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People and Environment (I)

by: Buster Heller

People and Environment (I) ISS 310

Buster Heller
GPA 3.91

Morris Thomas

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Morris Thomas
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This 51 page Class Notes was uploaded by Buster Heller on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 310 at Michigan State University taught by Morris Thomas in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see /class/207761/iss-310-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Social Sci at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Biomes 3222013 45500 AM United States Biomes Terrestrial Biomes o Natural Vegetatione indicates possible land use o Forest Grasslands Deserts o Limiting Factors 0 Soil 0 Topography Xeric dry desert environment Hydric wet low fertility Mesic not to wet not to dry moist moderate fertility o Timeesuccession Plants have life terms hen a tree replaces another tree naturally Climate Major Limiting Factor a Ll if Hot Desert 0 HotWet Amazon Louis ana 5 Tem Tundracold dr Precipitation Precipitation Shade Tolerance Some plants grow in shade whereas others don t Tropical Rain forest Trees love humidity Broad Leaf Deciduous Forest Hardwood Forest o Location Eastern part of the US o Seasonally cold o Not as diverse as tropical forest Boreal Forest Mixed Forest o Location UP of MI o Seasonally cold o Needle Trees o Coniferous Sagebrush Xerophytes o Desert 0 O O O O O O O O o Location Intermontane region lt250 mm of rain o plants spread out Cresote Brush o Location lower portion of CA NM AZ o Plants survive with little moisture Smokey Mountains o 100 species o Most species rich in Eastern USA c 1400 mm raine humid o Many ecological niches mountainous region lots of variation o Deciduous forest o Folk Medicine Sierra Nevada o Tree line Scatte Humid Fore ne aparral Desert 0 Grows on the slope of mountains 0 Not good place to build house catches on fire o Factors 0 Elevation 0 Precipitation Increase E Increase P Siskiyou Mountains o Located in Cascade Mountains Border of CA and OR o Most Species in the m o 30 different species of conifers o 1400 mm of rain o Many ecological niches Mixed Mesophytic Forest o Located in Appalachian Mountains o Many Tree Species in the E gt240 kinds of trees o Smokey Mountains 0 Humid o 1400 mm of rain 0 Many ecological niches South America Biomes Tropical Rain Forest o Location Amazon Brazil o Great Variety of species 700 species within 1 hectare o Hot and wet o 2800 mm of rain with high temps o Nutrient recycling o 20 of worlds oxygen 25 US medicine 20 worlds fresh water 54 worlds fresh water 9 lungs of the world 0 o Emergent Layer Canopy Layer I Understory 3 V w Undergrowth o Forest changes by humans 0 Road building 0 Lumbering SUV 0 Canoe boats travel make house boats Savannah Cerrado o Becoming agricultural frontier o Climate tropical wet and dry o JulySept winter JanMarch Summer OctDec Spring Atacama Desert o Location Northern Chile o Driest place in the world o Little vegetation o Good for mining copper N02 Both Prairie Pampas Tall Grass o U59 along 100 degree line east side o Good for agriculture Steppe Patagonia Short Grass o U59 along 100 degree line west side o Dry Region United States 3222013 45500 AM POPULATION Nortfolk live here 315 million HDI 3 Baby Boom 0 Major increase in births 0 Large amount of people in an age group 0 1955 1956 1957 most proliferate year in the United States 3rd largest 1St China 2nd India Arithmetic Density 80 pplsq mile Physiological Density 450 sq mile of cropland Population pattern 0 Most east of the 500 mm line 10 most popular states California 1 Texas 2 New York 3 Georgia North Carolina Florida Pennsylvania Ohio Illinois Michigan Areas of greatest gain 0 SW sunbelt Nevada Utah Cali Colorado Piedmont Florida Areas of great lost 0 The black beltcotton belt 0 O O O O O O O O O 0 Gray belt lots of old people along 100 degree line o Pluralism 0 White 6400 German 15 Irish English Italian 0 Hispanic 16 near boarder 0 Black 12 East Texas to Maryland cotton belt 0 Asian 5 New York Southern California 0 Native American 1 OK ND Montana UP of Michigan West o Quota 0 Around 19201930 set quota about of ppl coming in o US Citizen 0 3 ways to be a citizen Born in the US Mother born in the US Naturalization Michigan 3222013 45500 AM Michigan Forests o 75 Tree species 0 Limited by temperature and precipitation o Sugar Maple most common o Large Variety o BeachMa le Most common Like the same environment as Sugar Maple Good area for farming Mesic site Fertile Soil