Society and the Individual (D)
Society and the Individual (D) ISS 210
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Date Created: 09/19/15
QUIZ ONE 1 What does it mean to say that evolution is nota goal oriented process Human evolution has resulted from a unique and opportunistic series of interactions by our descendants with a changing and fluctuating environment that will never exactly repeat itself 2 Charles Lyell stated the principle of uniformitarianism in response to the theory of catastrophism used by Creationists to account for fossils of extinct life forms Uniformitarianism 3 The event associated with periods marked by the relatively sudden disappearance of some species that had existed unchanged for long periods of time and the relatively sudden appearance of new ones is climate change 4 Relative to the length of arms legs are long in humans and short in apes 5 When choosing between two or more possible explanations one should apply the Rule of Parsimony otherwise known as quotOccam39s Razorquot that states quotAll things being equal the simplest explanation tends to be the right onequot True 6 The principle behind Nonoverlapping Magisteria NOMA is that science and religion should not conflict because their domains of teaching do not overlap 7 Phyletic gradualism is based on Lyell s theory of uniformitarianism assumed a uniform rate of change within a single phylum over time and provided the basis for the Modern Synthesis 8 The difference between a cladogram and an evolutionary tree is that the cladogram expresses closeness among species that share a common ancestor is based on physical evidence that can be falsified and does not take into account the age of the fossil or where it was discovered 9 Empiricism cause and effect materialist and objectivity are all characteristics of science 10 Whether dogs or deer or humans the smaller the breeding population the greater the likelihood that mutations will become established in that population True 11 Taphonomists study death assemblagesquot to understand what happened to an individual or individuals after death 12 The emergence of the heavy molars skull crests and powerful jaws characteristic of Paranthropus from the more lightly boned Australopithecus africanus is most likely the result of natural selection 13 High prevalence of Ellisvan Creveld Syndrome and polydactylism among the Amish in Lancaster County PA is a famous example of the Founder Effect 14 According to class lecture Bateson s Rule of Parsimonyquot refers to humans assume that thingsbehavior can be predicted 15 Quadrapedal movement and 4 molars are distinctive features of monkeys 16 Allopatric Speciation is when an isolating mechanism disrupts the reproductive continuity of a population separating a now independent population from its parent population The two populations are now free to compete for resources should they reestablish contact 17 In paleontology major differences in morphology and the relative age of the fossils distinguishes one species from another 18 The Abbot and Costelloquot math we used in class best illustrates the idea that when 2 cognitive styles are used to explain the same thing the explanation based on one style will seem false and contradictory from the perspective of the other styles the explanation based on a given cognitive style will seem logical and consistent from the perspective of that styles and cognitive styles are mutually exclusive and require a leap of faith to transition from one to the other 19 Lacking a genetic model early biologists such as Darwin and Lamarck explained change in species as the result of acquired characteristics a process where parents passed on traits acquired in their lifetime to their offspring 20 Sickle cell is an inherited genetic trait that occurs primarily in areas where malaria is a serious health threat ensures that half the population in each generation will be resistant to malaria and places a quarter ofthe population in each generation with a life threatening and painful anemia 21 The absence of a canine diastema is indicative of a primate that could not grind the type of tough fibrous and gritty food that was typical of the early hominid diet FALSE 22 If you sawa monkey with a flat face hanging by its tail in the zoo you would know the money is from South America 23 When Gould and Eldridge published research showing that species experience long periods of stability intercepted by periods of rapid change they effectively demonstrated that the theory of Phyletic Gradualism was wrong 24 Bipedalism is a characteristic unique to hominids but not shared by other primates 25 To which of the following artiodactyls are whales and dolphins most closely related hippos 26 In the field of evolutionary biology microevolution uses population genetics to study populations within a species to examine and quantify the processes of evolutionary change 27 Sometimes structures like those that allow human speech arise within a species as a result of genetic drift hiding in the genome with no apparent purpose or reason but turn out to be suited for new purpose These traits that become useful after the fact are called exaptations 28 Raymond Dart suggested that early hominids used an osteodontokeratic tool assemblage or tools made of bone teeth and horn 29 The prevalence of Thalassemia a genetic disorder that causes sickle cell anemia among the low land dwelling Dewarin Nepal and its near absence among the mountain dwelling Tamang indicates that genetic drift was the major factor in inheritance of this disease 30 An Argument is a line of reasoning toward a conclusion only as valid as the assumptions that underlie it and likely to be constructed differently by people with different cognitive styles 31 Cladograms represent the relationship of two species to a common ancestor 32 When John Lightfoot Bishop Usher counted the generations in the Bible starting with Adam to determine when the world was created he was using deductive reasoning 33 The presence of Carbon14 in bone and otherfossil materials make it possible to makes it possible to accurately determine their age up to about 40000 years ago