Risk and Society (D)
Risk and Society (D) ISS 327
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Risk assessments are typically based on facts scienti cexperimentalreligious but what is a fact something that has been observed andor recorded science likes facts that can be repeated For a social scientist to be interested in a fact it typically has to be shared with others or impact your actions Facts do not always effect people s decisions regarding risks Risks must be proven or disproven If a fact does not effect a person s behavior it is not considered interesting to social sciences Risk assessments typically take into account two characteristicsthe likelihood ofthe event taking place and the severity of harm if the event does happen Statistics can be skewed to reflect different risks based on what they want you to think 1 How likely is it that the event you are talking about to happen 2 Severity of harm if the event does happen determine severity to who severity ofthe same event may be different to different groups or individuals Balance the likelihood with the severity to determine how great the risk is The likelihood and severity ofan event are in turn influenced by other factors Independent variables Variables that are not in uenced by other variables Dependent variables Variables that are in uenced by other variables Example level ofincome can be impacted by the person s sex but it is unlikely that a person s sex would be influenced by income sex is an independent factor while income is a dependent factor It is often the case that more than one variable will be involved in determining a risk let s try to gure out the variables connected to the risk of sur ng Risk of Surfing Wind velocity Prior injuries expenence size of wave depth of water location rescue support quality ofthe board number of other people surfing risk of surfingwindinjuriesetc Fsx1x2xn Use this formula to determine which risk is the greatest Two things to keep in mind reliability is the data consistent vaidity is the data measuring what you think it is measuring Concern about swimming in sur ng if you asked what is the fastest you ever swam 100 response is always going to be the same however this time could be from any point in a persons life and may not reflect their current swimming ability a better question to ask to determine the risk would be to ask when the last time they were swimming in open water was is similar conditions to those they are going to be surfing in Many variables of risk are going to change based on who you ask because questions can be interpreted differently Quantitative and Qualitative risk assessments quantitative assessments use numerous data points to develop an assessment which is reported in statistics qualitative assessments typically use fewer data points and reports in prose quantitative data is easier to work with because not as much of an assessment needs to be done Generalizability can the findings reported be used to make sense of other situations Can you study the activities of children in an elementary school and say that your findings can be used to make sense ofall school settings Answer you don t know you have to determine if there are differences in the settings and if the conditions are the same Critiques of measurement every nding is surrounding by noise ex does water freeze at 32 degrees F or does ice melt at 32 Add salt or other substances changes in atmospheric conditions etc and the point of freezingmelting changes whatever the standard for assessment is a political decision some typical measurements especially measurements of central tendencies can be very deceiving the average temp of a 40 degree F day and a 60F day is the same average of a 20F and 80F day yet those are very different kinds of days Proceed with caution when data mentions AVERAGES measuring a phenomenon changes it Hawthorne effect Hawthorne during the great depression using science to try to be more efficient Hawthorne plant sent people in to observe workers in the workplace increase in lighting productivity increases they lowered the lighting productivity increased the only reason for an increase in productivity was because the workers were being watched sometimes small changes can have huge impacts going from 3033 degrees are we looking at something with a normal distribution or something skewed do we have enough data to know 9811 Monte Carlo techniques only look at one variable Relationships doseresponse relationships there are at least four types of responses that are possible At some threshold ofa dose you will see a reaction such as in medicine certain amounts will bring about responses You look for where the response starts positive linear negative linear curviinear no relationship Data can be manipulated by squaringlogging the numbers so make sure to think about if the relationship shown is plausible before trusting the source You have to take into account agerace etc when you assess risks How do you do a risk assessment without being able to do an experiment ex cancer Personal risk assessment the gambler s fallacy streaks are a way to predict future events hot hand We won 5 times I m more likely to win again cold hand We won 5 times there s no way I could win again The article on EPA risk assessments argues that the EPA should report uncertainties to report uncertainty however uncertainty is a weakness which brings us to theories for why risk assessments are conducted Theories about why risk assessments are done Risk assessments are conducted because there is a vested interest in Risk It is about power when uncertainty is shown the assessment of risk loses its power Remember a theory is an explanation for why a relationship exists or does not exist Deciding