Southern part of lower Pennisula o OakHickory Second most common Xeric sites 9 sandy soils Fills in where beachmaple doesn t grow 0 ElmAsh Willow Hydric Sites Flood Plains Floristic Transition Zone 0 Muskegon to Bay City 0 Trees Interdigitate o Coniferous forest pine trees North of Zone o Forests can be random in S Michigan o Basketball courts are made from wood in UP o Climate and soil 0 Influence the types of trees that grow Invasive Species o Spotted Knapweed up North 0 Sandy uplands good for bumblebess o Purple Loosestrife o Wetlands kills off other plants with toxins Michigan Prairies o Grasslands o Kalamazoo o Found in SW lower penn Water Surface Water of Michigan o Great Lakes 20 of worlds fresh water 0 32000 miles of shoreline 0 never more that 85 miles from shore 0 Delta county has most shore line 0 MI controls 21 of GL surface Lake MI only lake fully in US rest share with Cananda o Competing usage Drinking water Power generation Argiculture Manufacturing Shipping Diversions o 40 counties out 83 touch the shores of the GL c Inland Lakes gt11000 o Sanilac and Aerinac County no natural lakes Both are Lacustrine plaines o 835 in Marquette o 443 in Oakland 0 327 in Bary o Largest lake Houghton Lake Muskegon River begins here and flows to L Michigan 0 Finger Lakes Torch Lake 0 Shoreline Lakes Located on west side Important for lumbering in the past o Rivers and Streams 0 gt300 named rivers 0 35000 miles 0 never more than 5 miles from river or stream 0 Longest Grand River o Temperatures tremendous variatioin o Profile going downhill from Lake Superior PM hi if Tm il macm he 0 The public has the right of access to any navigable river or lake meaning Any stream that can transport a boat or canoe with one person Any stream that floats or transports logs Any stream used as public fishery must see one of these characteristics 39 l Hligllfi ear lla ri39 Can only walk along private areas where sand is wet People own land up till water level Great Lakes Watershed 0 Any rain water from rain flows into Great Lakes 0 Must be in watershed to use Great Lakes Water rm Is u r M l l light le 0 Consumers built a lake and pump water from Lake Michigan 0 At night release the water to generate power 0 Lake resavoir stores water E J li i l39llwl ii y came a state in 1837 first census 1850 18401890 major increase due to European immigration increase during industrial revolution was fastest growing 1970 peak and now declining Who are we 0 White 7700 0 Black 1400 0 Hispanic 4 0 Asian 2 0 Native Americans 08 UP NW side and Detroit area declining population 0 Livingston and Clinton County largest growing Center of Balance o 2000 Shaiawessee County population headed north then back south South America 3222013 45500 AM Major Watersheds o Orinoco Watershed 6 0 Angel Falls Venezuala Highest waterfall in the world misty at bottom 3212 ft drop 0 Lake Titicaca Bolivia and Peru 12500 ft elevation largest highest navigable lake Bolivia navy sails on it o La Plata Watershed 25 Between Brazil and Paraguay 2nd largest in the word 0 Iguazu Falls 0 Brazil20 o 0 Argentina 80 o Amazon Watershed 40 o Manaus and Iquitos city OceaneManaus Amazon Manaus Iquitos Solimous 0 River Facts About 4000 miles long No bridge across river Navigatable to Iquitos Peru Excellent for transportation Two different rivers come together Ml Slightly acidic o Fewer mosquitos o Soil low fertility o Go on vacation here o Less acidic o More mosquitos o Fertile soil a Don t mix because of diff densities and temps 0 Brazil Hydroelectric Dams LOTS of DAMS Proposed 60 new 80 of Brazil Power 5 l a 4th largest in the world a 3rd largest in the world POPULATIONS o 388 million people o Pattern o Clustered 0 Along the coast 80 within 200 miles of coast Easy for trade and exports old school reason HDI 0 Chile 44 lowest 0 Argentina 49 Best in South America 0 Uraguay 50 o Diverse Culture Mulano Large in Brazil o Blancos o Crillos Born in South America Lower status 0 Peninsulares Born in Spain or Portugal Highest Status o Brazil 0 5th Largest population 191 million people 50 of South America population live in Brazil Speak Portuguese Very Diverse White 48 Pardo 42 Black 8 Asian 1 Indian 04 0 Population Pyramid Slowing down 0 Large Japanese 0 Large Black population due to slave trade o Argentina 0 40 million people mostly Blanco Spanish speaking Germans and Italians who think they are English 0 Slightly slowing still growing o Uraguay o Slowed Down 0 Mostly Blanco o Bolivia 0 Amerindian l 0 Traditional Indian o Bolivia Peru Ecuador Paraguay 0 Mostly Indian and don t have any economical power o Peru 0 Mostly Indian population