QUIZ TWO 1 According to the article on endurance running by Bramble and Lieberman quadrupeds sprint faster than humans over short distances the cost of transportation for humans running is greater than the cost for an average mammal of the same weight and fit humans are the only primates that can run a 10k marathon 2 The oldest known hominin is Sahelanthropus tchadensis 3 According to Robin Dunbar language arose as a substitute for the physical grooming that primate perform as a bonding function 4 The discovery and analysis of Ardiptihecus ramidus shows that bipedalism developed in the forest not in open grasslands as previously believed TRUE 5 Using the 39dust bunny39 analoQY Which of the following groups would be considered the 39oldest39 population that is has been isolated longest from the rest Population S with markers 1111111111111 6 Which of the following statements about consonants such as p or t or k is true They break up the flow of the sounds used in language and without them intelligible speech would not be possible a normal copy of the FOXP2 gene is necessary for humans to be able to produce them and apes are physically unable to produce them 7 At over 30000 years of age the lion womanquot and horse pendantquot suggest abstract thought and make us wonder what they meant 8 Terra Amata is significant because it is the Home heidelbergensis site where we find evidence of fire being used to cook food seasonal camp and the earliest known man made shelter 9 There are two lineages of head lice that affect humans The lineages split about 18 million years ago when H sapiens split from H erectus yet modern humans have both lineages How could that be H erectus passed the lice to H sapiens by direct contact 10 In the brain Broca s area deals with producing speech while Wernecke39s area deals with understanding it 11 Eugene Dubois is best known forfinding remains of Homo Erectus on Java in 1891 12 Home habilis was named the 39handy man39 because at the time of its discovery in 1954 at Oldovai Gorge there was no evidence to suggest that any creature other than humans made stone tools TRUE 13 Neanderthals disappeared due to volcanic eruptions that led to climate change and wiped out their resources 14 Males are more likely to be affected by harmful traits caused by defective genes because the Y chromosome does not carry enough material to counteract the effects ofthe X chromosome 15 Which of the following is a major difference between modern humans and Neanderthals is not true That modern humans buried their dead 16 Which of the following were discovered to have made long thin blade tools that was an early awakening of some aspects of modern human consciousness cro magnon 17 Ocher plaques from the Blombos cave are the oldest evidence of symbolic thought among Homo Sapiens 18homo habilis did not have anatomical features consistent with endurance running 19 Native American ancestors came to the New World by crossing a land bridge from Siberia to Alaska 20 The Brain Bias theory holds that hominids first developed large brains to make tools then began walking on two feet to carry them and thus acquired a more humanlike form 21 The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology DNA R RNA R Protein states that if a particular gene is making a lot of protein in our human brains and the same gene is not making a lot in a chimpanzee s brain it suggests that this may be a distinctively human trait requiring further study TRUE 22 The FOXP2 gene appeared before humans and Neanderthals split suggesting that Neanderthals were capable of articulate speech 23 What is NOT a characteristic of language Units of sound are arbitrary 24 The Laetoli footprints were made by a pair of Australopiths about 36 million years ago they showthe foot was similar to that of modern humans but the big toe was misaligned and they showthe foot was similar to that of modern humans except for the big toe that would have acted like a thumb when climbing 25 The reason that Piltdown Manquot was accepted as a legitimate and important fossil at the time of its discovery was that it confirmed what paleontologists at the time believed about the missing link many of the leading paleontologists staked their reputations and careers on it and it confirmed the assumption that human evolved large brains first and bipedalism later 26 Males who identify themselves as Palestinians Kurdish Muslims and Jews cannot be distinguished from one another using the Y Chromosome 27 The five closely related 18 millionyearold skulls found at Dmanisi are important because they are so different from one another that it may be a mistake to classify fossils as different species simply because of morphological differences 28 the limbic system does not control language QUIZ3 1Which of the following statements about language development in children is not true Children have essentially mastered language by the age of four but have trouble dealing with irregular verbs and plurals 2 When a member of a group starts dating someone her friends do not like they can use various methods to express their disapproval and to bring pressure on her Which would be the most serious Ostracism 3 The zone of proximal developmentquot refers to children learning to think through interaction with adults and more experienced peers beyond the level at which they could perform without assistance 4 Which of the following statements about syllogisms as described in Rogoff is not true The inability of nonliterate people such a shepherds in eastern Anatolia to treat syllogisms as logical problems is because they lack the necessary cognitive ability 5 Rogoff and others argue that human infants unconsciously pattern their breathing to follow along with the person next to them and thus are simply not equipped to sleep alone 6 The double standardquot for sexual activity between males and females expresses the idea that the sexual activity of girls and women is more restricted than that of men and boys because men cannot tell if they are the father of the child they are raising 7 When Rogoff says that Humans are biologically culturalquot she means that biology and