something needs to be assessed is a political decision so we need theories that explain the distribution of power in society Historicalmaterialism and the golden rule those who own the gold make the rules What risks would someone who has a lot of wealth be concerned with a risk assessment done by someone who is being paid by the FDA would tell you that the biggest risks are diseases salmonella etc They are not concerned with poor people and the reasons that they get sick They look for where the money is in The economy for a historicalmaterialist the owners of production have a vested interest in exploiting labor fixed costs versus variable costs Labor has a vested interest in gaining control over production Enter the Frankfurt School exploitation through coercion is always tenuous If you can make people believe that class divisions are natural you are less likely to see politicallabor unrest so you need to control manufacturing and cultural production economic infrastructure and cultural superstructure basically that it is easierjust to convince the poor that their risks are not as important as the risks of the rich to prevent unrest Neoliberalism vs anarchy the neoliberalists believe that governments should protect freedom in the market place and therefore the risks associated with the marketplace Winners winlosers lose anarchists believe that no one government or body can control the market risks are inherent and alliances are uid based on perceived risks and rewards functionalism Power is a function ofdoing things right deviance shows us how not to act and that is why it is a function ex taggers functionalists considered that deviance they would show a video oftaggers getting chased by cops to try to persuade people not to take the risk of tagging adaption the economy agriculture power flows to those who are most productive goa attainment power flows to those best able to coordinate large groups of people ex education tells you what your goals should be integration power flows to those who are most fair atency power flows to those who are best able to re ect society ex MSU only allows so many people to select certain majors so that it best re ects the composition of the real working world and the graduates have the best chances at succeeding once they get out of college and into the real world Symbolic interaction risks are constructed within symbolic structures we decide what the term risk means and what does and does not fall under that label exdeath ofa 12 year old is a bigger deal than that ofa 90 year old externalization objectification internalization ex putting on a new coat that you bought at the store turned that object into something you can see your decision someone important to you comments negatively on your clothes you internalize or react to others reactions to your decision 913 Moderism we have become a risk society where we expect experts to tell us what is risky and why aesthetic reflexivity is is the critique that impacts action though the critique can be a risk not original policy that is important it is the reaction to the critique that legitimizes the institution ex MSU making an effort to respond to critiques that they weren t preparing students for future jobs postmodernismwe pick and choose from different institutions to make sense of risks The reading Heuristics mental shortcuts change as we gain more experience in a situation ex seeing a shiny patch of sidewalk and avoiding it because you saw someone slip there before and can determine that it most likely is ice Different experiences will cause people to respond differently because people have formed different heuristics in their minds Once a risk has been determined to be problematic someone hasto manage it ex wildfires thought before to need to be put out as soon as possible But since there is actually more fuel for future res putting out fires when they are smaller is actually only a short term solution forthe problem Likewise taking time off from going to college right after high school is only a short term solution because it is very unlikely that you will ever get to college because ofall the things that can happen in the time between marriagepregnancy etc Threshold for risksat what point is a behavior too risky to engage in ex getting skin cancer from lights drinking Governement agencies and technocrats egisative branch decides what the rules should be executive branch can introduce ideas and overrule ideas vetoes which can then be overruled judicial branch determines if rules are fair and constitutional Just a few more agencies that are expected to manage risks FDAFood inspection including eggs that are intact USDAfood inspections including egg productsso eggs out of the shell EPA environmental risks FAAtravel risks FCCbroadcasting risks CIAsecurity risks FBIcrime risks NSAsecurity risks ATFalcohol tobacco and re arms risks FTC consumer risks SECinvestment risks US Constitution protects free speech Amendment 1 protects free speech under any circumstnances Risks quotA People will have to hear things that they don t like can t shout things like fire in a crowded building because it puts people in danger Hate speech is not allowed either by the Supreme Court or any speech that condones violence Cannot use vulgar language or naked images in the media forthe protection of children Claims made about a product that are not true are not protected Formal Management FCC FTC police etc These agencies are expected to protect the public from harmful acts of speechexpression what is the difference between libel and slander Slander is spoken libel is written lndecency Profanity and Obscene Broadcasts The FCC mainly relies on consumer complaints to implement their rules Courts have