiogenic poor heart function 0 Vascular inappropriate vasodilation o Obstructive obstruction of blood ow 0 Types of Shock Hypovolemic common cause is acute hemorrhage external l trauma internal aortic aneurysm excessive sweating vomiting diarrhea steps to the condition volume of body uids decreases venous return to heart drops lling of heart lessens stroke volume decreases cardiac output decreases Types of Shock Cardiogenic heart fails to pump adequately often Ml other causes include poor perfusion of heart ischemia heart valve problems excessive preload or afterload impaired contractility of heart muscle bers arrhythmias Types of Shock Vascular if BP drops due to decrease in systematic vascular resistance some conditions cause excessive dilation o Anaphylaxis severe allergic reaction releases histamines that cause vasodHa on o Neurogenic shock vasodilation following head trauma causes CV center malfunction in medulla 0 Septic shock bacterial toxins cause vasodilation 100000 deaths per year in US most common cause of death in critical care unit patients 0 Types of Shock Obstructive occurs when blood ow through a portion of the circulation is blocked pulmonary embolism D most common cause of obstructive shock a blood clot lodged in a blood vessel of the lungs 8C Cardiovascular System continued 0 Structure amp Function of Blood Vessels o 5 main types of blood vessels Arteries carry blood away from the heart to other organs Arterioles very small arteries Capillaries tiny vessels that allow exchange of substances between blood and body tissues Venules very small veins Veins carry blood from the tissues back to the heart 0 Blood Vessels Arteries carry blood away from the heart to tissues consists of three coats tunicsD Tunica interna innermost coat elastic tissue amp endothelial lining Tunica media thickest layer elastic bers and smooth m bers high compliance of arteries due to this coat Tunica externa outmost coat elastic and collagen bers 0 Elastic Arteries aka conducting arteries typical of largediameter gt1cm arteries walls stretch to accommodate surge of blood function as a pressure reservoir bers recoil causing blood ow even without ventricular contraction ex aorta brachiocephalic common carotid subclavian vertebral pulmonary and common iliac arteries 0 Muscular Arteries aka distributing arteries because they distribute blood to different parts of the body typical of mediumsized arteries 110mm capable of greater vasoconstriction narrowing of blood vessel and vasodilation widening of vessel very thick walls ex brachial artery in arm and radial a in forearm


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