culture are inseparable factors in determining the individual s development 8 In Kenya boys who were involved in taking care of younger children were less aggressive in their play than boys who did not have that responsibility TRUE 9 In Vygotsky39s terms we studied the phylogenetic development of humans the first half of this course 10 Rogoff would say that a survey based on extensive interviews of community members to determine what questions to ask used would be an example of a derived etic Using that same survey in a different community would be an example of an imposed etic 11Which of the following stages in cognitive development is characteristic of a fiveyearold child who can only attend to one property of an object at a time and believes that objects change volume when they change shape Preoperational 12 A research design that is used on children all over the world based on data collected from studying American children is an example of the imposed etic approach 13 When Rogoff took a puppet away from a child who was hitting her with it she demonstrated the American assumption that adults need to constrain children s behavior and upset her Mayan hosts who believe that children should do what they want 14 In Cameroon West Africa specifically at what point do infants go from being quotspirit childrenquot to legitimate human children A week of age 15 In general crossculturally among rural families adults and children share work entertainment friends and values 16 The Navajo have a four day initiation ceremony called kinaalda to celebrate a girl becoming a woman It is celebrated when they woman has her first period 17 Which of the following behaviors would be characteristic of middle class American mothers Naming objects asking children the names of objects or requesting information they already know using mock excitement to motivate learning and engaging with children as 4 peers 39 or 39 39 partners 18 In Vygotsky s view the individual social and cultural entities cannot be treated as separate or disconnected 19 When children engage in sharing time at school children of African American background are more likely to tell stories that are related thematically that stories that have a strictly linear narrative structure 20 Infants before they are a year of age demonstrate the ability to make the full range of sounds used in human languages This ability is known as universal adaptability and is lost after a year of age when they begin to make only the sounds in their language 21 People of a dominant majority group often assume that their way of doing things is the norm and simply the way things are naturally This attitude is one of blissful ignorancequot kind of ethnocentrism 22 According to lecture when the Cheyenne Peace Chiefs restored clothes horsesand weapons to the Arapaho hunters whose belongings had been taken because they had spoiled the hunt a debt that the hunters could never repay is an example of which of the following 23 Analytical informants are capable of detachment that is looking at their society objectively 24 According to Barrett Benabarre s informants were surprised to discover that they had arranged the cards into social piles This is an example of latent underlying form 25 The reference to persona the masks used in Greek plays during lecture was an illustration of the multiple relationships and roles individuals have as social actors 26 According to the textbook and lecture when the Zande boy tripped over a root in the woods he attributed it to witchcraft What part of that experience does witchcraft explain for him That root was always there but that day witchcraft made it so that he tripped NEW MATERIAL key terms list Rogoff Ch 4 gtInjured Pig A boy and his friend were shooting at things including a pig A man sawthis and went to the tribal council When admitting that he didn t do anything to stopcorrect the behavior of the boys the man was ordered to pay for half the pig while the boys paid for the other half gtKingslover at the Canary Islands She and her 4 year old daughter moved from the US to the Canary Islands of spain for a year People at the Islands fawned over her daughter and were always eager to help when she was hurtupset This made Kingslover aware the American attitude that children were a necessary evil and that every family should fend for itself gtFamily Size arge family size has been encourageddiscouraged by government based on the economic goals of a country China in 1949 and again in 1957 large families were encouraged by restricting the use of birth control and abortion in orderto increase the population In 1956 and 1964 it was decided that the population was growing too rapidly so smaller families were encouraged In 1970 the singlechild policy was implemented which led to questions about spoiling pressure from family and children s ability to get along with others Mexico in 1974 the government reversed their earlier promotion of population growth in order to help the economy The problem is that when the earlier population boom reaches old age there will be a much smaller population of younger people to take care of them gtnfant Mortality Rates Cotton Mather was a preacher in colonial New England who lost his wife and three of his children to the measles epidemic of 1713 In total he had 15 children but only two lived longer than him LeVine s hierarchy of child rearing goals 1 physical survival and health 2 preparation to maintain themselves economically 3 maximizing other cultural values such as prestige religious piety intellectual achievement personal satisfaction or self realization folk pediatricsquot is practiced in populations of tropical Africa Babies are breastfed for 1824 months sleep with the mother are fed on demand and attended to immediately when crying This is done in order to prevent the most imminent danger death from dehydration Infanticide and abandonment usually occurred due to difficulties in supporting children or when they were not healthy although in many cases people abandoned their children in hopes that they would have a better life with someone else In Ancient Greece it was normal to killabandon young