Global DivrstyInterdepend (I)
Global DivrstyInterdepend (I) ISS 315
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Buster Heller on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 315 at Michigan State University taught by Philip Handrick in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/207768/iss-315-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Social Sci at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
188 315 Reading G u ide N oel J K ent Hawaii Islands Under the In uence University of Hawaii Press Honolulu 1993 Introduction What is Kent s main objection to the histories of Hawaii The historians tell us nothing about the crucial dynamic of a society in transition Critical to any understanding of the Hawaiian development is an examination of the ongoing dialectic between global capitalist development and local development We need a political economy What do you think he means by political economy Who bene ts and who sacri ces in the process of development and the essential question of whether or not what is occurring really is development is needed I think it means that we need to look at what s going on in Hawaii and see if its actually things that need to be happening What is the dependency framework of emerging countries It was rst formulated in the 1960 s to explain the widespread failure of development strategies in the Third World These peripheral societies attuned to the economic need of the advanced capitalist center and dependent upon it for technology capital skills and organization They suffered from a distorted emphasis upon primary export structure foreign domination of strategic economic sectors and of the local bourgeoisie and a sharply strati ed and increasingly dichotomized class structure Go back and read top of pg 5 In Kent s view what has been the main limitation on Hawaii s development It was due to Metropolitan elites and their local allies Hawaii s potential surplus was squandered at every historical stage through conspicuous consumption by island elites or repatriated back to the metropole What is the role of elite alliances The metropolitan elite was dominant They delivered Hawaii over to the plantation and then to atourism economy They basically controlled all of Hawaii s economy Chapter 1 To Kealakekua Bay and Beyond Why was it signi cant that Cooke was British England has become over the previous two centuries a prominent European and world power This relatively small island kingdom once an economically primitive rawwool exporter for the more sophisticated had become a nation about to take the unprecedented leap into the industrial revolution England had the motivation and the ability to mobilize resources for expansion overseas He was the heir to the initial thrust of the industrial revolution What was the traditional economic base of Hawaiian society The economy was based on subsistence agriculture and shing and life moved in harmonious patterns around the cycles of eld and sea What was kapu and how did it shape the traditional society It was a system of strict prohibitions that guided the daily lives of the people Who were the alii They were the political authority or a monopoly of chiefs The most powerful of whom controlled large areas or even whole islands How did contact with the west change the Hawaiian economy It broke Hawaii s millennium isolation from the world Within a few years westerns were touching at the islands on their way across the pacific Hawaii s role became that of a provisioning station for the handful of US and English fur traders They were introduced to the concept of trading for profit Yet the subsistence economy remained viable and most Hawaiians living much as had their precontact ancestors What is the political cooption of the elite It was the essential prerequisite for integration of the Hawaiian economy into the emerging global economy Because of the new white men coming with new things many chiefs sought to use them and their carriers as a source of status and power against political rivals Who was Kamehameha and how did Captain Vancouver help him Kamehameha was a Big Island chief In return for military assistance he agreed to cede the big island to Britain They didn t get the island because Britain ignored the act of annexation too concerned about things more close to home at the moment However the chief used his western contacts to secure arms and technology that gave him superiority over his opponents and enabled him to unite almost all of Hawaii under his rule How did political consolidate benefit the Europeans They could now deal with a single centralized authority one heavily indebted to and easily coopted by them the English The new monarch became England s client Chapter 2 A Tale of Sandalwood and Whaling How did sandalwood fit into the tea trade How profitable was it It started by the replacement of coffee by tea as a mass popular drink This necessitated finding commodities that could be traded profitably to the Chinese suppliers of tea in canton and stem the oneway ow of gold and silver out of English coffers Chinese used sandalwood so they could be traded Sandalwood costs lC per pound in Hawaii and 34C per pound in china Why did New England come to dominate the trade They were economically diversified and advanced whaling and textile manufacture replacing agriculture as its economic mainstay They had a lot of ports and were very good at trading The Hawaii royal family regarded the US with suspicion and saw that the English was their protector and exercised a species of guardianship of their country What is the Monroe Doctrine Proclaimed Latin America to be essentially a US sphere of in uence How did Kamehameha s monopoly of the sandalwood trade affect commoners How did this change with his death He was something of a restraining in uence on the unbridled exploitation of the Hawaiian commoner and the sandalwood forests After he died it came into the hands of alii whosoon assumed the role of agents and accomplices in the destruction of their own culture How did US warships assist in collecting debts They pressed the government for the