Chem 240 notes 11-midterm
Chem 240 notes 11-midterm Chem 240
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassandra Notetaker on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 240 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Tracy Olin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/14/16
Olin CHEM 240 Lecture Precipitation Reactions 21516 Problems for Understanding Determine whether or not the following are soluble in water MgBrz soluble in water most bromides are soluble Silver Iodide insoluble silver exception to iodide solubility Na2C03 soluble in water group 1 metals are always soluble Precipitation Reaction AB CD gt AD BC PbN032 aq K2CrO4 aq gt PbCrO4 s 2KN03 aq To be a precipitation reaction the reaction must be double replacement and form at least one precipitate Net Ionic Equations Molecular Eauation shows complete chemical formulas of reactants and products Net Ionic Eguation shows the reaction occurring without spectator ions PbN032 aq K2Cr04 aq gt PbCrO4 s 2KN03 aq molecular equation Pb2 aq Q Neg faq 2 Kampq CrO4239 aq gt PbCrO4 s 2 Kaq Q Neg faq Pb2 aq CrO4239 aq gt PbCrO4 s net ionic equation AcidBase Reactions Transfer of H proton Olin CHEM 240 Lecture Acid substance that increases the aqueous H ion concentration When in pure water BronstedLowrv Acid proton donor Strong Acid completely ionizes When dissolved in water Ex HCl or HBr Weak Acid slightly ionizes When dissolved in water Ex H3PO4 or CH3COOH Base substance that increases aqueous OH39 concentration When in pure water BronstedLowrv Base proton acceptor Strong Base completely ionizes When dissolved in water Ex LiOH or CaOH Weak Base slightly ionizes When dissolved in water Ex NH3 or NH4OH Neutralization Reaction React in water and salt acid and base are being neutralized 1 Write full balanced molecular equation 2 Use solubility rules to arrive at ionic equation and cancel spectators HCl aq NaOH aq gt NaCl H20 1 H C139 Na OH39 gt H20 Na Cl39 chloride solubility rule HGl NampOH39 gtH20NampGl H OH39 gt H20 1 Oxidation loss of eletrons Reduction gain of eletrons Oxidizing agent element that is REDUCED Reducing agent element that is OXIDIZED 0 Strong oxidants and strong reductants can t be stored together Oxidation numbers how we keep track of electrons gained and reduced Elemental nonbonded polyatomics oxidation 0 Olin CHEM 240 Lecture Monoatomic ions equal to their charge Ex K Nonmetals usually have negative oxidation Ex 0239 unless H202 1 H When bonded to nonmetals H2 When bonded to a metal F39 always 1 as most halogens are H20 overall charge 0 N03 overall charge 1 Mg s 2 H20 gt MgOH2 aq H2 g Oxidation Numbers 3 3 2 H20 C is oxidized reducing agent 0 is reduced oxidizing agent Will following reactions occur Fe s PtCl aq gt FeCl aq Pt s Pb s ZnN032 aq NO REACTION Reaction doesn t occur because lead isn t easily oxidized than zinc Disproportionation Reaction same reactant is both the oxidant AND reductant C12 g H20 1 gt HCl aq HOCl s Olin CHEM 240 Lecture C12 is reduced and oxidized Molarity expression of the concentration of a solution M molL How many moles of HCl are present in 35 mL sample of 450 M HCl How many mL 51 M HCl are needed to obtain 0100 mol HCl How many g solute are present in 120 mL of 0736 M K2Cr207 22616 Na2SO4 S 2NaaQSO4239 811 Solution is 035 M in NaZSO4 What is the concentration of Na Express the concentration of C12 ions in a solution that is 102 M A1C13 AlCl gt Al3 3 C139 C12 306 M brackets concentration Add same of moles of acid as there are moles of base in solution Olin CHEM 240 Lecture What volume 0115 M HClO4 solution is needed to neutralize 5000mL of 00875 M NaOH Thermochemistrv energy changes that accompany chemical reactions Energy capacity to do worktransfer heat Work energy used to move something against a force W F X d Heat energy used to increase something s temp If it takes 200 mL of 0050 M HBr to neutralize 250 mL KOH solution how many moles of KOH were in original solution What was the molarity of the KOH solution System what we re interested in the surroundings Kinetic energy energy of motion Potential energy stored energy based on position Titrations We have 010M CaOH2 We want to know the exact volume needed when the student titrates 50mL sample CaOH2 with standard solution 0300M HNO3 To reach endpoint 414 mL HN03 was added Olin CHEM 240 Lecture 22916 Units of Energy SI unit J joule kg m2s2 Other calorie cal Where 1 cal 4184 Cal 1000 cal 1 Kcal Calculate kinetic energy J of a 1500 kg truck moving at 20ms Then convert J to cal Power energytime watts 1W 1 JS 1st Law of Thermodynamics Heat lost Heat gained Energy is conserved Work and heat are not energy they are processes that TRANSFER energy W F X d Kineticmolecular theory states that all matter consists of particles that are in constant motion and therefore has thermal energy Heat capacity energy required to raise temp by 1 C depends on material and mass Specific heat capacity C energy needed to heat 1g of substance by 1 C Olin CHEM 240 Lecture Molar heat capacity amount of heat necessary to raise 1 mole of substance by 1 C HOT gt COOL to reach thermal equilibrium E final lt E initial warm gt c001 radiates energy E final lt Einitial c001 gt warm absorbs energy E q w increases energy in the system Positive q or W increases energy in the system Negative q or W decreases energy in the system What is the E J for a system that absorbs 188 J heat and does 141 J work Does 502 J work and transfers 901 J heat 3416 Melting fusion and freezing Heat required at constant pressure to melt a solid Heat required at constant pressure to convert liquid to vapor How much energy is required to freeze 150g water How much energy must be transferred to vaporize 125g C6H6 at its boiling point of 801 0C Olin CHEM 240 Lecture Thermochemical expression How much heat is transferred when 100 g Al reacts With excess Fe202 at constant volume Calculate the amount of solar energy necessary to produce 750g C6H1206 Calculate heat transferred When 0500 mol H2 g is mixed With 0500 mol 02 and the mixture forms H20 g
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