growth slowing down 0 Desert Mountain Amazon 0 People live mostly in desertcoast O O O O Central America 3222013 45500 AM POPULATION Blancos 4 35 about the same 40 million Characteristics 0 Clustered o Volcanioc mountains fertile soil 0 On Pacific Side 0 Avoid other side damp moist mosquitos Live in Templata Typical Pyramid Guatemala 0 13 million 0 largest growing 0 lots of kids 0 RM 28 7028 25 years to double 0 Lots of people small crop land Honduras 0 Fast growth Costa Rica 0 Slowing down only one slowing down 0 Doubling time 41 Too many people two few resources HDI 0 Costa Rica 54 o Guatamala 122 highest in Central America Who are these people Indians 2 5 Mestizo 1 Africans Slaves LANGUAGE o Belize English 0 Mostly mestizo and indian not a lot of black o Everywhere else Spanish Terms 3222013 45500 AM WATER Ground Water o Water accumulated in the ground from soil soaking it up from rainfall Rivers and Streams o Flow from HIGH elevation to LOW elevation o Flood plain 0 Do not build house here area along river that floods Longitudinal Profile o Water moving downhill due to gravity general profile of a river compared to distance and elevation o Closer to origine faster good for dams creates hyrdrolytic head Closer to mouth 9 slower Delta occurs where the river meets the sea the water velocity slows and the sediments form a large area of deposited sediments Watershed every river stream or lake has a watershed o Water flow depends on composition of land 0 90 forest most water absorbed o 80 urban most water flows into river 20 l 39 I I I I B I I I O O A fl B Drainage Divide Usually High Elevation that forces water Public Lakes o Lakes that have meandered Private Lakes o Not Meandered o Own the bottom of the lake you can swim around but don t touch bottom Public Trust Doctrine o The public has the right of access to any navigable river or lake meaning 0 Any stream that can transport a boat or canoe with one person Any stream that floats or transports logs Any stream used as public fishery 0 must see one of these characteristics Ordinary High Water Mark o Can only walk along private areas where sand is wet People own land up till water level Riparian Rights o use it don t abuse it o use but do not diminish the flow and quality o Affects east side 0 A Not Riparian B Riparian Can build C Cannot build mill Riparian Prior Appropriation first come first serve First person to put water to a beneficial use gets a share Remains priority Only direct shares Affects west side C C owned it first putting land to use A A can use after c gets Share B B same asA Chapter 9 3 Characteristics of Natural Resources o A society s cultural values influences people s decision that a commodity is desirable and acceptable to use o A society s level of technology must be high enough to use resource o A society s economic system affects whether a resource is afforadable and accessible Fossil Fuels o Oils natural gas and coal come from remains of plants animals buried millions of years ago Hydroelectric power o Power generated by water passing through turbines in a dam POPULATION TERMS Demography o All about numbers o Patterns where people are c Composition what is the population like o Changes o All info comes through census u UAllu Population Dynamic controlling factors 0 Births o Deaths o Immigration o Emmigration Census Data pitiliili ii i i o wait every 72 years to o Historical Census Data 0 Numbers no names 0 Data comes from countries o Five Census Categories 0 White release next 10 years Black American Indian and Native American Asian Native Hawaiian or other pacific islander Population Geography o The distribution of mankind across our planet Emmigration o out departure people leaving Immigration o in when people move from place to place Arithmetic Density o The number of people per unit area Physiological density o Density of population per unit of cropland Crude Birth Rate CBR c Number of live births per 1000 people Crude Death Rate CDR c Number of deaths per 1000 people Total fertility rate TFR o The average number of children that would be born to each woman in a given society 0 Child bearing age 1549 0 2w it i Replacement Rate 21 o TFR below 21 9 population decreasing o TFR 21 RR no growth or decline o TFR above 21 9 population increasing Double time o The number of years it takes a population to double 0 O O O RNI 70 ll v rr Population Pyramid o Represents age and gender o Pyramid shape 9 growing old young 0 Male Female Dependencyra o o What proportion of the people are in their productive years Demoqraphic Transition Model o Defines four distinct growth patterins 0 