repayment of various outstanding debts by gunpoint diplomacy What factors exogenous generated from outside the Hawaiian Islands in uence the Paci c whaling industry High whale oil prices the decision by New England whaling interests to transfer their activities to the paci c and the huge expansion of the US whaling eet How did native Hawaiian respond to the cash economyHow did it change the local economy The natives took to it pretty well Many young people moved to a leading whaling town to seek work engage in casual prostitution or to even to sign up for a 2 or 3 year voyage on the whaling ships Hawaiian agriculturalists in inland areas started growing food crops expressly for sale sending veggies to town markets and purchasing agents thereby taking a step toward the extinction of the fading subsistence economy Why did Honolulu become the center within the periphery It established complete political economical and cultural domination over the rest of the Island chain What caused the collapse of the whaling industry It ended by a horrible accident in 1871 in which the bulk of the whaling eet was trapped within the massive glacial ice fields of the Artic But it would of ended soon regardless because petroleum coming into widespread use How did this lead to the growth of an agroindustrial economy It become far too dependent on it as an income so the bourgeoisie took over and dominated They possessed the capital commercial acumen and skill to seize upon whatever seemed to them the most promising venture of the moment Chapter 3 Dispossession ofa People What was the relationship of the New England missionaries to the alii The missionaries that arrived were charged with nothing less than rising up the whole population to an elevated state of Christian civilization They used the conversion of some in uential individuals at the top of the hierarchy to spread conversion on a mass basis throughout the populace How did they view traditional Hawaiian culture The missionaries were horrified at a Hawaiian lifestyle that as at once casual and oriented to human gregariousness The missionaries automatic response was to expunge those Hawaiian customs that seemed to undermine the grand objective of material accumulation How did they shape the infrastructure They built an infrastructure of harbors and roads to accelerate commerce and Hawaiian sovereignty was fully compatible with the promotion of a capitalist economy How did the role of the missionaries change with regard to the native people and the merchants The missionaries wanted to ultimately have integration into the existing mercantile class so that the two together could guide Hawaii along the next stage of dependent economic development It did not happen automatically however During the first couple years con icts arose The merchants charged that the missionaries were encouraging people to neglect their elds in favor of reading books But by midcentury the interested of both groups were on their way to being reconciled How did the new land tenure system make sugar plantations possible It made way for a more modern capitalist economy intimately linked with the US Both merchants and missionaries came to own land have an interest in the plantation economy The first sugar plantation was a success and thus acted as a spur to other investors How did the USS Peacock ensure the property rights of foreigners Commodore Kennedy advised the king to establish firm property guarantees for foreign landholders and to allow US businessmen to do business without interference from the monarchy Why did they want land to be a transferable commodity The existing land arrangements seemed vague and murky too crippling in their restrictions and too subject to the irrational whim of chief or king They wanted laws protecting ownership rights and facilitating largescale investment Their concern intensified by events on the West Coast of North America The gold rush and US acquisition of the Oregon territory had stimulated a population in ux and opened up vast opportunities for Hawaiian producers to supply What was the Great Mahele It was a land commission or the Division of Lands 60 of the land in the Hawaiian archipelago was allocated to the crown and the government 39 to 208 chiefs and less than 1 to the 11000 commoners How did the Kuleana Act of 1850 affect the kuleanas and how did their land rapidly pass into the control of the sugar plantations It granted feesimple rights to tenants on the land they already occupied their kuleanas But the inevitable did happen and the Hawaiians were severed form the land that had been the basis of their subsistence economy In theory afforded the opportunity to secure small freeholds the commoner found the path to becoming the solid yeoman farmer popularly advertised as his future blocked by a series of frustrating and often unintelligible rules derived from a different cultural and economical context from one he knew The new system required personal applications for land deeds proof of occupant and of having really cultivated the land and a relatively sizable cash fee for surveying and registering the land title Who are the kanakas How did the native Hawaiians respond to this What are messianic cults Kanaka is a native of Hawaii After many could not deal with all the rules many tried to ignore the new legislation and tries to continue the old ways Western concepts lay outside the realm of ordinary Hawaiian experience Many had a discontent to foreigners and thought that their nation should not be lled with foreigners and that Hawaiians should not be trodden underfoot by the foreigners A messianic cult promised refuge for believers in a world about to be destroyed Chapter 4 The Rise of King Sugar What are the three ingredients for commercial success in the sugar industry Cheap land cheap money and cheap labor What are the three characteristics of a sugar society First was a heavy concentration of political and economical power in the hands of those in control of the production apparatus Second was a sharply stratified class structure with a strong racial andor cultural component Thirdly