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Organic Chemistry Week 2 Notes

by: Raghad Kodvawala

Organic Chemistry Week 2 Notes 2510

Marketplace > Ohio State University > 2510 > Organic Chemistry Week 2 Notes
Raghad Kodvawala
Organic Chemistry 1
Dr. Cunningham

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Week 2 Notes
Organic Chemistry 1
Dr. Cunningham
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raghad Kodvawala on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2510 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Cunningham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.


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Date Created: 03/14/16
Chapter 1 Structure and Bonding in Organic Molecules my 0 Atomic orbitals equations that allow us to describe the probability of nding the electron in a certain region of space 0 The electron is described by wave equations Nodes locations of no electron density Quantum mechanics the theory of electron motion Wave equations the equations developed in quantum mechanics Wave functions the solutions to wave equations described by the Greek letter psi LJ The squares of wave functions at each point describe the probability of nding an electron at the point 0 Atomic orbitals have characteristic shapes 0 The shape and place of an atomic orbital is where an electron is likely to be found Nodes are where the probability of nding electrons is zero The higher the energy level of an orbital the more nodes there are 0 An 5 orbital is spherical o A p orbital is dumbbell shaped The Aufbau principle assigns electrons to orbitals 0 Lower energy levels are lled before those with higher energy 0 No orbital may be occupied by more than two electrons Each atom in one orbital must differ in their spin An orbital is lled when it is occupied by more than two electrons 0 When there are multiple orbitals with the same energy level each orbital must have one electron before adding more 0000 17 Molecular Orbitals and Covalent Bondin The bond in the hydrogen molecule is formed by the overlap of ls atomic orbitals o Bonding molecular orbital a new orbital of lower energy formed by the inphase overlap of two orbitals o Antibonding molecular orbital a new orbital is formed by the outof phase overlap of two orbitals The overlap of atomic orbitals give rise to sigma and pi bonds 0 Energy splitting the amount of energy by which the bonding level drops and the antibonding level is raised 0 Sigma bond a bond in which the orbitals overlap in the same plane as the nucleus 0 Pi bond a bond in which the orbitals overlap in the plane perpendicular to the nucleus 18 H brid Orbitals Bondin in Com lex Molecules sp hybrids produce linear structures 0 Hybrid orbitals the mixing of atomic orbitals on the same atom Hybrid orbitals may contain lone electron pairs 19 Structures and Formulas of Or anic Molecules Chapter 1 Structure and Bonding in Organic Molecules To establish the identity of a molecule we determine its structure 0 O 0 Empirical formula summarizes the kinds and ratios of the elements present Structural isomers molecules with the same empirical formula but different structures We cannot determine a molecule39s identity with the empirical formula 0 Several types of drawings are used to represent molecular structures 0 O O 0 Lewis structures Kekule structures Condensed formula a representation in which most single bonds and lone pairs are omitted Skeletal structure hydrogens bonded to carbon are assumed each apex represents a carbon a terminus indicates a CH3 group 3D structure a solid line represents a bond in the plane of the paper a dashed wedge represents a bond going back into the paper and a solid wedge is a bond coming out of the paper


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