held that indecent material is viewed as free speech under the rst amendment informal management of risks people will ask you nicely or not so nicely not to say certain things Not all risks that we take are controlled by government they are also controlled by those around us The management of food risks FDA Food Code The FDA mainly relies on studies by outside groups to determine the safety ofa new chemical or food they do some inspections but most of your food is not inspected after it has been approved once since third party groups tell the FDA about the safety of foods it is easier for food companies to pay third party groups that will tell them their product is okay or be more lenient than the FDA eX peanut butter outbreak the peanut butter companies sent their product to many different FDA approved companies until they found someone who would approve their product before sending the ndings to the FDA Where do you draw the line Third party certifiers and standards Olympic standards and Leifer ties situations where there can only be one winner ex cooking shows this food is the best Leifer tieswhenever there are groups or sports teams ofany sort that are successful others attempt to mimic their behavior so that they can be successful as well filters is food safe or is it not safe either it is safe or unsafe once you are declared safe you re grouped with everyone else who is safe ranks groupings from high to low rankings people trying to move up into higher ranked groups divisions separated by color or other groupings etc none is necessarily better than the others they are simply grouped differently does not necessarily have anything to do with how well the product sells 915 When speaking of financial risks there is more than just money to work about the article noted five areas of risk market payoffs project budgets product performance market requirements and project schedules discuss case of Cuckoo clocks in China People in different areas look at risk differently The markets are different they have different histories etc Project Budgets are you going to budget enough money to do what you need to do At what point do you pull the plug on your project Market requirements eX shampoo bottles don t fit the shelves at Walmart so they decide not to sell the product Project schedules ex Halloween products have to be out at the correct time so that they can ensure their products can be sold at the right time Why did the securitization of loans not ward off the financial collapse of 200809 securing a loan the loan is sold to someone else so that the money is given to the bank to pay forthe loan for someone else If people lose the money they are supposed to pay off the bank with then the banks will crash Also note that the authors point to the gap between risk avoidance and risk management strategies if a person group or country has a lower risk avoidance attitude nothing ever goes wrong they may also have few risk management strategies in place when something goes wrong there is nothing in place to fix the problems so short term solutions to the problem which do not work as well are used Debates on nancial regulations caps on salaries mortgage rates debtincome ratios What are the risks with too much or too little financial regulation Theories regarding management strategies The symbolic interactionists Expertise is a label but we expect experts to assess risks but what makes someone an expert legitimizing institutions which are accredited by supposedly neutral bodies but think about all the money it takes to get connected to a legitimating institution such as college or some kind of postgraduate school people with experience in the area being considered look at the experts used by the running of the bulls article to be contacted by such people you need information technology digital divide lron law of bureaucracies once a bureaucracy is put in place it is difficult to bring down and bureaucracies have a tendency to continue growing lfthe original purpose of a bureaucracy no longer exists the bureaucracy will find another purposesomething else they can regulate etc Publicprivate sphere Habermas Frankfurt schoolgerman interested in the way in which we have lost control of assessing our own risks Public sphere consists of governments and other agencies that are expected to control certain situations private sphere consists of our own lives things we don t want other people to decide for us risks we control on our own sexual partners what we eat how we travel etc Risks in the public sphere government regulation invading armies nuclear power pollution traffic Coupled with the iron law of bureaucracies and the sense that we live in a risk society the public sphere is creeping into the private sphere can you think of examples government tells you how old you should be to have sex how many sexual partners what foods you should eat what sexual orientation people should be amount of fire alarms in your house doorswindows utilitiesappliances Organizational theories Peter Principle once someone shows potential you continue to promote them until they no longer show potential ex Moving a eld worker up to a management position so that they can make others do theirjob the same way in the field promoting them to a level ofincompetence glass ceiling promote men quicker than women resource mobilization economic cultural social to be successful you have to be able to mobilize resources to know how the culture works to know the right people to be able to pay or what you should not be paying for etc cultural resources ex getting out of a ticket because the ticket says the wrong thing about the car blue jetta when black basically knowing the system network theory not what you know who