was a concentration on one export to the metropolitan areas of North America and Western Europe How did the status of exmissionaries benefit them They were able to benefit from a government policy of selling land to mission members at a fraction of its customary price How did the Big Five consolidate their control over the sugar industry They performed such essential functions as banking oating loans making contacts with shippers and purchasers and warehousing and in the process gained control over almost every aspect of the Hawaiian sugar industry How did the Civil War in the United States lead to the treaty of reciprocity and shape the Hawaiian sugar industry Due to the civil war there was a removal of southern sugar from northern table which opened the continent to a sizeable in ux of Hawaiian sugar Unprecedented prosperity came in its wake High pro ts stimulated a number of years of rapid expansion marked by the introduction of newly engineered irrigation systems fertilizers and ultra modern machinery How did Hawaii become the melting pot of the Pacific Plantation owners found islanders frustrating by their casual attitudes and were convinced that they were completely useless And so lacking what they regarded as adequate disciplined domestic workforce the planters turned to the systematic importation of foreign labor Why were ethnic groups on plantations carefully segregated from one another To reinforce interethnic animosities Why did the planters seek annexation by the United States Because of the wars end there was a sharp drop in demand and economic depression to island growers Planters found themselves in even more desperate need of a trade agreement that would make their product competitive in the American market Who were the fillibusteres and how were they used to intimidate the Hawaiian king They were armed to the teeth toughs recruited from California gold mining camps that were gathering to embark on a expedition to Hawaii capture it despoil it and sack loot and enslave the population They were meant to scare the king and many of the king s loyal ministers acted in collusion with the US How did Commander Perry s visit to Japan increase US interest in the Hawaiian formerly Sandwich Islands Because no limits can be de ned to its further expansion Pg 4142 Why did the Hawaiian oligarchy turn its attention to obtaining atreaty of reciprocity with the US after 1842 It would guarantee tarifffree access to the US markets and huge pro ts as well How three things did the plantationcontrolling class get the Hawaiian government to do for them Firstly government monies ere used to subsidize labor recruiters seeking workers for Hawaiian plantations in far off lands Second government coercion was used to enforce a harsh law and order regime on the plantations Thirdly government funds were used to create the essential infrastructure on which the merchant planters export economy depended How did the rivalry between David Kalakaua and Queen Emma provide the opportunity for the business oligarchy to gain political control They turned to outside allies Commanders of US and British warships docked at Honolulu harbor were called to crush the mobs 150 soldiers dispersed the demonstrators and arrested key leaders Government buildings were occupied How did the Treaty of Reciprocity of 1876 ensure a monoculture economy and make Hawaii a captive market for US industrial products It guaranteed the subordination of all alternative strategies for economic development and the allocation of virtually every available resource to sugar production The production of a few agricultural export crops for the same markets to which sugar was sent The treaty effectively stopped Hawaii s ability to develop into an autonomous selfdirected somewhat selfsustaining economic entity How did the small clique of hoale businessmen become increasingly interlinked Insurance companies sugar agencies ranches shipping companies and banks all worked together Their directors were often the same men They exchanged favors and friendly deals and became interlinked They saw mutual aid as indispensable for their survival Pg 48 How did Spreckels create a vertical monopoly in the sugar trade He established his own sugar production facilities in the islands transported the sugar to California aboard his own oceanic lines and there processed it in his own refinery Backward integration necessitated access to huge supplies of raw sugar To accomplish this he acquired through threats and bribes tracts in Maui and from there formed the largest plantation in Hawaii What was the role of the Hawaiian league and the Honolulu ri es The role was to be a military arm Consisted of many planters against the king spreckels and Gibson They organized for the confrontation to come The ri es were basically the armed force behind the league How did the Pearl River estuary near Honolulu buttress the chances for annexation Because it demonstrated the value of a continued association with Hawaii and also that a US naval presence would almost mean increased security for the elite What is the Bayonet Constitution of 1887 and how did it come about It was a new constitution that made the king a figurehead It also gave US citizens the right to vote in Hawaiian elections while a large sector of Hawaiians were unable to vote due to rigorous property quali cations Asians were excluded as aliens The Hawaiia ri es took Gibson and his son in law and bundled them aboard a California bound packet Under intense pressure the king broke down and signed Chapter 5 The Fear Is Ripe Why did the US become increasingly preoccupied with foreign markets in the late 19111 century It was reinforced by a series of financial panics and economic depressions that struck a rapidly maturing capitalist economy with disturbing frequency They believed foreign markets were the solution to the nations economic and social problems How was imperialism an alternative to economic and social reform in the United States It was a response due to the internal contradictions generated by the capitalist system Instead of having to change things in the United