children and in the 16th17th centuries in France it was normal to send children avvayto live with wet nurses ScheperHughes studied mothers in an impoverished town in Brazil where the infant mortality rate was very high They selectiver neglected babies who seemed weak or lacked the will to livequot She state that the classic maternal bonding model in which all women are unconditionally attached to their children from birth underestimates the power of situational cultural and social forces gtquotThe Strange Situationquot an experiment designed to examine the security of infants attachment to their motherscaregivers The mother is in a room with a baby and then leaves for a bit The child is said to have a secure attachment if they explore the room and are curious while the mother is present show wariness during the separation and are comforted by the return of their mother The child is anxiousresistant if they experience very high distress while their mother is gone and have a hard time being soothed when she is back more common in some Western European communities The child is anxiousavoidant if they have low distress while the mother is away and avoid herlook away when she returns more common in Israel and Japan gtNuclear family when a mother and father live with their children far away from relatives who do not aid in the child rearing process gtSerial Monogamy when people have multiple spouses over their lifetime but only one at a time in relation with a high divorce rate gtTeasing although it varies by culture teasing and shaming are generally used to compel persuade or guide children to behave in certain socially accepted ways gtEngagement in parent s work generally middle class children are usually segregated from their parents work In the US this is to ensure that schooling is prolong and economic exploitation does not occur In different communities children are helping parents with tasks involving their work as early as the age of two gtIn America child labor was considered economically and ethically acceptable until the late 1800 s when prohibitions on child labor arose due to the bad treatmentconditions and in order to have more jobs for adults gtOrientation In European American cultures babies are primarily engaging in face to face interaction with one person In cultures that are more community oriented babies are held facing the same way as the caregiver in order to observe the group Sometimes mothers in these communities appear awkward when interacting with their babies face to face gtn America people tend to focus on one on one dyadic interaction even when in a group setting In Mayan communities it is common for people to stand in a circle and interact as a group including children gtThe white teacher made student s face her and wait to be called on Typically American teachers speak in between each child s turn to speak switchboard model The Yup ik teacher s aide promoted less formal group discussion among her students where she and them spoke equally Rogoff Ch 5 gtNavajo Life Stages 1 become aware 24 years beginnings of self discipline 2 self aware 46 years awareness of willthought 3 begin to think 69 years initiating appropriate contributions 4thought begins to exist 1015 years not needing supervision understanding place 5 think for oneself 1518 years able to manage one s affairs 6 thinking for all things 1722 mastering adult life 7 begin to think ahead for oneself 22 30 begin to take responsibility for others 8 look ahead for all things 30 gtAmong the Ngoni a child who has lost their first teeth and had their new adult ones grow in around the age of 6 or 7 are considered to have entered a new stage of developmentlife gtn Cameroon children are considered spirit children until they are named about a week after birth a time when infant mortain rates are especially high gtThe American Question can one speed up development of children gtPiaget s stages of development Sensorimotor 1824 months Preoperational 27 years Concrete Operational 712 years Formal Operational 12 gtG Stanley Hall believed that adolescence was a time of crisis for children all over the world but Margaret Mead disagreed after studying youth in Samoa gtYouth culture tends to be controlled by adults in cultures around the world Adolescents have more responsibilities than children but not yet those of adults gtRites of Passage in many cultures children go through rituals that symbolically bring them from childhood to manhoodwomanhood Circumcision rites tend to occur in households where a man is not immediately present such as a polygamous one They are done to bring a boy into manhood through a symbolic rebirth The Navajo kinaalda occurs for girls after they have their first period It is a four day ceremony to initiate a girl into womanhood gtMarriage and parenthood tend to be the transition into real adulthood Before the industrial revolution marriage in America was generally arranged between two families In India marriage solely based on love is frowned upon because marriage affects so many people notjust the two that are in love Rogoff Ch 6 gtThe goal of Caucasian American parents is to prepare their children to leave home whereas the goal of Japanese American parents is to prepare children for lifelong engagement with the family gtn America it is normal and deemed necessary that babies do not sleep with their parents after a few weeks of age In other cultures babies sleep within the same room as their parents and it is considered traumatic for them to be separated at such a young age gtRoberto s Trousers the little Mayan boy would not put on his pants but instead of forcing him his parents used bribes and empty threats to convince him to do it himself gtDisciplining children John Wesley believed that children needed to be corrected and have their wills broken before they can even walk John Dewey believed that adults should guide children but not control them gtKohlberg s Scale of Moral Reasoning stages 12 egocentric assuming that others have the same perspective as you stage 3 there is one right set of rules takes on a group perspective stage 4 societal rules are in place to be followed stages 