Both CBR and CDR are high so population does not increase rade Occurs when human population is fragile 0 Increase incomes and medical care leads to increase of CBR anddemeaseofCDR Leadsto anincreasein popula on o CBR falls children becoming to expensive Birth rates still higher than death rates 0 Population becomes stable TFR hovers at or below replacement level Infant Mortality o Infants per thousand that die before age of 1 Sexra os o ratios of males to females Migration o Push factors push people away lack ofjobs ltsafety o Pull factors pull people in more jobs gtsafety Self Declaration o Decide if you are white black or Hispanic o Manyrnukkadalpeopm Cartogranw o Size of countries represents numbers 0 Larger more people Human Development Index o Rankscount esfron11182 o Looksathownhuch acouninhakesGNP o Looks atlteracy Looks at life expentancy Costa Rica 54 US3 Guatemala 122 Highest in Central America The Cultural Landscape of the US 4 groups that came from England People move latitudinal from east to west England 0 Old name Albion Foundation of American Culture 4 groups left 16291775 Protestant English Language and Legal System 0 O O O 1 Puritans Massachusetts Middle Class Yeoman artisans merchants High literacy Education very important for both men and women Toponymy o Chelmsford o Ishwip o CNe lots of names with devil in it Cap Cod house Upright and wing house Sturdy Farm House 16 presidents they were the educated of the time Madison Adam 1790 over 90 born in England 2 Quakers SW PA NJ area Middle class unsatisfied with England Welcomed other groups Germans But No outside marriage Women had significant and equal roles Prudish Eat to live not live to eat No slavery Nofew presidents maybe one not involved with politics Toponymy 0 Lancaster York Liverpool Chester Friends of the church MasonDixon line 3 Cavaliers Rovalist Coastal areas of Virginia Middlee upper class Brought indentured servants slavery Created plantations in Tidewater Dispersed settlement Many Presidents Jefferson Washington Banished Quakers and Puritans Family Names 0 Byrd Berkeley Carter Culpepper Diggs Jefferson Lee Madison Spencer Landon Men were predators Females were breeders 4 Back Country Fold Boarder Folk TN KY Hill Billy s Last Group 17171775 ScottishIrsh Northern Ireland Looked down upon Poverty stricken Stubburn prideful belligerent Protestant Family Names 0 Taylor Jackson Knox McCoy Hartfield Lynch Presidents Jackson Lyndon Toponymy 0 Red Dog Run Cumberland Durham Caledonian WhiskeyKentucky Gender INequality Women tought hardworking Fork Bridal abduction Wrassling Wrestling Warrior ethic o Shot gun houses o Blue Laws can only drink at certain times US Immigration 1820 Northern and Western Europe o Denmark Finland Sweden o German Irish Later Eastern Europe o Italians Greeks 1880 closed the door o US closes its door to foreigners US population today Most of the US population has German ancestor o Germans o Recruited by the English Protestant not Roman Catholic Present day 17 German ancestor 1910 MI German settled along coast good Legacy Farming engineering brewing Dutch 0 MI West side 0 Legacy wooden shoes windmill pump H20 out of swamps o Amish 0 Transport in buggies o Hex signs Most population is in Ohio Indiana PA small amount in MI Looking for farmland MAJOR group in Lancaster County PA SE corner of PA 0 Amish PA toponymy O O O o Amish Bird in Hand Climax Intercourse Blue Balls Mount Joy Bareville Goodville Surnames Blender Blauch Hostetler Hochstedler Miller Stotzfus Swartsenbender Yoder 0 Located near already settled by German areas they re German 0 Cultural Landscape 0 Today Ruralland base Agriculture Crafts quilts furniture House stylesmultigenerational Horsesbuggies No electricity Native Americans First People here lt1 total population in the US Oklahoma large population moved here Very few in NY Mountains and FL Treaties bt US government and Indian Tribes 778 Treaty With Delaware 1 only Treaty that was equal 1737 Walking Purchase 1 Eastern PA 1830 Indian Removal Act a Move west of Mississippi River Tribal Trust Land Reservations Given them by Sovereign Nation Status No state jurisdiction Major crimes US jurisdiction Minor Crimes Tribe jurisdiction 18911934 Dowes Allotment Act divided reservation lands to individuals lost most of their land 1924 Native Americans announced as US Citizens n n n n n n 577 federally recognized tribes benefits very different lifestyle n Example all a o Call themselves Dene Bekayah o 4 is sacred o Intersection of CO UT AZ and NM 0 4 sacred rivers o 4 sacred mountains o Hopi Tribe within o Navajo Code talkers 0 Translate and make coded