States they could just implement imperialist policies overbroad How did the allocation of land to monocropping make Hawaii dependent on food imports The allocation of the great bulk of viable agricultural land to commercial agriculture had clearly undermined the islands ability to be self sufficient in food production They honestly just did not have room to make it because they were using it all to produce their goods How did the introduction of subsidies under the McKinley tariff of 1891 accelerate the annexation movement It allowed all sugar into the US duty free but provided subsidies for US domestic producers Sugar prices plummeted and Hawaii went into a depression It had ruined every merchant on the island They reasoned that annexation was imperative if they were to benefit from the 02 bounty paid to US producers If Hawaii was apart of the US any bonuses would be paid to ALL sugar growers no matter were they were What part did paranoia over the yellow peril and Japanese expansion add to the annexation movement When the Japanese would come to an overwhelming majority of the population the US could not be justified in international law in forbidding japan to take charge of what will virtually be a Japanese colony How did Queen Liliuokalani and her renewed claim to Hawaiian sovereignty create a crisis in 1893 She rapidly drove the elite into a conspiracy with their continental patrons to topple the monarchy She mounted the throne and read a new constitution that asserted the power of the monarchy over the government and declared that all cabinet members would henceforth serve at her pleasure What was the Committee of Public Safety and what role did US troops for the Boston play They were a group of haoles white foreigners The US troops for the Boston would be ready to land at any moment to prevent the destruction or American life and property Who represented Hawaii in the annexation negotiations Leading planters and commercial men and Minister Stevens took Hawaii under his wing What was Blount s assessment of the events People who were interested in misleading him surrounded him The American minister had determined on annexation but the people were for the queen and against annexation Based on this assessment what did Grover Cleveland do and not do He allowed the treaty proposal to expire in congress How did the Provision Government control dissent and gain access to Crown lands Martial law remained habeas corpus was suspended and immigration act restricted entry by suspicious alien and a dangerous persons act provided a carte blanche for the authorities to imprison people for the imsiest of excuses The island went up for sale and lease and was snatched by the plantations How did the 1897 annexation debate turn into a debate between racists and the sugar barons Racists did not want the contaminating of AngloSaxon Americans Sugar barons wanted to annexation due to the benefits for the business due to the annexation Who made up the proannexation coalition It mobilized a wide range of supporters including military men and businessmen How did events in 1898 lead to the Newlands Resolution On its way to capture Guam the crew of the USS Charleston took on supplies and was feted an enormous picnic by a Hawaiian government only too anxious to stress the islands strategic position and loyalty to the American cause Annex supports were unable to pass a treaty but managed to pass the Newlands Resolution which had the same result Chapter 6 Big Five Territory How did securing the military base at Pearl Harbor ensure the economic and politicaldomination of the sugar barons Annexation afforded island planters a sizeable annual sugar quota while 34 per ton tariff was placed on foreign sugar imports into the US thus ensured the continued viability of largescale sugar production around sugar Why were Filipino men brought in as laborers They formed the labor base for the expansion of 13 new plantations now that exclusion laws barred Chinese and Japanese What are interlocking directorates and how do they work to form a monopoly umbrella Interlocking directorate refers to the practice of members of corporate board of directors serving on the boards of multiple corporations The big 5 companies men would basically make all the decisions together Who was Dillingham Mr Hawaii Walter Dillingham was one of Hawaii s most important industrialist s Why did he resist mainland efforts to reform civil rights following the 1931 Massie rape murder case portrayed in the movie Blood and Orchids He lectured the chamber of commerce that they pay 90 of the taxes and the time had come to demand 90 voice in the control of the government He practically headed the first police commission How was the Hawaiian governor chosen He was officially appointed by the president but was practically chosen by the oligarchy How did the vertical integration of the Hawaiian sugar industry make them independent of California 29 fums producing seven out of every eight tons of sugar exported from the islands were exported through the big 5 s wholly owned California and Hawaiian sugar company whose refinery was the largest in the world San Francisco Bay How did the no limit clause undermine the efforts of the Hawaiian Homes Commission to redistribute public lands It allowed public lands to be released for indefinite periods and removed all restrictions on the size of a lease Also sugar planters managed to exclude any fertile lands All the land eventually passed into the hands of the big plantations once again How did government serve as an apparatus of class domination The services provided by the territorial government went a long way toward making export crops profitable for their producers The government deliberately frustrated land reforms in order to continue the policy of huge public land rental by the plantations at normal rents It also diverted public water to irrigate sugar fields for free and used the police to break strikes and suppress the working class agitation How was James Dole punished for introducing pineapple production He switched from the big 5 s navigation line to one that