56 what is truly right may conflict with what society thinks is right gtConfucian views on morality believe that the universe is a good place and people have a duty to uphold that through being empathetic and thinking of the group before themselves gtHobbes believed that everyone operates with self interest CULTURAL CHANGE Rogoff Chapter 9 IMMIGRANT COMMUNITIES Young children serve as translators and culture brokers dealing with bureaucracy Parental dependence on children gives children disrupts traditional famlly hfe 111 the cnlnnlal American wilderness child gamed authnxlty we Lhelengllshrme parents o Walkingrclass children in immigrant households knew English and haw American lnsLlLuLlnns waxked r Con ict between tra 39tional ways and new ways The quotMexlcan Way vs the quotAmerican way becomes the quotMexlcanrAmerlcan way ofwhere the baby sleeps Soccerrplaymg girl from Indian householdin Bend It le2 Bccbbum c Experience in several cultural communities provides cognitive and social exibility from which to synthes39 Mummy 6 CULTURAL GROUPS IN CONFLICT Voluntary segregation of ethnic groups in British schools Play and bullying most often occurs Within their own ou Negative reciprocity and moral communities The quotact was blessed when KI sigis p eop Ie raided cattle but quotit is slnful to steal from from Kisii uo and Masai the quotpeople to w om one owes someone you eat With care H In groupOut group con ict between 12yearold European American Protestant boys Intergroup competition became almost uncontrollable Only resolved when the two oups were put in a situation where they had to work together to achieve ml but cummlm to borrow a phrase from Antoine de Sainte Exup ry39s Tzvvz dzs Hummzs CHANGE THROUGH CONTACT rican Barne Ns as en s opportunities la ancestral land farmin of al educ and children from fa v In orth America natiy sent to boarding schoo c Cultures as Barrett demonstrates systems suc that a change 1n one part affects others amenang notes that y outside the women had to intensif their fset the oss of the men s a or Work and form b ation separated spouses milies s In Africa young schooled children often lose their mother tongue and ways oflife but also end up with no iob e American children were ls where they lost their natlve language and life ways but remain alienated from the ominant society OGBU VOLUNTARY AND INVOLUNTARY MNORITIES 7 Voluntary Minor t Immigrants who moved to being or political or religio chool and see discrimination language her hardships as temporary harriers my is seen as apositwe r Involuntary Minorities Subordinate group incorporated in US society through slavery conquest or colonization Distrust White Americans and then institu Develapedcapmg mechamsms that are not lust but in t it s onnoa ion to ohze cultural identities and preserve sense of selfvmnh Lhmugh houndary maintenance Adapting the ways for the manriw onuldchallerge cultural identity Brown 1 Bomd o Education eoned quotseparate butequal as insuf cient requires integrati cultural survival the US seeking improved economic well us freedom ons du39ferent mm the malonw Elackclllnghtsmn mentdemandsappanunlwtap r natenhmader society n MamNative Arrericancormunitieswant separate hut equal on ensure their THE ROLE OF SCHOOLING 1n the US as the mobile nuclear family replaced the extended family embedded in communit d church life formal institutions e primarily schools e took over the transfer of culture to the oun Role of schools extended to foreign miss39 1e Fr ions 4 Minn A eeman an In t quot guess they had no ransom H Alice Magoon39s Girls Industrial Work Class in the Phil s colonial educatoon lnd g hools c e to wrest children from the influence of famihes and commu i ies By no nearly 86 oflndian schoolchil n wer attending militaryrstyleboaz i hools w ere theynow all wed to speak their native langua e or practice native ehg on Kev Terms List for OUIZ ONE 155210 You should be able to make two statements about each item WHAT is it And So WHAT Why is this concept important where does it fit into the overall argument a line of reasoning toward a conclusion in the course Definitions Allopatric speciation Local populations within a species adapt to their local habitat isolating mechanism disrupts reproductive continuity the parent and the nowindependent species are free to compete should contact ever be reestablished between the two Environmental shift occurs too quickly for Natural Selection to react Speciation is the shifting of the genetic and morphological centers for the parent to the daughter species Binocular vision Rabbit and lemur vision Ability to see all the way around or just in front of you Rabbit doesn t have to move far but has horrible depth perception because their vision doesn t overlap A lemur has great depth perception because of the large overlap Bipedalism having two feet Differences between humans and chimps knucklewalkingbipedal Bonobos Apes closest relative to humans along with chimps Bottlenecks Random loss of genetic material present in the parent population when a new colony is founded by only a few individuals Brachiation arm movement swinging by the arms from branch to branch only humans and apes have this in common Calvin EffectPanglossian Paradigm The modern Synthesis resulted in too many just so stories Traits may exist because they re useful or because random mutation and genetic drift To be science our notions must be testable which can make things difficult Canine diastema Allows K9 to rub against each other and helps grind the food How do you chew It becomes important because it tells you the creature s diet for the shape of the teeth male baboon for example Humans grind their food but dogs chop their food Cladistics A method involved in recognizing relationships between pairs of species on the basis of innovations inherited from their most recent common ancestor Evolutionary trees plot both the relationship and the geological age of fossil species Evolution the change of frequency of genes over time Individuals don t evolve populations do Exaptations to express a very similar concept stating the organisms must already possess the ability to survive