you know who has the right to be the gatekeeper the spokesperson for the group knowing who to connect to that can give your message off rational choicewhen you are making management decisions you are weighing the costs of the benefits From the reading can the media in uence audiences when the audience has no idea what is being talked about it is unlikely that the media are providing one story about a topic people tend to argue that the media are against them when discussing food risks you should take cultural resonance into consideration media as window both reporters and audience members are seeing the same thing media as mirror audience members only know what the media have reported the most used model is to give people info and believe they will know what to do with it There are three components to every message the creator the message always makes sense to the creator the medium ex tv face to face radio newspaper people will react differently to the same information received through different mediums receiver sometimes people will trust the information that they receive from the media even if they don t trust the media source itself messagesare they trying to get you to do something what is the purpose of the message Interpersonal communication vs mass media communication who do you trust more The sourcereporter relationship who leads the dance Which can you really trust Three types of people are typically given access to the media ACCESSAbiIity to tell your story the way you want it told government big business poHce Others a sometimes given COVERAGE exQuidditch being played at MSU Professor made a statement when interviewed that those playing Quidditch were not being as creative as they thought because the game they are playing is all based off ofa book and the book is telling them how to play the game Prof is given access to the media what he wants to be put into the article is what goes His opinion is shown more than the student s opinions and comments about the sport Those with more power have more pull when it comes to media than common people The difference between having access to the media and coverage in the media is that access allows those in the media to put in what they wish to see in the media whereas those being COVERED by the media will not have the same ability to choose exactly what is important in the story or what the focus of the coverage is Episodic vs Thematic reporting Episodiccovers more of one time events doesn t go too into detail basically tells what happened and who was affected Thematictaking a topic and carrying it throughout it s life cycle This meaning that the story is fully reported details on relationships between people the end result prior information that may not have been shown ifthe episodic approach to reporting was used ex episodicthere was a shooting in east lansing 1 died there is salmonella on campus thematic shows relationships between those involved in the shooting lists background information about how often shootings like this occur in this area Where the salmonella was found how it is being taken care of stories of past salmonella outbreaks how to be safe and avoid salmonella how it came about Are audience members passive or active Frankfurt and the passive audience passive audiences blindly believe and listen to media sources Frankfurt were Jewish who came up with this theory to explain why Hitlers use of media was able to influence good German people to turn against Jewish people and to think in the way that they did Morley and the active audiencepeople decide which media they want to be influenced by which media to believe and not to believe People are still influenced by that media source but they are more active in choosing what to be influenced by Morley did a study bringing in people from all different social classes upper middle and lower and talked to them about watching a specific news program Different classes responded differently to the show Upper class said they watched it all the time for the majority middle class was split in that most said they would watch it on occasion but not all the time and those in the lower class simply said that they rarely watched it that they would rather watch other shows instead active audiences choose media in this way Theories of communication Two stage theory ofdissemination early adopters and technological treadmill EARLY ADOPTERS Most people are followers they need a leader in order to actually express their opinions However in order for those opinions to actually be expressed a normal person must quickly nd a well known leader who many others follow in order for that message to be taken up ex bringing a new drug to a highly respected doctor who can begin promoting it rather than taking a drug to a doctor in a small town who is not well known where the message cannot get out as easily TECHNOLOGICAL TREADMILL As soon as people discover that they are a leader or an early adopter they begin to attempt to continue that leadership to always be the early adopter and the leader of new things ex people who buy the newest iPod right when it comes out they become a leaderearly adopter in that no one else has it and they were the rst to get it That sense of power drives many of those people to have to keep going back every time a new iPod or some sort of new technology comes out so that they can continue to be seen as an early adopter Agendasetting Leadersmedia set the agenda They tell people what to think about and influence people by telling them what topic or issues are important Not necessarily an opinion on the topic orthe issue Though the media may contain some promotion ofa certain opinion on the issue most people will not fall for that but they will fall