was cheaper because the time of depression had hit him hard Almost immediately his sources of credit were dried up and no banks would loan him He was forced to concede to failure and his company went to Castle and Cooke How did the Big Five drive independently owned sugar mills and small holders out of business After annexation the elite discouraged small farming Govemor s sabotaged land reforms and anything that was departed from the big production companies were labeled as unAmerican They would persuade farmers to give their sugar cane to a re nery for a very good price and then after delivery the re nery would refuse the original price and only give half The small farms fell into debt and the big 5 would not extend additional credit There were bankruptcies and a lot of fertile land taken How did the control of nance railroads and shipping consolidate the power of the Big Five and drive out competition They literally controlled everything and it was extremely hard for any businessman to get into business with the big 5 running everything Nobody really had a shot because they would be schemed out oftheir business regardless What did this mean for the average Hawaiian Monopoly control over shipping and commodity distribution meant high prices and a diminished standard of living How did the law of caste de ne social relations Until about the age of 11 kids frolicked with Hawaiian company in swimming holes or at the beach but they were then set on the road to their proper station The young haole men went to Yale or Princeton before returning to work in an of ce or run the family s plantation The girls were expected to make the correct haole marriage They were to live in Victorian houses with perfectly manicured lawns and play things such as polo and entertain highranking guest of cials What is noblesse oblige It s the obligation of those of high rank to be honorable and generous often used ironically How did it consolidate haole in uence and justify keeping wages low It was thought that since they were donating all of this money to charity it must mean that their doing something right so they don t necessarily have to think about raising their workers wages since they re already giving to charity What was the cultural division of labor It had been imposed upon sugar production to facilitate exploitation of and to divide the proletariat How did DS Porteus describe the Japanese and Filipinos He characterized the Japanese as intensely race conscious ready to combine for any purpose of group advancement aggressive and rather untrustworthy when self interest is in question He characterized the Filipinos as Improvident and shiftless highly emotional and impulsive and explosive of primitive temperament Is there any particularly irony in his depiction of the Japanese when compared the haole oligarchy There is irony because of that that the haole oligarchy is the exact same way They do anything they can to succeed and will stop at nothing for group advancement If paternalism is the carrot how is coercion the stick Coercion was used to prevent plantation workers from organizing for improved conditions That could of meant beatings shootings blacklist etc How did the oligarchy respond to strikes Plans were formulated for dealing with labor trouble usually with brutal repressions such as beatings jail time deportations or evictions How did the Sugar Act of 1934 affect Hawaii and Cuba It hurt Hawaii horribly and for Cuba it enlarged its sugar quota and aimed at fortifying the position of the Cuban elite and reestablishing the political situation What elements characterize the dependency of Hawaii and the Caribbean plantation economies Characterized by the subordination of a peripheral economy to decisions in the metropole by a monoculture economy directed by the metropole and by dependence on metropolitan technology Chapter 7 The Paci c Rim Strategy What elements de ne US hegemony at the end of WWII The ha1nessing of the nations huge resources and technological military and industrial power in conjunction with the demise of western Europe as the arbiter of global affairs that gave the US the unique opportunity to restructure the postwar world Why did the need for foreignmarkets bring about the age of the multinationals It was imperative for companies to expand overseas in order to sustain and increase their share of the marker visavis their competitors and retain attractive pro t margins to secure future nancing Why did some consider the Paci c an American lake and Japan a workshop on the American lake Because china was caught up in civil war japan was conquered and the Soviet Union was politically cautious Japan became almost a workshop because we saw japan as the dominant industrialeconomic power in Asia and recognized that if japan was to be maintained within the US orbit then it would be necessary to create a viable economy and standard of living thus providing japan with suf cient raw materials Why did the collapse of the European colonial powers in Asia necessitate the expansion of Japanese investment into the region as part of a larger US strategy We wanted Japan to become our junior partner Ifthe collapse ofthe European colonial powers had not happened this would of not been possible What forced Japanese corporations to make direct investment abroad and made them vulnerable to political instability in the region Rapidly rising wages and the adoption of import substitution programs by companies inundated by Japanese goods forced Japanese to begin a program of largescale direct investment abroad Any political change in Asia or the paci c could of deprives the Japanese capital of its essential resources Chapter 8 The Great Corporate Transformation How did Henry Kaiser s discovery of Hawaii during WWII change the kamaaina elitesand Hawaii s economy The kamaaina elites were no longer the most powerful people on the islands If the elites were the big sh in the pong Kaiser was the big sh in an ocean Secondly Kaiser wanted to change the economy and cash in on the islands emergence as a tourism center
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