Society and the Individual (D)
Society and the Individual (D) ISS 210
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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Buster Heller on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 210 at Michigan State University taught by Marie Corey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/207760/iss-210-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Social Sci at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Northern Provlnc anbqu1 mow Botswana South Africa Garden Route South Africa officially called The Republic of South Africa is the country that is located at the southern most tip of Africa The country borders the Indian and Atlantic Oceans Botswana Namibia Lesotho Swaziland Mozambique and Zimbabwe 5121520 1 39i n Originally settled by Dutch French and German oDescendants of European nations referred to as Afrikaners APARTHEID DEFINED The term apartheid from the Afrikaans word for apartness was coined in the 19305 An official policy of racial segregation formerly practiced in the Republic of South Africa involving political legal and economic As Africans were moving to selfrule elsewhere on the continent whites in South Africa were determined that they were going to maintain their way of life which to them meant maintaining power The object of keeping control was to deny power to the majority population the Africans Apartheid Until 1991 South African law divided the population into four major racial categories Africans blacks o Whites Colored mixed races Indianasian 522011 5 Apartheid 0 U n Cle r a pa e CI I Apnrtlieid and the Puoplc or South Africa people we re legally P M f9 th 3 in cmi an m m rm inn CI aSSIfI ed I ntO a isz Allocation 13 pactm 5 percent 39 Share of Naliunal Income lt zu pi39rccnl 75 parcelquot ra I 9 r0 U D t h e aiio of average earnings 1 11 main ones bei ng Minimummam am no W h I a C k I n d a n Doctorspopulation lMJJDD 1400 lufnnl mnrulity mm 20 urban 27 and Coloured and Wm we g p h I Annual Expenditure on education per pupil 915 5596 d f Teacherpupil miio 100 122 a n O y Figure 1 Dispmporlioume calmcm circa 1973 50mm LC080 separated from each other on the basis of the legal classification 522011 South African Townships In South Africa the term township usually refers to the often underdeveloped urban living areas that under Apartheid were reserved for nonwhites principally black Africans and Coloreds but also working class Indians Townships were usually built on the periphery of towns and cities Nelson Mandela During the fifties Mandela was the victim of various forms of repression He was banned arrested and imprisoned For much of the latter half of the decade he was one of the accused in the mammoth Treason Trial at great cost to his legal practice and his political work Nelson Mandela was released from prison on February 11 1990 after 20 years in prison Pollsmoor Prison on Robbon Island where Nelson Mandela spent 27 years Won Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 EDUCATION POLICIES IN SOUTH AFRICA compusory education for learners between the ages of seven and 15 years of age or learners reaching the ninth grade whichever occurs first c In rural African communities women historically were assigned to agricultural tasks with the exception of herding and plowingand to domestic work and child care Traditionally South African women have held secondclass status to men African social structures are centered around men leaving women powerless This is mainly the belief throughout the entire racial and ethnic population of South Africa Patriarchal societies remain prevalent today in South Africa Marriage customs in South Africa Traditional marriage practices in South Africa involve the customs of lobola and polygamy MARRIAGE Marriage Officers Only marriage officers authorized in terms of Act No 25 of 1961 to perform marriages may do so Presently civil marriages are solemnized at offices of the Department of Home Affairs and at churches with authorized marriage officers A wedding in South Africa needs to be performed in a building with open doors o 12 symbols of life for SA weddings wine wheat pepper salt bitter herbs water a pot and spoon a broom honey a spear a shield and a copy of the Parents of both bride and groom traditionally carried fire from their hearths to light a new fire in the newlyweds hearth Ilobolo signifies the beginning of a new marital relationships and attests to the transfer of power Christianity and changing economic and social conditions have dramatically reduced the number of men who have more than one wife Cohabitation without marriage is the most common domestic living arrangement in Black and Coloured communities Gay marriage South Africa offers all its citizens including gay men and lesbians equality under the 1996 constitution I In July 2002 the High Court of South Africa ruled that to deny samesex couples the right to marry equally is discriminatory and thus unconstitutional The court ordered that the definition of marriage be changed from a quotunion between a man and a woman to a union between two people Arranged marriages in the Indian community Chastity of the future bride was a requirement No commitment to being in love Love develops Arranged marriages are on the decline ABORTION RIGHTS On December 11 1996 South Africa enacted the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act which gives women of any age or marital status access to abortion services upon request during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy and in certain cases extends access to the first 20 weeks of pregnancy This act replaced a 1975 law that severely curtailed access to abortion services by requiring a physician s and in some cases a magistrate s approval for abortion Female employees have a right to four months maternity leave By law the employer is not obliged to pay for maternity leave but women are entitled to four consecutive months of maternity leave Role of extended family Grandparents assume the role of caregivers for parents Women returning to the workforce in large numbers HIVAIDS w What is the issue problem or challenge w South Africa has the highest number of women infected with HIVAIDS in the world Stigma and discrimination against them lack of knowledge about accessing treatment and deep poverty have left these women in a precarious position But there is hope And it begins with the women Through a network of support groups that empower and educate these women they are able to take matters into their own hands to access treatment live healthier lives and support themselves and their children 522011 24 I Half of South Africa s new HIV infections occur before the age of 25 I 1200000 AIDS orphans in South Africa Around 80 of people living in African countries consult traditional African healers and use traditional African remedies Estimated 250000 SA s died from AIDS in 2008 522011 25 Average life expectancy in South Africa is now 54 years without AIDS it is estimated that it would be 64 Over half of 15 year olds are not expected to reach the age of 605 HISTORY OF AIDS IN SOUTH AFRICA 1985 a State of Emergency was declared in South Africa that would last for 5 years 1990 it was estimated that there were between 74000 and 120000 people in South Africa living with HIV 1993 The National Health Department reported that the number of recorded HIV infections had increased by 60 from the previous two years 1996 The HIV prevalence rate among pregnant women was at 122 1999 The HIV prevalence rate among pregnant women was at 224 2001 The HIV prevalence rate among pregnant women was at 248 2009 The HIV prevalence rate among pregnant women was at 29 Child rearing in South Africa Relationship between mother and child is very close The child is carried on her back and goes wherever the mother goes The first physical separation occurs when the child is weaned Usually around 3 years of age After that time the father also will begin play with the child The Swazi parents treat their child coldly They do not name the child until after 3 months AustraliaNew Zealand First inhabitants aboriginals dreamtime Intimidation of enemy strategy facial expressions Source of indigenous people placed around necks of the bridegroom represents never ending love Infinity loop placed around necks of the bridegroom represents never ending love Mission schools 19101970 100000 children taken most under 5 raised in churchstate institution some fosteredadopted by white parents couldn t speak language parents weren t told where they were taken lighter skin meant more opportunity no visitsletters LGBT legislationrights NZ same rights as other couples but can t adopt or marry civil unions allowed in 2005 First white minority Irish 1795 Terra Naulius how British described Australia empty land locals not considered humans Aboriginals of NZ Maori Tattoo meanings placed around necks of the bridegroom represents never ending love Explorer credited with colonizing countries 1606 Dutch William Janszoom Captain James Cook Indonesia Endorsed a matrilinial system Minangkabau Minang mother is dominate uncle of mother s side is the head of household lineage drives through mothers side mother of bride asks for the hand of the son Marriage restrictions can t marry if they have the same surname bridegroom s surname has a higher status than the brides Marriage act of 1974husband allowed more than one wife rare wife can t have more than one husband Importance of family extended just asif not more important than nuclear family more important than individual Parentingselection of friends authoritarian do not encourage child Independence older children becoming more defiant over protection common friends have to be of the same class racismprejudicesubtle approval Blending of cultural traditions and religion in family life influences by Hinduism Buddhism Confucianism Islam First Chinese to immigrate Hokkienese skilled as merchants came from 2 provinces in China Early education of population Prebumi history indigenous people looked down on migrating Chinese didn t go to school tension between them and Chinese riots Women s rights 39 39 39to other 39 39 39 5 countries participation in Iaborforce 33 conservatives emphasise domestic role of women helpmate must be subordinate in career Funeral rituals ceremony of death remembrance may be a year or more after the person dies water buffalo slaughtered depending on persons wealth Religion and sexual norms sex forbidden before marriage unmarried sexually active youth are not eligible for sex related services wedlock kidsquotsinful childrenquot abortions only allowed for heath reasons Endogamy marrying within group Parents role in child s success in school if repeats grade parents feel shame Birth control history 1950 sencouraged to have as much children as possible 1958 IPPA mission was to maintain women s health and teach about birth control not limited to married couple IPPA began classes in schools sex education is not part of school talk shows etc Enforcement of civilIslamic laws Islamic law doesn t apply to