messages for WW2 0 17951842 Land transferred from NA to US government 0 12 federally recognized tribes o Fishing rights can fish all year c Casinos 0 22 tribal casinos Provides jobs and money to schools o Legacy 0 Ogemaw along rifle river 0 Sanilac Petrographs Park carving alongon roks 0 Native American Trails Modern roads follow these trails Hunger and Food SuQle Agriculture o Food 0 Fuel o Fiber Cotton o 1 California o 2 Iowa o 3 Texas o The cultural and socio economic practices that relates to production and consumption of food o Agricultural seedbed 0 Where was farming originated SE PA 0 Major productse major cities NY Phili o Cropland 0 Flat land 0 Good soil mollisols Best 3 things bread basket of world 0 Summer rainfall max o Regional Specialization o Grow the thing that will make you them most money due to comparative advantage o Chicago Board of Trade CBT o Determines our food prices 0 Ensures there is going to be a market 0 Stock market of food Major Crops consult map 1 Corn Zea Maize i 1 exporter of corn ii Hogs and soybeans produced in the same area iii High Frutose corn syrup 2 Dairy i Holstein Jersey Gernzie Brown Swiss ii 25000 pounds of milk iii grow cows regional specialization make most money iv milk produced by major products 4 Old Cotton Belt i Correlation with slaves ii New cotton belt TX AZ CA iii NOW New Chicken Belt immigrants work here 89 Prairie o Wheat 0 Creme of the west 0 8 Winter wheat plant in the fall winter comes covers in snow Harvest in july 0 9 Spring Wheat plant early 1 month after snow leaves a Harvest in Fall 10 Ranching most in the West Anguse beef cows Commercial grazing lt500 mm occurs mostly on federally owned land 0 Farmers leased the land 0 Privately owned areas are really cheap LARGE lots of acres Western Land on dry ares How do ranchers make money 0 Tell cow to walk around 0 Mama has a baby Rancher sells baby 1lb of beef15 lbs of grain 0 least efficient 1 1 Mediterranean Agriculture Hot dry summers cool wet winters mostly for human consumption desert in disguise lr E E 11 iv Out west very dry lt500mm Can be used to regulate Ogallala Aquifier Area of underground rain Most food proliferate area in the US and world 430 different crops California Agriculture 0 Dairy 1 product 0 Almonds 2 o Grapes 3 Uses of Corn o Human Foode 20 o Ethanol use is increasing leading to increase in food prices o Animal feed 80 Soybeans o Major crop in the US in MI as well Lacustrien Plains o Mostly used for animal feed o Farmers grow the crop that would make them the most money Products shipped by TRAIN World Food Production o Corn o Rice o Wheat Make up 65 of crops around world o Potatos W 0 Pork 0 Poultry o Beef Most produced meat o Sheep and Goat Michigan o Greater production in areas with small farm land US historical Food o Pork small easy o Corne wanted to shift towards wheate need clearer land o Food mostly home grown 0 Cause seasonal diets o Difficult to preserve o Primar activit farmers 0 Production of raw materials 0 ALWAYS get the lowest prices higher up more o Commercial Agriculture USDA 0 Produce and sell 1000 s of production US food Today o US has HIGH technology levels of farmers Cultural background Wisconsin Minnesotaecranberry Human consumption 0 Crops grown for human consumption Animal consumption Americans mostly want CHEAP FOOD o US only 10 of income goes to food lowest in world Comparisons o 1950 farmer 1 farmer fed 30 ppl 2010 farmer 1 farmer feeds 155 ppl 1908 50 income on food 2010 10 income on food we want cheap food 0 O O O The Growing Season o Definition The number of days between the last frost in spring and first frost in the fall 0 Ex East Lansing 150 days Below 37 parallel 200 Days UP 9 90 Days Capitol Investment o Larger Farm need LOTS of money to start Tractor LARGE 150000200000 Land costs per acre better to own it 0 Michigan 4000 per acre 0 Iowa 7000 0 New Jersey 12300 there s not a lot of it Farmland sizes increases from East to West 0 Need more land to do stuff Take into account 0 Labor cost 0 Transportation cost 0 Market location Large population Cropland 0 Which state has the most expensive land NJ 12000 Iowa 7300 CA 9000 win Tliiuriexn lg Increase distance from market Decrease profit per acre 1 Land more expensive here 2 Dairy Vegetables 3 Grains 4 Ranching Profit Acre Urbanization Largest US Cities 1 NY 2 LA o 3 Chicago o 4 Houston Census looks at MSA o Must have at least 50000 people 0 Looks at counties that trade with that group 0 Important for tax money Internal structure o Irregular o Most have gridrectangular o Some circles 1 New York Cit VERY o 5 boroughs 83 million population