in a new environment before they can colonize it Traits or novelties that may persist for generations and become useful only at a later date Facts Facts are empirically verifiable can be perceived through our senses aided at times by sense extenders Fossil bones and DNA exist Can be experienced or verified by independent observers Falsify Falsifying things allows us to come up with the best available explanation for the things we see around us Founder effect an especially severe form of bottlenecking Natural disaster Migrationisolation endogamy Anomalously high frequencies of particular genes suggest many other groups may have experienced similar bottlenecks Intelligent Design ID The belief that natural phenomena are not only the product of mechanical causes but by an overall INTELLIGENT design or purpose in nature Justso stories Imaginative and often satisfying explanations of evolutionary adaptations Hominids did this because Do not provide a means to rigidly test hypotheses about adaptation Malthus Principles of Population Population increases geometrically doubling every 25 years but it doesn t because the food supply increases arithmetically population growth is thus limited by poverty disease and famine which are natural and inevitable Irish example with Malthus theory the weak and improvident are weeded out the strong and wiser survived Crudely expressed as survival of the fittest Modern Synthesis Reduced evolutionary phenomena to generationbygeneration changes in gene frequencies within populations under the guiding hand of natural selection It created the expectation that evolutionary change in the fossil record would be a gradual affair It s replaced by the model of Punctuated Equilibrium Mutation source for new genetic material The majority of these mistakes have no effect on the health of the organism Nonoverlapping Magisteria NOMA designates the principled resolution of supposed conflict or warfare between science and religion is that no such conflict should exist because each subject has a legitimate magisterium or domain of teaching authority and these magisteria do not overlap Occam s Razor the Rule of Parsimony is used to prune the interpretation All things being equal the simplest exlanation tends to be the correct one Horn Core Tool from Swartkrans South Africa Raymond Dart suggested that the earlier hominids used tools made of bone teeth and horn He gave this assemblage the name osteodontokeratic Paradigmsparadigm shift A set of assumptions that provides a fundamental image of the subject matter with science One paradigm usually dominates for a period of time but will be replaced when it no longer accounts for the observed facts The shift begins when the scholarly community as a whole accepts the new model but is completed only when the proponents of the old theory retire or die Paranthropus Vegetarian ExtraordinairePowerful jaw muscles permitted this creature to chew a course diet Postcranial differences with A africanus may not be significant Parsimony the use of the simplest or most frugal route of explanation available Parsing the how fro the why As long as religion doesn t try to explain how the physical world came to be ie creation science science cannot refute why the belief that evolution is going somewhere Phylogenetics Classification based on similarities organisms Cladistics based on raw info for individual attributsof organisms the root of the tree is the last common ancestor the branching shows whether particular traits evolved or were present along in the tree Pingalap Quadrapedalism Animals that walk on four feet monkeys Selection neutrality debate Is everything selected for advantageous or against deleterious and very little is neutral Are the majority of variants neutral ie result of genetic drift Is selection a facto bu the majority of variants nearly neutral Only more geonomic study directed toward detecting natural selection at the molecular level will resolve this debate Stratigraphy The study of the sequences in which sedimentary rocks that often contain fossils were laid down Improved chronometric techniques date volcanic layers and deposits layer cake Systematics Because all organisms on the planet have a single common ancestor and evolved through descent with modification the pattern can be depicted as a tree I Taphonomists study what happened to an individual after death Bones forensic anthropology The interpretation of Death Assemblages of fossil remains is critical to getting the interpretation right Teleology the study of final causes In philosophy it is a discourse that ries to explain the universe in terms of ends or final causes The belief that natural phenomena are not only the product of mechanical causes but by and overall INTELLIGENT design or purpose in nature Theory Evolutionary principles influence our lives Comparative genomics Decipher microbes responsible for infectious disease Permits scientists to model evolution of drug resistant diseases Volcanic tuffs Stratigraphy of the Afar region in Ethiopia where A afarensis Lucy was found The layers of volcanic deposits that provide a range of dates for the hominid remains between them Compare and Contrast For these exanmpes begin my de ning each term then note how they are different and wh y this difference makes a difference Acquired Characteristics vs Mendelian genetics Lack of genetic model to explain change Gregor Mendel s described how traits were inherited in a short monograph on peas published in 1866 Darwin was unaware of Mendel s work which was largely ignored until it was rediscovered in 1900 Change was attributed to a supposed life principle entelechy a directing force with strove for perfection within each individual Catastrophism vs Uniformitarianism o Catastrophism theory of catastrophism stated that natural laws were suspended and events happened at a different rate then they do today 0 UniformitarianismO that the natural forces acting today acted in the past and that that have always worked with the same intensity Charles Lyell Cahnge was gradual and steady over a period of millions now billions of years Characteristics Primates Chimps and humans 