nonMuslim citizens not offically Islamic country enforced by special courtcivil servants paid by gov educated at Faculty of Islamic Law syariah at Institute of Islamic Science LGBT issues samesex activity is legal Acehinstituted Islamic Sharia law samesex coupleshouseholds are not eligible for same legal protections Payment of marriage ceremony Balinese girls expect boys family to cover all wedding expenses nganting manuk ceremony is held for the symbolic payment of the dowry groom brings chicken to brides home Largest ethnic population Chinese Japan Most common form of marriage until 1960 s arranged Importance of school failing brings parents shame 810 hours in school then jukuprivate tutoring Current divorce policy rare more stable and cohesive than American English and Swedish families becoming more common new law wife receives half Wedding girfts traditions traditional dress naganosh abalone shells katsuobushi dried bonito konbu happyhealthy children wish yuino engagement obi kimono sash hakama male shirt bride white from head to toe white kimono and elaborate headpiece with ornaments luck white hood hid horns ofjealously sute Shinto Shrines May 5th Childrens day families celebrate the healthy growth and happiness of children fly a flag Type of society homogenous Symbol of strength and success carp Religion for living and dead funerals are Buddhist 91 ie terms for supraindividual household group having economic kinship religious and political functions Aspects of tea ceremony philosophy behind the tea company has been shaped by it s origins in Zen Buddhism revolves around harmony respect purity serenity Meeting marriageable women miai interview for a men and women with a view to marriage helps couples meet each other oldertrad male invited to woman s home leave a fan after agree meet for dinner Term for parents oya View of children before age 7 indulged can do whatever they want Roletraining of Geishas common in the 18th and 19th centuries first ones were male trained from young childhood may from poor families maids the assistant to housekeeper apprentice geisha maiko accompany to tea housesparties no prostitutes means art person Chma Poverty rate 1998 53 million leader after the Qing dynasty Sun Yatsen kuomintanggov formed by sun s successor The Long March communist losing ground retreated to a more isolated area oct 16 1934 communist army began to move out of reach of the KMT leader led the march from different areas Mao amp Deng led the third army communist well armed major defeat for the Red Army at the Crossing of the Xiang river the Cultural Revolution 1960 enlisted the enthusiasm of students to enforce the no western influence in China affected scholars university teachers landowners business people The Great Leap Forward collective farms to increase productions gov bought wheat at low price and sold back to farmers at higher price malnutritionstarvation common turned into a manufacturing economy American role in combating Japan invasion invaded Nanking China Nationalist ArmyRed Army greed to a truce in order to fight common enemy America moved supplies into China via the Burma Road Hong Kong Island leased for 99 years to British due to opium war debt English as a second language 400 million school children can speak English Nickname for only children little emperors Mosuo culture women s kingdom walking marriages free love First state marriage law at beginning of Mao s leadership 1951 ended parentarranged marriages Changes in family structure divorce low dominated my men paternal inheritance makes for male preference grandparents caring for grandchildren while parents have career nuclear families living further from extended History of drug abuse 1970sopium spread transportedstored in China regardless of policy 1839 strict laws prohibiting it by Qing dynasty launched and lost 2 opium wars put in debt Term for unmarried men India Marriage customs sacrament of two souls not a contract Hindulifelong commitment most important family occasion customs are a blend of cultureswedding morningcouples bodies anointed with spices to cleanse the body soften the skin and make it aromatic day before weddingpalm and feet decorated with Mendhi bathed to chanting of Vedic sacred knowledge or learning in Sanskrit mantras mandapam an altar erected at the wedding site where the rites are conducted brides father places her hands in groom to signify transference of responsibility seven steps then bride and groom hold hands and walk around the ritual fire agni some married at 6 husband could be up to 50 years older or close in age Aspects of Karma 1 no concerned with consequences in general but with consequences that affect the individual 2 applies specifically to the moral sphere 3supreme moral quality is the assertion that the person not only deserves the consequences but is unable to avoid experiencing them all actions produce effects in the future reincarnation Spiritual leader Gandhi Main religion characteristics Hinduism word coined by English in 19th century 650 mil adherents in India 100 mil in world neither a single prophet or god supreme being with unlimited forms Caste system RigVeda holy book divides ancient Indian society into four separate but interdependent classes 1 brahminslearned and educated elite guardians of Vedas 2 kshatiyas noble warriers defeaters of realm 3 vaishyastraders businessmen farmers money lenders 4 sudrasmain function is to serve the needs of the upperthree nextpariah harijans untouchables outcastes
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