Largest US city o Largest Brooklyn 26 2 o Queens 22 3 Manhatten16 1 Bronx 14 only one on main land 4 Staten Island 5 5 0 East side of central park10065 0 People judge you by your zip code 0 Manhatten 0 Grid shaped Know the streets and grids o 2304 sq ft I Bloomfield Hills MI 436 sqft I Farmington Hills MI 112 sq ft 2 Los Angeles 0 2 d largest city o larger area than New York N 503 sq mi 0 lots of traffic 0 Multiple nuclei model 3 Chicag 0 3rd largest city 3 million 0 geographically V2 the size of LA 0 0 which then divides into neighborhoods Classic Grid Model Concentric Zone Model 0 City grows in concentric rings Sector Model based oaji streets 4280 9 Las Vegas Geography of sin and sex 31 in population size before succession largest growing Middle of a desert Limited by water 0 Hoover Dam Diminishing every year Inside Clark county Casino strip 0 122 casinos 150 hotels 0 wedding chapels cheap food sensual entertainment 30 licensed Brothels o consult map only shaded areas allow brothels 11 of 17 counties Michigan Culture Landscape 4222013 34500 PM Migration and Immigrants Lower Portion of MI settled by Eastern US Americans UP highest number of immigrants o Most went to the UP o Lots of resources and opportunities o Mining o Lumbering o land Lower fewer number of immigrants already settled 1910 o UP made up of foreign born people o Lower people born in Eastern US Population o 1910German settled along coastgood for o 1910 Dutch settled along west side 0 1 Dutch population in the US o Finland 1 population in the US Native Americans o Three Tribes People of 3 fires 0 SE Michigan to Detroit to Lake St Claire o 6 miles in 6 miles up from SE to St Claire strip of land o 1910 near coast and in UP o Casinos o 22 tribal casinos provide jobs and money 0 West Side of State UP Agriculture 2M largest industry o Greater production in areas with small farm land Land valuesq foot 0 per 43560 sq ft Farmland 4000acre o 400043560009 per sq foot Land Value 0 Oakland 7428 9 highest demand 0 Wayne 6829 0 Macomb 6107 0 Livingston4787 Prime farm land south of Bay city Muskegon Line gn dmost DIVERSE in crops in us CA 1 Dairy Products 1 product 0 in the US 0 Quality Dairy Milk comes from Clinton 0 Holstein Cow for Green houses 0 Flowers and Hanging baskets Corn Most used for Animal Feed Climate specific Grown below Bay CityMuskegon Line Above too short of a growing season 0 150 bushelsacre Hybrid corn increase production GMO Corn has Sexes Uses Human food Ethanol Animal food 0 O O O O Beans Red white black High in protein Green beans9 cash crop Asparagus Mason and Oceania Celery Histols Kalamazoo Mintgum Clinton County 90 mint 0 O O O O O O PotatoesBetter made chips Most widely grown crop 75 made for chips Blueberries Muskegon to OH Boarder Acetic soil mild temps in summer 25 of world blueberries a Most in US and MI 0 0 Fruit Belt 0 Along west coast close to water from traverse to boarder 0 Climate and topography specific 0 Lake Effect keeps plants growing Fall keeps frost away increase growing season Apples Cherries Traverse 1 in MI Plums Pears Peaces The diva of agriculture Grapes Impact of climate change Mild climate up north Old Mission and Leelanau Penn 0 O O O O 0 Michigan Government Units 1 General Law Township a Oldest1847 law b 25 population c usually less than 2000 people d 1105 in Michigan e Mostly rural f Local government i Access to property Taxes ii Elections 9 Fewer people larger the actual area of the township 2 Villages a Part of the general law township b 3 population c 256 in MI d most 1mileX1mile e provide basic services taxes limited i pay village and twp Tax f hold elections 3 Cities a 51 population live in cities b 277 cities in MI i 8gt 100000 Livonia Grand Rapids Ann Arbor Sterling Heights Warren Flint Detroit Lansing c Incorporated increase power d Provide services increase tax e Can annex territory 4 Charter Townshipsuburbs a 1947law pretty new b 26 of population c 137 of them located near big city i formed so cities couldn t take over d need more than 2000 people e Higher tax rate i Must provide more services similar to cities0 f Oakland County has most 15 Charter Township and General Law have 58 of the property value in MI Big Cities o Detroit 0 139 sq mil 3 townships o 2 cities inside Detroit Hazelpark Hamtramiock o 1950 reached peak population 18 million since then has been declining o 12 auto assembly plants vehicles roll out only 2 LEIT 0 Land values Farmland 009 sq foot Downtown 6000 sp Foot Houselandneighborhoodvalue 0 Detroit Water Department 53 cities use Detroit water 50 of MI population drink Detroit water Jobs are outside of Detroit by 10 