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Time Space & Chg Human Soc (D)

by: Buster Heller

Time Space & Chg Human Soc (D) ISS 220

Buster Heller
GPA 3.91

Masako Fujita

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Masako Fujita
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Buster Heller on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 220 at Michigan State University taught by Masako Fujita in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/207772/iss-220-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Social Sci at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
I88 220 Exam 1 Study Guide 9192012 40400 PM Big Questions Chapter 1 o What is anthropology o What is physical anthropology o What makes us human and diff from other animals 0 How do physical anthropologists know what they do Chapter 2 o How did the theory of evolution come to be 0 What was Darwin s contribution to the theory 0 What has happened since Darwin Chapter 3 o What is the genetic code What does the genetic code do DNA What is the genetic structure of human variation Chapter 4 o What causes geneticevolutionary change Important People Carolos Linnaeus developed the system of classification of life forms systemanatura 1735 according to degree of relationship and binomial nomenclature two name system Comte de Buffon idea that species might change in appearance over time he required and explanation of this change Jean Lamarck attempted to explain how organisms could have evolved out of earlier species by inheritance of acquired characteristics Charles Darwin idea of natural selection the mechanism of differential reproduction Beagle voyage discovered differentiation in finches James Hutton uniformitarianism geologic processes that were at work in the past are still at work today Charles Lyell see James Hutton Robert Hooke developed the microscope and discovered that fossils represent past life forms Georges Cuvier fossils found in geologic strata provide history of past life forms comparative anatomy Thomas Malthus developed concept of characteristics for survival first idea of competing for food to survive Alfred Wallace came to same conclusion as Darwin Both presented their theories together in 1858 Gregor Mendel monk who explained how inheritance occurred ie pea pod plants Franklin Watson and Crick responsible for researching and clarifying DNA structure Morgan fruit fly s and chromosomes Godfrey Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberq found that some alleles are in equilibrium ie no mutation no natural selection no gene flow Key Concepts IntroTheories Anthropology the study of all humankind Physical anthropology the study of human evolution and variation past and present 6 Big Event BNMSHD Bipedalism Nonhoning chewing Material culture and tools Speech Hunting Domestication of plants Scientific method Observations Identify problem Formulate hypothesis Test Acceptreject hypothesis Replicate testformulate new hypothesis 5 Academic Areas GeologyHuttonLyell PaleontologyHookeCuvier TaxonomySystematicsLinnaeus Demography Malthus BiologyBuffonLamarck Adaptations structure function or behavior that allow an organismspecies to survive and reproduce Natural Selection Process by which some organisms with favorable features that allow them to adapt to their environment will survive and reproduce Increasing the frequency of those features in the environment Uniformitarianism Geologic processes that were at work in the past are still at work today Catastrophism theory that the world has been shaped by short violent events on a global scale o Lamarckism idea that an organism can pass on its acquired traits to its offspring o Darwin s Theory and Observations Evolution by natural selection survival of the fittest reproductive fitness Beagle Voyage Darwin visited many places around the globe the most notable being the Galapagos islands where he observed the differentiation in finches DNA and Cells o Medellin Genetics Dominant and recessive phenotypes punnet squares for determining offspring o Genes basic unit of inheritance come in pairs o Alleles one or more alternate forms of a gene can be dominant or recessive o Genotyp the specific genetic allele makeup of an organism o Phenotyp an organisms visible characteristics expression of genotype o Punnet sguares used to predict the allele combination of an organism that determines genotypephenotype o Law of segregation Two alleles of any given gene are inherited one from each parent o Law of independent assortment Inheritance of one trait does not effect the inheritance of other traits o Evolutionary Synthesis Evolution is genetic change in a population or species 4 forces natural selection mutation gene flow genetic drift o Codominance when two dominant alleles are present AA RR o Pleiotropy when one gene effects multiple phenotypic traits o Types of Cells Somatic body cells Gamete sex cells Diploid full compliment of paired chromosomes Diploid single set of unpaired chromosomes half Eukaryote with nucleus Prokaryote no nucleus o DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid the blueprint of life comprised of a sugar phosphate backbone with a nitrogen base bases can be adenine paired with thymine or guanine paired with cytosine contains coding and non coding regions Chromosomes packages of DNA strands that occur in pairs one from each parent 2 types Autosome and Sex chromosomes Humans have 46 chromosomes Mitosis Somatic cell reproduction results in two identical diploid cells Meiosis gamete production results in four non identical haploid cells Haplotyp group of alleles that tend to be inherited as a unit genes that are closer together are more likely to be passed on as a unit Translocation rearrangement of chromosomes due to genetic material of one chromosome to another mutation Nondisjunction failure of chromosomes to segregate resulting in abnormal amount of chromosomes mutation Polymorphism presence of two or more separate phenotypes for a certain gene in the population Population Genetics Evolution genetic change in a population or species Population local group of organisms that have similar genes and offspring the smallest units that can evolve Species group of related offspring that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring reproductively isolated from other populations MicroZMacro Evolution small scale changes in allele frequent from one generation to the next substantial change speciation eventgive rise to a new species over generations Population genetics study of changes in a populations genetic material across generations Gene Pool all the genetic information in a breeding population 4 forces of evolution natural selection mutation gene flow genetic drift Fitness reproductive fitness ones ability to reproduce fertile offspring Hardy Weinberg Law of Equillibrium p frequency of dominant allele frequency Dfdummant aH22 p q 1 pAz 2m W 1 Example Tongue Rolling 33 a population can 12 cant mm a my Ma a le e5v dommam R Dr recesswer n he wpula nn Assume the aHe eV requeqcy or a s p am he requmy an 5 q HW equmn HW aqua an 2 SYEP 1 Know passihle genmypls lnrench pnenucype Phenmype reg RaHers pZVQDq 155176 0 ea anwve rep NaannHeLI 21175 012 SYEP Salve lnrallule enuem s WhallsmeaHe E eq mm L sqrm12 035 Whans heaHe e an hr R p 10 35 a as p a Salve lnr wan lrequenclss yguus dammanm oz 0 550 55 a 2 2qu m 65 0 35 a 46 a ran Yer hamolygnus recesswe 7 350 35 a 12 9192012 40400 PM


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