forthinking that issue is important because the media is covering it Knowledge Gap dea that people learning about new things are able to take information and apply it to how they think ex College students getting smarter causes the gap in knowledge between them and those who didn t complete highschool or what are not getting a college education Third Person Effect everyone says that the media does not influence or effect them but that it effects others When in turn everyone else is saying that about those who say that Hypodermic Theory nformation given first warning against something or countering a future point that will be made will have the greatest influence on what people will believe to be true ex Flu shots are recommended for those 680 years old It is common knowledge that a flu shot contains parts of the actual u virus so that the body can get used to it and fight it off when it actually does contract it However if before information about getting flu shots for the season comes out information about the number of people who have died from getting flu shots and contracting the virus from the shots come out it will cause people to think twice about getting their shot Mean World Hypothesis People who watch more TV are more likely to see the world as a meaner place To think that there is more violence or crime or bad things in the world than there really Is counterargumentthose who watch the most TV are the ones who are already afraid to leave their homes because of living in bad neighborhoods so there is already a backbone to the fear caused by seeing crimeviolence on TV Sociologists have shown that revolutions are more likely to happen when things are getting better because there are more resources and people are healthier to ght Political protestsstrikes the best indicator of where the most ofthese are is the number of TV s or radios in the country Spiral of Silence if you don t hear other talking about an issue you probably aren t talking about it a lot of people think they are alone in their problems until they hear about it on TVRadio This brings people to action when they hear that their issue is also an issue with others protests How much government control is there in the media In the US the government will let information about protests come out but will tone it down and twist it as to not incite more protests In many other countries it is even worse in that the media will try to cover up the protests and pretend like they aren t happening riots do not have the same effects as protestsriots ex after MSU lost a bball game there were carscouches on fire fights breaking out Students who experienced it considered it a riot However those in charge of MSU addressed it as a disturbance when talking about the issue to the public as to keep their name clean when prospective students are looking at the college This is why protests get more coverage than riots Riots get a bad name 927 Reading best known theory is knowledge theory if you know it is risky you will stay away from it which is why we tend to think the best way to educate someone is to give them more facts BUTPeople who do very risky things actually tend to know more about what they are doing than those who are not taking the risk personality theory some people are just risk takers and others are not Risk takers or risk avertors BUT some people are willing to take some risks and not others there is a very large spectrum of risks that people could be taking economic theory the rich are more likely to take risks BUT people who are poor are also taking a lot of risks ex walking to work in dangerous areas eating expired foods drugs guns Those risks were just not thought to be asked about People in different economic classes see different things as risks poitica theory people in various political parties fear different things people who are democrat are likely to take risks that are the opposite of those of republicans BUT there was no correlation between the political parties and risks such as skydiving etc cultural theory people choose what to fear depending on their own lifestyles hierarchists fear deviance those who are hierarchists would approve of art within the gallerys or museums but would not be approvers of graffiti because it would be taken away ofthe classic art individualists fear outside control wants people to be able to promote themselves and get ahead on their own egalitarians fear hording want everything to be equally distributed Need to understand that people can be risk takers themselves while fearing societal risks and vice verse Variables to consider when studying risk perceptions trust age vs cohort they find that as people get older they tend to become more conservative in terms ofthe things they will do As you grow old you are less likely to take risks that you would have taken before you were 30 This is because you are growing older you understand the risks more you now have a family to take care of risks of getting hurt are worsecohortdifferent circumstances of growing up ex Nuclear power 40 s50 s would make it so that people would no longer have to pay for their own electricity Public opinion was still high after the 50 s that it was a good thing in the 70 s 80 s people begin to become more concerned about nuclear power Those who were younger in the 40 s50 s still continue to promote nuclear power but more younger people are around in the 70 s80 s with the different opinion that nuclear power is bad proximity to risk eg fear of terrorist attacks and how close someone lives to a perceived target such as a large city nuclear power plant chemical plant people who US Traffic Accidents How should we be assessing risk How should we be managing this risk should we be passing laws