Ntl Diversity & Change US (N)
Ntl Diversity & Change US (N) ISS 335
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Buster Heller on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 335 at Michigan State University taught by Yoganand Sinha in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/207753/iss-335-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Social Sci at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
ISS 335 Yoganand Sinha 346 Baker Office Hours Fri 300500 The United States of America is a nation founded by immigrants We have historically been a nation of immigrants and consequently we have a very diverse population At various times in our history we have celebrated our diversity while at others we have seen diversity as a source of weakness and disunity This class will examine the two most important institutions that inform our understanding of diversity On the one hand our representative system of government actively encourages diversity By looking at the philosophical groundings of representative democracy we will be able to see how the very foundations of our nation continue to effect the way we understand diversity On the other hand the way we have structured our economic system has also effected our understanding of diversity In theory capitalism should also promote diversity within our society We will take a close look at the relationship between capitalism and diversity Interestingly however when capitalism and representative democracy are combined as they are in the world we live in today we get a curious homogeneity that tends to reify diversity Recent political movements in America today can also be seen as an attack on diversity We will conclude the class by looking at how diversity is understood in America in the current political climate Books There are four assigned books for this class They are 1 Invisible Man by R Ellison 2 The Way We Never Were by S Coontz 3 Society ofthe Spectacle by G DeBord and The Big Sort by B Bishop Grading There will be three tests in this class worth 20 points each In addition there will be a cumulative nal worth 40 points Throughout the semester the student will be given the opportunity to do in class extra credit assignments Such assignments will not be announced ahead of time and they cannot be made up You will have one week from the time your extra credit assignments are handed back to you to contest your grade A er a week all extra credit grades are nal Grading Scale 90100 40 8589 35 8084 30 7579 25 7074 20 6569 15 6064 10 Reading Schedule Jan 10Feb 2 Introduction The nature of representative democracy The nature of capitalism Read Invisible Man Test Feb 2 General Information Jaclyn Graham YoganansSinha Govind 344 Baker Hall 300pm500pm Fridays TA MeskeremGlegzuabher Meski 407 Baker Hall 230pm430pm Wednesdays 2 MidTerms Multiple Choice 1 Final Cumulative Multiple Choice N0 attendance but inclass assignments Iaclyn Graham The classification ofpeople based on skin color isn t really about skin color gt They are formed by the culture gt Usually comes with personalities and behaviors as well 0 We are grouping physical Characteristics with other emotional things Racial Classifications are ab out o behavioral disposition 0 sex Sexual Dimorphism Can t tell the difference between male and female Gender Roles Besides the physical difference between male and females cultures assign different roles and behaviors to males and females The physical differences are not nearly as important as the social labels that are attached to the group Ethnic differences are selfimposed labels Rich and poor people are viewed as negative so as Americans we aspire to be middle class Social Darwinism Eugenics Charles DarwinNatural Selection 0 Species overproduce o By chance certain individuals have assets that help them better survive 0 Because these certain individuals are better off to survive they are going to produce more offspring than the others 8312011 441 00 PM Culture is divided into two groups 0 Dominant culture imposes their ideas on society 0 Doesn t have to be the majority group 0 Subculture 0 Each set ofimmigrants have to adapt to the current culture but they also change some of the culture that already exists I Such as food and clothing The dominant culture shifts over time When 2 distinct groups come in contact with each other Assimilation gt when the minority group is blended into the dominant culture Pluralism gt2 groups maintain their separate ideas and values and no attempt is made to blend the cultures EXtermination gt the attempt to destroy the minority group 0 Can lead to genocide Native Americans have the lowest mortality rate 0 Have the highest poverty rate Ethnocentrism gt the belief that your world View is superior to all other Views Enlightenment gt philological movement that changed the world by fundamentally shifting the way Europeans understand the world around them Locke At the time ofbirth everyone is a blank slate o Ifyou grow up in a rational environment you will become rational changes Individual Society 5 es 0 Society will become rational overtime with this cycle 0 Locke s model assumes everyone is equal Progress is never complete it is always occurring 0 You can t stop progress 0 The society is constantly changing Exam 1 Review 8312011 44100 PM Diversity Gender vs sex Sexual dimorphism Gender roles Ethnicity Class Social Darwinism Eugenics Darwin s model of Natural Selection Race as supspecies 0 Importance of genetic isolation Gene pool Race as social construct Diversity as study of self self as other Dominant culture Assimilation o Melting pot vs subjugation Pluralism 0 Good vs bad Extermination Genocide White European immigrants to north America Indian wars Ethnocentrism Enlightenment John Locke Arguments by authority vs person and empirical evidence Tabula Rosa Relationship between society and individual 0 Progress quotDivine Right of Kings Cultural evolution Justification for inequality 0 Colonialism Racial or biological model of cultural evolution Nazis F Boas and cultural relativity Diversity and human evolution Cultural and biological models tied to colonialism Representative democracy Plantation economy of couth and the need for slaves Industrial revolution and the split of the north and south A Smith and laws of economy