0 This is important because humans have characteristics in common with the chimpanzee Pygmy chimpanzee ushaped Australopithecine ushaped with small canine Human parabolic Monkeys vs apes o Monkeys quadrapedal 4 molars tails new world prehensile grasping tails noses platyrrhini flat nosed New WorldCatarrhini narrow nosed Old World fully opposable thumbs o Apes knuckle walking 5 molars tailess Brachiator Apes vs hominids o Apes knucklewalking 5 molars tailess Brachiator o Hominids Massive heavily enameled molars set in massive jaw with molarized premolars Not the Y5 cusps Cladograms vs evolutionary taxonomy o Cladograms You must be explicit about the testable cladogram on which it is based That cladogram is greatly enforced by the genomic tree common genetic features Evolutionary Taxonomy In this form of systematics experts pronounced authoritatively on the O relationships of organisms or those and if their reputations were great enough their words on the subject were the last words untestable hypotheses Cognitive style three different styles that seek to answer different questions Mysticism rationalism and empiricism A set of common sense assumptions based on experience that we use to interpret events Experiences within each style are consistent and compatible Viewed from outside the interpretation may seem contradictory or fictitious no simple transition from one cognitive style to another Mysticism vs Rationalism o Mysticism Private knowledge based on faith that cannot be tested by any other means 0 Rationalism Knowledge gained through the deductive method Also a basic tool for understanding human behavior in philosophy the humanities and social scene Mysticism vs Emipiricism o Mysticism Private knowledge based on faith that cannot be tested by any other means 0 Empiricism Knowledge gained by sense observation and using inductive scientific method Empiricism vs Rationalism o Empiricism Knowledge gained by sense observation and using inductive scientific method 0 Rationalism Knowledge gained through deductive method Basic tool for understanding human behavior in philosophy the humanities and social science Deductive vs Inductive method 0 Deductive begin with observation use logic and reason to go on formal logic as critique o Inductive observe hypothesize falsifiable test observe Genetics vs Genomics o Genetics the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms o Genomics Individuals participate in the evolutionary process through reproduction they do not themselves evolve Species change with descent Five ways genomes can change with time natural selection migration genetic drift altered mating patterns such as inbreedin and mutation I n quotFquot Monkeys New World vs Old World 0 New Worldquadrapedal 4 Molars TailsNew world Prehensile grasping Tails NosesPlatyrrhini flat nosedNew World Fully opposable thumbs 0 Old World Quadrapedal 4 Molars Tails Catarrhini narrow nosed Old World Fully opposable thumbs Natural selection vs genetic drift 0 Natural Selection populations evolve not individuals as gene frequencies change in the population individuals vary in their physical and behavioral characteristics most of which are heritable 0 Genetic Drift The result of sampling error related to population size Phyletic gradualism vs punctuated equilibrium 0 Phyletic Gradualism A phylum is the lineage or line of descent of a species and chronicle change over time Evolution was simply a matter of gradual generational changes single modifying lineage 0 Punctuated Equilibrium Gould and Eldridge noted that species did not change gradually but rather experienced long periods of stability or equilibrium interspersed or punctuated with periods of rapid change New species appearspeciation because they developed elsewhere allopatric due to isolation and environmental differences Species in biology vs paleontology 0 Biology species are the largest populations within which fully functional interbreeding between individuals is possible 0 Paleontology species became segments of lineages defined by the accumulation of morphological novelties and by random discontinuities in the fossil record Thallisemia Dewar vs Tamang o Thallisemia Hereditary disorder characterized by impaired synthesis of globin chains that may result in heterozygote advantage due to reduced susceptibility to malaria o Dewar Malarial resistance in Nepal Dunawar settlements are in the malarial zone below the altitude of 1200m the population showed a 63 gene frequency 0 Tamang Settlements are above 1200m and showed a 5 gene frequency o Tree of Life vs Scala Naturae 0 Tree of Life has branches representing all organisms living and extinct evolving from simple to complex but all on the same evolutionary plane 0 Scala Naturae ladder of life established by Linnaeus is a topdown rigid ranking of living forms o Uniformitarianism vsCatastrophism o Uniformitarianism the forces of nature we observe today were at work in the past remains punctuated equilibrium has replaced phyletic gradualism o Catastrophism Theory of Catastrophism stated that natural laws were suspended and event happened at a different rate then they do today Important Facts H Iquot 9quot 4 Pquot Empirical knowledge of the physical world is through the senses aided by sense extenders Microscope to Hubbell Space Telescope Cause and Effect relationships exist in which each event has a prior cause that is theoretically knowable Prmum movens what or who is the first mover Materialist science proceeds as if material cause and effect is all there is to reality Science does not allow nonmaterial cause and effect or it would cease to function as a coherent system Objective a theory must account for all the observed data or be revised Objective does not mean dispassionate Paradigms Tentative all scientific theories are temporary tentative mental constructs subject to modification by revised perception of existing or new data Science is a contentious process and fiercely competitive Paradigm shifts Taphonomists amp Deposition Taphonomists study what happened to and individual after death Bones forensic anthropology The interpretation on quotDeath Assemblages of fossil