miles like a donut 0 Population pyramid 2550 ages manage he city 3 Owner Occupied vs Rental Occupied o Owner Occupied area 0 Want to live in They care about their land 0 Owner occupied Warren Livonia a Large over 65 years old Bloomfield Hills 48304 n A lot of older people established a Highest medium income wealthy n Homes are wealthy o Rental occupied o 70 of East Lansing 0 Don t care as much East Lansing o 43 restaurants that serve alcohol 0 30 adjacent to campus 4222013 34500 PM Agriculture Along coast where the people are Pampas Corn 0 Brazil and Argentina Wheat 0 Same place as corn These can grow during our winter season Beef Cattle o Argentinians eat the MOST red meat 0 Brasilian Cattle Ranching 1 producer big exporter Sheep 0 Mutton and wool 0 Argentina Grapes o 8 in the world 0 Argentina Tropical Products o Cashews Brasil Nuts Coconuts Banana Coffeee brazil 1 in coffee production Must be grown at Tierra Templata Colombia Ecuador 3 0 Flowers Colombia 2 Sugar canee ethanol acool Orange Juice Soy beans 2 in brazil cerrado n Deforestation ranchinge soybeans 4 in UX O O O O O O O o Mediterranean Agriculture 0 Middle Chile like CA Most of the same fruits 0 Advantages Mountains to protect Oceans to protect o Grapes Chile 10 in wine 0 Blueberries Evil 0 Aka shifting cultivation o Aka slash and burn 0 Small scale Grow a crop exhaust soil move to next patch 0 ManioceTapioca Produced in Amazon in this fashion Urbanization Most people live in cities o rapid urbanization o rurale urban migration 0 ruralurban dichotomy VERY diff Primate Cities o 25 x than next largest city 0 New York s primate city New York City 0 MI Detroit primate next to Grand Rapisds SA 0 Usually capitol o Largest population 0 Usually a major univerisy 0 Usually major newspaper population in two cities o Uraguay 96 o Chile 91 0 Peru 91 o Argentina 90 Set up o Churches all around o Market o Gov buildings CBD I Latin America Urban Model rich poor Favelas barrios o Up on hillside around large city o Poor people Terms 4222013 34500 PM Foodwaxs The cultural and socio economic practices that relates to production and consumption of food The Growing Sea son Definition The number of days between the last frost in spring and first frost in the fall Von Thunen Location Theorl Increase distance from market Decrease profit per acre 1 Land more expensive here 2 Dairy Vegetables 3 Grains 4 Ranching Profit Acre o Holstein Black and white cow for milk o Milkmammary secretion from female o Cows 0 East forage and water LOTS 0 Baby cowcalf o How many pounds of milk per year 24000 pounds milked 305 daysyear fsh Milk Cheapest Cheese Cream ice cream more expensive o Pasteurization of Milk 0 Process of heating milk to destroykill bacteria 0 Unpasteurized raw don t drink unless you know cow o Homogenization of milk 0 Push milk through press and breaks up butter fat and floats 0 Take out butter fat then add for desired percent Whole Milk gt325 bft 20bft 10bft Skim milk lt05 bft Chickens o 1lb of meate 4le of grain most efficient Hogs and Pigs o Eat corn and soybean 0 Makes pigs big increase their value increase corn soybean o 1lb of meat 9 7lb of grain o shortage of pork belly therefore bacon price to increase beef Cows o 1lb meat 15 lbs of grains least efficient Point of Origin Labeling o September 30 2009 o Must list commodities and LABEL where they came from o Meats Fruitsnuts Veggies Fish and shellfish O O 0 Urban Spraw o People are moving out into farmlands suburbs o 1949 Macomb county mostly farmland Chapter 6 Cultural Diffusion o The process of spreading environmental determinism the simplistic belief that human cultures or behaviors can be explained entirely as the result of the physical environment o Spreading of ideas and concepts 0 Example Fashion Cultural Ecology o The study of ways societies adapt to environment o Example what color are you supposed to wear in the desert To us we where white to other cultures black Possibilism o Insists that the physical environment itself will neither suggest nor determine what people attempt but it may limit what people can profitably achieve Folk Culture o Culture that preserves tradition traditional 0 Example Frankenmuth Popular Culture o Culture of people that embrace innovation and conform to changing norms 0 Example ugg boots 0 America is a melting pot Culture Group o Selfdefined group of people who share commonality of cultural experiences 0 Ethnic Grou s a term suggestion that a particular cultural group is in the minority or not normal for a particular place andor time o Assimilation Parallel assimilation integration and acceptance by a native born