D Ricardo Implicit equality ofboth democracy and capitalism Problems with democracy and capitalism K Marx and socialism Marx s view of rationality Dynamic view of society Bourgeoisie vs proletarial Capitalism as a world system Capitalism destroys itself Socialism and equality ISS 335 21411 Immigration and Discrimination Not only blacks that were discriminated against Waves of immigrants flooded America at this time Immigrants joined the working class These recent immigrants brought with them a new ideology that changed the relationship between the working class and employees New ideology SOCIALISM Karl Marx cultural evolutionist Believed in the idea of quotstagesquot of society Had a different take on cultural evolution than other scholars and scientist He thought that each new stage of social development is more rational that the last stage Rationality to Marx is purely in terms of economics Rationalitymeaning that the economic system becomes more efficient And there for able to produce more surplus Each new level of society produces more surplus than the last He thinks that every society is characterized by the internal tension or contradiction that eventually lead to the destruction of that social order and leads to the creation of next stage of evolutionary hierarchy According to Marx Each stage of social development has its own unique contradictions and structure Always one group the workers that produce the surplus of society Another group the ruling class that live of the surplus created by the working class The ruling class don t actually do any work They live off the working class According to Marx No matter which era of history is looked at the ruling class is always looked at as a parasite that lives off of the working class According to Marx These 2 classes are considered the Bourgeoisie ruling class and the Proletariat working class Marx felt that capitalism was the most advanced stage of society that civilization had ever devised Capitalism was able to produce more surplus that any other system that humans have been able to come up with Why Because of efficiency and rationality Capitalism had an efficient and rational system The advanced nature of capitalism meant that it would eventually be in a position to take over the world Because it was more organized and bale to produce more wealth that any other kind of society it would be in a position to conquer and establish itself as the only system in the world A world system order Once capitalism becomes a world system world becomes ONE society and is divided between the working and ruling class In order for capitalism to do this every aspect of society needs to conform to the order of production Anything that interferes with production or free movement of capitol will eventually be swept aside because of the logic of capitalism Examples religion In order for an efficient economic system to work you cannot discriminate against people in terms of religion and race As capitalism moves a long and becomes world system all of the divisions within society different language groups ethnicities then national boundaries are going to have to be done away with The logic of production means that all divisions that get in the way have to be down away with including national boundaries As it becomes a world system and distinctions disappear the other factors of society are done away with and the working class come together and realize they have more in common with each other that those in their same region Workers throughout the world would see themselves as having things in common with the working class and the ruling class Races and regions would have nothing to do with this At this point a worldwide revolution is possible Capitalism comes to an end and the next stage of cultural evolution would happen This next stage would do away with the inequalities of capitalism The ruling class would no longer be able to live off of the surplus of the working class The American worked turned increasingly toward socialism rather than capitalism Socialism seemed to downplay social division especially in the US Socialists during this era were also working towards equal rights for women Marxist ideology of getting things that divided the working class became part of the working class ethos Create a new identity that had nothing to do with class race or religion This is the rational equality that was embraced by many The brotherhood in invisible man The formation of the national American character Essentially the era of liberal capitalism close to a llfree market not regulated by government All of the came to an end back in 1871 A world wide depression occurred in 1871 Since capitalism was predicated on the idea of a self regulating market and business cycles that boomed Capitalism because of its own record goes through these cycles naturally The idea of a self regulating market came as a shock to everyone when it collapsed This was one of the first global depressions in history Depression What happens is that the prices of things drop dramatically Drastic deflation but production remains high and constant When this happens is that it is cheaper to destroy goods than it is to sell it There is than a lot of backed up inventory that cannot be sold Layoff workers because they cannot afford to keep them Depression is the atomic bomb of economic theory A self correcting market should be able to correct itself stop producing as many goods so that they amount of products has time to catch up to the demand In that time however corporations are not making any money people are losing their jobs disease outbreak etc Self correcting market was no longer working People began to demand that the government should step in and help Governments in Europe and America did respond and one of their first responses was protectionism Protectionism is setting up policies tariffs etc to protect your domestic businesses from foreign competition Governments were willing to regulate which businesses succeeded and which ones failed because this is what was needed and demanded After this the government saw themselves as the protector They saw the need to help set up policies This meant that they put up tariffs and taxes on foreign goods to help the economy
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