How should we be communicating the risk and well as how it is being assessed and managed the dangers of certain things this is not a USonly phenomenon did it surprise you to see the reasding mention both unintentional eg falling and intentional accidents including suicides when thinking about children underthe age of 5 We often think children today are safer than past years but the authors note that Today s modern risks result from the unsafe use of dangerous chemicals the inadequate disposal of toxic waster and other environmental hazards noise and industrial pollution Unsafe chemicals in toys and household products may also harm children Emerging potential environmental threats to health include global climate change ozone depletion contamination by persistent organic pollutants and chemicals and other hazards and emerging diseases many of these were not the same risks past generations have faced has medical knowledge been outpaced by technology Every year over 5 million children ages 014 die mainly in the developing world from diseases related to their environmentsthe places where they live learn and play Do people in different living classes have different risks India in developing countries Assessment crosssection of both a middle class area and a poor area kids in middle class areas were more likely to be exposed to an electric appliance kids in poor areas were more likely to be exposed to open fires chemicals and things falling on them iiteracy has a big impact on exposure to risk as literacy rises in women the risks children face go down Longitudinal studies vs crosssectional studies Longitudinal studies measure risk over time and show trends in that You must be able to keep replicating the test you performed the first time they are expensive Crosssectional studies compare different things at one point in time can be biased because things at that point in the time are different from other years in extreme amounts for whatever reason Assessment Theory Re exive modernization resources activities products that make people s lives better going into middle class homes as soon as you introduce a new technology you also introduce new risks re exive modernization ex introducing computers into an area especially one that doesn t have that many electrical appliances would introduce many new risks in that the people would need more electricity which leads to needing more power stations to generate more power requires more resources are we introducing things in which costs outweigh the benefits Management resources and options concerning both fires and bunk beds if res are the only way to heat a house andor cook what are the options for managing this risk If space is a concern with beds what are the options for managing this risk can you really tell people not to have any more bunk beds or open fires when that is the only option poor people have egisate laws concerning maximum water temperatures coming out of faucets introducing legislation to correct one problem may cause other problems Children resistant packaging grandparents or parents with arthritis cannot open the package forthe medicine should parents be fined if their children get hurt from negligence Brokenshire et al in their study on Deaths from electricity recorded 95 fatalities from electrical injuries 89 were accidental 4 were suicides and 2 occurred during autoerotic electrical simulation 49 of the accidental fatalities occurred at work 28 in the home and 12 in the course of outside recreational activities Nine fatalities involved children under the age of five years who contacted inadequately protected wires Communication the components of communication plausibility and credibility context ex someone tells you not to drink and drive because they got in an accident and are lucky to be alive Kidsjust assume the person was an idiot and that they know how to drink and drive dread and outrage content doctors sometimes prescribe medicine to children simply for the parents given the likelihood of someone falling it is dif cult to get people to take this risk seriously at the level of this could kill you osing a child is extremely dreadful so does communicating this type of risk lead to overprotective parents What s the risk of being overprotective nabiity to critique parents and move towards independence More school absenteeism parents dont want their kids to goto school because of things like sexed videos or lice More somatic symptoms children who have overprotective parents tend to show more signs of being sick or not feeling well more psychological than physiological tendency to show more anxiety in stressful situations Communication theory Affect control theory how to manage emotions 106 need beginning of class notes Reading We often stereotype gang members as maleWhy Risks of being involved in a crime also the risk of someone you knowjoining a gang Structural reasons forjoining a gang gangs usually are found in poorer neighborhoods neighborhood family memberfriend in a gang difficult family environment Personal reason forjoining a gang feeling of protection question on the test many people question this because if everyone is doing it it seems that it must be a structural thing Theories socia disorganization without proper supervision or role models in a neighborhood young people turn to exciting activities including crime social control young people with strong ties to institutions family school etc are less likely to join a gang more social support from a prior group because of their involvement in some activity feminist theories girls who have been a victim of crimeabuse are more likely to join gangs they need a bigger push to join gangs than boys Risk assessment The reading noted that approximately 