remains is critical to getting the interpretation right The bones interred by a presumed Neanderthal Cave Bear Cult were the result of natural deposition ChimpHuman differences o Share 987 or 994 DNA in common o Differ on 30000000 nucleotides o Very few had anything to do with speciation the process that separated our species 6 to 7 million years ago Most of these happened since separation it is hard to know which ones Hard to pin down the point at which two species diverge o Microevolution is the study of populations within species to examine and quantify processes of evolutionary change using population genetics 0 Macroevolution is the study of higher categories into which species are grouped to examine and quantify the patterns of evolutionary change using systemics Cranial differences brain case and face relative brain size relative size of canine teeth length of thumb and fingers chin present or absent knuckle walkingbipedal spine sshaped or not when seen from the side relative limb length arm lengthleg length relation of skull to vertebral column Sicklecell Anemia pp 8486 PRACTICE TEST 1 Which of the following traits do hominids and apes have in common A Knucklewalking B 4 m lars L l llll D Canine diastema 2 What does the location of the foramen magnum literally quotthe big holequot at the base of the skull tell us about how the creature habitually walked 3 Which of the following statements about natural selection is NOT true A It is nothing more than the differential reproductive success of individuals B It is affected by climatic change C It is sub39ect to random events 4 is the principle set out by Charles Lyell that quotthe natural forces acting today acted in the past and that they have always worked with the same intensityquot A Catastrophism B Punctuated Euilibrium L 11 mm qll H i D Phyletic gradualism 5 Which of the following Cognitive Styles involves private knowledge based on faith that cannot be tested by any other means A Common sense B Empiricism C Ob39 t39 39 6 Linneaus included human beings and bats in the order Primates primarily because his classification system was based on resemblances he saw in nature not on biological descent a lll lysj B False 7 The Calvin Effect also known as the Panglossian Paradigm is an example of which type of Cognitive Style Common sense Al Cl C EmpIrICIsm D Mysticism 8 The Modern Synthesis A Sees human evolution as a singleminded slog from primitiveness to perfection B Sees evolutionary change as the result of gradual generationto generation change C Acknowledges the presence of many coexisting hominid species at any given time D All of the above lllx 9 Looking at quotThe Earliest Human Relativesquot which of the following most likely represents an evolutionary dead end A A afarensis B P robustus L7 l lr L gl D All the above E B amp C only 10 Science is characterized by and the method A emiricismdeductive equot V J jlfi l39rl39l li39ixiltimiiig C rationalisminductive D rationalismempirical l 11 The term describes the process by which some isolating mechanism disrupts reproductive continuity between the local population and the parent stock causing them to diverge over time eventually becoming distinct species A Phyletic gradualism B Punctuated euilibrium 7739 l 7ncr w 1 i l 1 H mpgiiii lv 2 war lilig l l l D Uniformitarianism 12 to express a very similar concept stating the organisms must already possess the ability to survive in a new environment before they can colonize it A Preadaptation B Niche secialization c m D Environmental impetus 13 The first hominid fossils found by Richard and Mary Leakey were found at Olduvai Gorge 93 True B False 14 Which of the following chronometric techniques use radioactive isotoes to date fossil evidence 34 lt i39l l l 4 lo I mm C Stratigraphy D quotTrappedChargequot Dating 15 is a method of classification based on descent and genetic relationships rather than physical similarities A Phyletic gradualism niformitarianism D Clannadagh 16 In biology 53 are defined by a reproductive cohesion the ability to produce fertile offspring not by morphology 17 A quotmosaicquot species is viewed as a possible ancestor for two later s ecies because it possess anatomical features characteristic of both B False 18 If you were given a fossilized molar and you could see that it has four cusps with quotquot shaped grooves between them you would know that the tooth came from B An ape r C A hominid D WalMart 19 If you saw a monkey with a flat face hanging by its tail in the zoo you would know the money is from A Africa Asia D Southeast Asia 20 While they disagreed on the precise year Dr Lightfoot and Bishop Ussher independently determined that the world was created around 6000 years ago using the generations in the Bible and the method B Empirial C Scientific D Inductive ed on the diagram above where would an orangutan attach livizi i 21 Bas 7 w 22 In class we discussed Sherlock Holmes and how he reasoned that a man he met was having marital trouble because he left the house wearing a dirty hat This example was used to illustrate which of the following cognitive styles A Mysticism B Empiricism C Common sense 23 An argument is A A line of reasoning toward a conclusion B Only as valid as the assumptions that underlie it C Likely to be constructed differently by people with different I 39 t A2 A sr B Brachiation C Prehensile tails D Knucklewalking 25 The are one of the earliest known forms of primates Their descendents survive today only on the island of Madagascar off the east coast of Africa A Monkeys 26 What was the significance of Barbara McClintock s work with Indian corn V B The color of Indian corn is the result of jumping genes that are the best example we know of Mendelian inheritance C The coloring of Indian corn is an example of nonselective variation D The color of Indian corn is an example of mutation 27 Because we cannot know things for certain how would we arrive at the best explanations of the natural and social world around us A We cannot explain things that we cannot hope to know B We should onl a attention to statements that cannot be refuted l D Test the hypothesis and it will become fact