group Trying to fit in 0 Language The essence of culturee how culture spreads Culture is the epoxy of the world 0 Surnames Different last names imply different backgroundsethnicity Indicator of culture and background Ethnic Enclave o An area that contains a high concentration of one cultural group in contrast to the surrounding area Culture Region o The entire region in which a cultural trait occurs Visual Clues to a Cultural are c Landscape language of posted signs the clothing the local people is wearing and the goods available in local shops o Built Environment building materials architecture and settlement patterns Settlement Patterns o Designs of settlements reflect cultural differences Chapter 7 Toponymy o The study of place names o Effected by 0 Ethnicity 0 Geographic setting 0 Historical figure Chapter 8 Green Revolution o An intensive effort starting about 1950 to develop new grain variations and associated agronomic systems and to establish them in developing countries o It focuses on certain crops wheat rice and certain techniques breeding for responses to fertilizer inputs o Driven largely by private foundations Subsistence Agriculture o Growing food only to feed oneself and family 0 Typically part of a communal agricultural system that traded foods locally or with near by communities Chapter 10 Hinterland o Service areas 0 Areas that surround region to which any sity provides service too as well as drawing for its needs Incorporation o The process of defining a city territory and establishing a government Primate Cities o One large city that concentrates a high degree of the entire national population or national political intellectual or economic life 0 Ex Paris France BangkokThailand Urbanization o Concentrating population into cities Urban Geography o Patterns of cities o Geographic study of cities o Considers 3 topics 0 The functions of cities and their economic role 0 Sites and Situations Physical geography Hinterlands Designated Market Place 0 The internal geography Central Place Theory o Built on the idea that each city town village or hamlet serves its hinterland as the central place to do business o Aka market area 0 Central places are different sizes 0 Smaller the market the more basic the services 0 City with larger hinterland more specialized goods and services c 3 requirements 0 hinterland must divide the space completely 0 all market areas must be of uniform size and shape 0 within each market area the distance from the central place to the farthest peripheral is minimal hexagon shape Central Business District CBD o Usually where the tallest buildings are c Closer to the CBD the more expensive Sector Model o A city grows out from central CBD in wedges or corridors of various land uses Multiple Nuclei Model o A city consists of a collection of individual nodes of centers around which different types of activities and people cluster o Multiple down downs O CBD D D U Peripheral Model o Describes the growth of US metropolitan areas in the last 12 of the 20th century activities dispersed in a broad region Segregation o Residential clustering due to discrimination Zoning o Restricting or prescribing the use of which parcels of land may be put Eminent domain o Government may take private property BUT has to pay market value MSA Metropolitan Statistical Area o An intergraded economic and social unit with a recognizable large population nucleus Spatial MisMatch Hypothesis o The hypothesis that central city unemployment is due to the removal ofjob opportunities from the city to the suburbs causing a concentration of the poor in the city The Geography of Southern Slavery 4222013 34500 PM The Geography of Southern Slaverl 16191865 10 million taken from Africa Only 13 arrived alive 9 came to the USA small amount Brazil got 13 of total Lots in Richmond and SC 1622 VA laws made marrying slaves illegal Child assumed status of mother 0 Africans not slaves because they re black but because they were black they were enslaved o 1787 Federal ratio of slaves 35 a From 35 compromise proposed by North o South outnumbered them with slaves O O O O O o 1790 92 of blacks were slaves o 1804 Slavery illegal in the North 0 1808 Banned importation from Africa Southern Social classes Planters whites owned large number of slaves Yeoman White no slaves good farming Poor whites worked hard made no money Free blacks Freed by there owners Slaves Northerns Liked the race disliked the individual Southerns Like the individual because they worked with them scared of race Slaves LOTS of Average 525545 Best 800


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