5 of all boys and 3 of all girls report being involved in gangs is this a risk we need to be concerned about approx 1 million gang members belonging to more than 20000 gangs Loca street gangs or neighborhood based street gangs remain a significant threat because they continue to account for the largest number of gangs nationwide Most engage in violence in conjunction with a variety of crimes including retaillevel drug distribution 58 of state and local law enforcement agencies reported that criminal gangs were active in their communities gang members are migrating from urban areas to suburban and rural communities expanding the gangs influence in most regions they are doing so for a variety of reasons including expanding drug distribution territories increasing illicit revenue recruiting more member and hiding from law enforcement Criminal gangs commit as much as 80 ofthe crime in many communities Gang members are the primary retaillevel distributors of most illicit drugs Some gangs traf c illicit drugs at the regional and national levels US based gang members illegally cross the USMexico border for the express purpose of smuggling illicit drugs and illegal aliens from Mexico into the US Many gangs actively use the Internet to recruit new members and to communicate with members in other areas ofthe US and in foreign countries Street gangs and outlaw motorcycle gangs pose a growing threat to law enforcement along the UScanada border The frequently associate with Canada based gangs and criminal organizations to facilitate various criminal activities including drug smuggling into the US Gangs cross borders to nd new markets capitalism expanding their markets Dependency Theory Rich nations exploit poor nations leaving poor nations in a subordinate position Richer countries want to nd new sources of resources using less of their own get those resources for cheaper from poorer countries The richer nations come in and develop those poorer countries so that their economy depends on trading with richer nations They rely on giving richer countries the resources that they want Cutflower market in Europe having to use greenhouses in the winter instead force expanses of land in Africa to grow flowers and then sell them and ship them to Europe The water that could othenNise be used for growing food goes to owers causes drought in Africa but they rely on that linkage to Europe to make money and become dependent Same with the market for drugs between Mexico and the United States Gangs in Mexico become reliant on the gangs in the United States Risk Management We tend to think the Criminal Justice System will take care of gangs Bias in criminal justice system biased towards poor people different races By the time it gets to the criminal justice system the issue is no longer really being dealt with properly Numerous NGOs non government organizations have sprung up to address this issue Boys and Girls clubs after school clubs after school band rather than during school to keep kids offthe streets Creating incentives to stay in school inking kids to communities and community organizations has been found to decrease criminal activities Rather than expelling kids give them detention or suspending them force the kids to clean the school or painting lockers getting kids involved in the community goes a long way towards stopping bad behavior in the community bringing in jobs to a neighborhood is found to decrease crime business incentives robbery goes down pregnancy goes down Anomie theory as a management strategy people should be linked back to their community to stop crime Community policing provide local police officers and community leaders an opportunity to be accountable for their neighborhoods instead of relying on an organization located somewhere else put police officers out on the street walking or on bikes to actually relate and speak to the community and be visible rather than driving around in their car Police force has been more decentralized police have more powerto make decisions on their own and deal with problems on their own rather than always reporting to a chief or someone higher up Risk Communication one ofthe difficulties with discussing gang membership is that outsiders are not trusted two stage model of communication going to those who are leaders in the community in orderto askthem to relay certain messages to those in their community 1011 The risks of wanting to be alone suicide Reading approx 1100 US college students die from suicide each year Risk factors for persistent suicide ideation included low social support childhood or adolescent exposure to domestic violence maternal depression and high selfreported depressive symptoms in other studies the fatherchild relationship seems to have a greater impact on suicide than motherchild unless child is susceptible to depression in this study alcohol and cannabis were not related to suicidal thoughts or attempts in this study it was found that lower social support maternal depression self depression female nonwhite nonheterosexual and affective dysfunctionbeing female nonheterosexual and having low social support seemed most important if a child sees their mother is depressed all the time then children see that as a coping mechanism for them if the fatherchild relationship is problematic it has more impact on the child than the relationship between the mother and the child altruistic suicide people who decide they need to kill themselves to help others Catholics are less likely to commit suicide than Protestant Protestants look at religion as something you do on your own where as Catholics look at coming to church and being involved in it as something you must participate in to be saved Since there is more social support in the Catholic church there is less suicide Assessment Risk factors for suicide 1018 Assessment one ofthe paradoxes of sports is that we are supposed to stay active to maintain our health but we are also more likely to get hurt while being active chronic vs acute chronic last with you along time acute can be fixed and move on ex tearing akelies tendonnot being active and having future health problems are both chronic problems as far as concussions go there is an increase starting at about age 34 and keeps going up as the children reach the ages of 1014 then level off at about ages 15 19 possible reasons forthe increases in concussions the sports get more intense beginning to ride a bike children becoming more active trying different sports the rules change children stop wearing helmets when riding bikes CDC center for disease control counts of brain injuries due to sports and recreation There are more injuries chalked up to basketball than football why possible answer more people play basketball than football Theory technological treadmill the technology in the sport comes out before the training to use that technology coms out when they are tested a lot of the time there are injuries because it wasn t ready or wasn t safe Management We often think that giving people more protective equipment will protect them others have found that more protective equipment gives participants a heightened sense of invincibility and they become more reckless the two areas that are not wellstudied is education and rule changes though we know the problems with knowledgebased theories and risk Currently no consensus exists among researchers or clinicians with respect to concussion definition severity measurement diagnostic measures or returntopay criteria Theory actor network the notion that not everyone in a network has the same amount of power ex football team it once was if the trainer said they weren t sure if the player should go back to play after an injury a coach could override today it is more the trainer s decision or medical staff that will decide whether or back the player will go back to play ex2 if there is a football helmet that is able to absorb more hits the coach will put the player in a position to receive more hits The network does not only apply to human actors the human actors interact with those other nonhuman actors such as the helmet given the lack of consensus on the diagnosis and severity of various sports related injuries how a player will be treated often depends on the networks in which they are located Communication given that many sports injuries are acute and lack of being physically active is chronic leads to the problem of communicating this issue Theory cultural toolbox discourses are places where power is defined negotiated and used so why not have those athletes say no let s go out and play some real soccer many feel playing FIFA on the videogame is the same as playing soccer in real life people relate theirtime playing that videogame to playing real sports The risks of ettin animals Are we any better people beating up other people Readings how many generations does it take to domesticate an animal the National Geographic reading says that some signs appeared around the fourth generation and the domestic phenotype began appearing around the ninth generation floppy ears speckled patterns the thought has always been that if we can domesticate an animal we can take away those qualities they have naturally to attack the other way to defend ourselves against wild animals is to beat them with a stick were you surprised to see that the authors stated that one study found more fatal human attacks among lions when guns are used lfyou do not hit an animal right with a gun the rst time the animal will retaliate and will attack who shot at it while the authors argue that tools do make a difference notice the smaller difference between tool users and nontool users in the minor and serious injury categories the ability to successfully ward offanimals was the basis for a toolusing species Whoopsl Squirrels cannot transfer rabies eas on the squirrels can but not the squirrel itself 1020 Assessment as seen in the videos above all animals including ourselves can be dangerous dogs tend to get a good deal of attention From the CDC About 45 million people are bitten by dogs each year Almost one in five of those who are bitten a total of 885000 require medical attention for dog bite related injuries In 2006 more than 31000 people undenNent reconstructive surgery as a result of being bitten by dogs cultural toolkit when you are communicating if you are not using the right termstools dressed the right way etc there is going to be consequences Who is most at risk Children Among children the rate of dog biterelated injuries is highest for those ages 5 to 9 years and children are more likely than adults to receive medical attention for dog bites than adults Recent research shows that the rate of dogbite related injuries among children seems to be decreasing Adult Males Among adults males are more likely than females to be bitten People with dogs in their homes Among children and adults having a dog in the household is associated with a higher incidence of dog bites As the number of dogs in the home increases so does the incidence of dog bites Adults with two or more dogs in the household are five times more likely to be bitten than those living without dogs at home Notjust dogs During 20032007 deaths occurring in the production of crops and animals in the United States totaled 2334 of these 108 5 involved cattle as either the primary or secondary cause TheoryHistorical materialism do the pets preferred by the rich get differential treatment Management