Society and the Individual (D)
Society and the Individual (D) ISS 210
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Buster Heller on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 210 at Michigan State University taught by Alison Rautman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see /class/207777/iss-210-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Social Sci at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
ISS 210 Rautman Study Guide Exam 1 1 Key Concepts for Exam 1 IS S 210 Rautman Recognizing Do these words look familiar Knowing the meaning Can you use them in a sentence Can you differentiate them from similar words or concepts Understanding Can you explain why they are important TO THIS CLASS Can you apply these concepts to things that happen in your life Week 1 MSU s liberal learning goalsi o analytical thinking uses ways of knowing from classes to access information evaluate evidence construct arguments and form conclusions 0 cultural understanding comprehend global and cultural diversity within the contect of society history or art effective citizenship be a leader in society effective communication use a variety of media to communicate with diverse audiences 0 integrated reasoning use knowledge to make decisions that re ect humane social ethical and aesthetic values Learning in depthiyour major Learning in breadthigeneral education Tier 1 and Tier 2 writing requirementsitier l is a 4 credit class tier 2 is usually taken in your major Geographic scaleiwhere we are and how it affects us Temporal scale Social scaleithe number of people whether it is an individual a small group or a large group Plagiarismiabide by the honor code plagiarism is the use of work that is not yours don t do it Obligate biped compare quadrupedias obligate bipeds we HAVE to walk on two feet whereas quadrupeds have four feet Omnivorous compare carnivore herbivoreiwe eat plants and meat whereas carnivores eat only meat and herbivores eat only plants Hidden ovulation menstrual cycle compare estral cycleibabboons in heat have genital swelling which tells males they are ovulating we obviously as humans do not have this Sexual dimorphismibody size between males and females is not significantly different between sexes therefore males and females have similar roles Adaptive problemsiproblems that affect the individual s reproduction these are very crucial problems to solve after survival because reproduction carries on a species ISS 210 Rautman Study Guide Exam 1 2 Brain circuits or neural circuitsimost of our neural circuits are subconscious our brain does them automatically these circuits are specialized at the time of their development so perhaps balance was needed for survival so now we all have decent balance I of E y A d J t t39 the context within which some characteristic is believed to emerge as adaptive Stone Age problemsiour brains are better at solving the kinds of problems that our ancestors faced long ago than the familiar tasks we take part in now stone age problems are problems like recognizing danger surviving and dealing with others therefore we are naturally pretty good at these things Environment Uterine environmentibefore birth has physical factors of the maternal health diet and hormones and social cultural factors of the access to good food drugs and stress Social environmentispecifics of family friends education etc Physical environmentithe world we are physically in Cultural environmentilarge cultural environment we live in Week 2 education compare trainingigeneral we are getting this now and even though we may not be sure what we re doing after we graduate we will be prepared and wellrounded products of MSU training teaches one specific task and makes you good at it fast Critical thinkingipurposeful selfregulating judgement based on interpretation analysis evaluation and inferrin Liberal as in a liberal democratic societyiliberal can mean politically to the left or it can mean generous in this class it means our learning is free from tyranny Anthropologyistudy of humans and their culture Psychologyistudy of the mind and the brain Historyithe concept of time wether it is chronology or sequence Sociologyithe study of the social world we live in Economicsithe study of transactions and exchange involving smallscale microeconomics and largescale macroeconomics Political Scienceithe organization of government and decision making Geographyithe study of space and place which involves physical and cultural aspects Social scienceiscience of social life and society school of though Onesystem fieldiexact definitions one school or thought very black and white Multisystem fieldiinexact definitions many schools of thought involves history of the particular field How is Power defined in different fieldsiin onesystem fields it is defined as a unit of energy and in multisystem fields it is defined as a more broad term of someone with jurisdiction over others What is a scienceithe study of something Scientific methodibased on assumptions these assumptions are that there is a real universe that is knowable by us it has regularities these regularities hold true over space and time ISS 210 Rautman Study Guide Exam 1 3 Methodological naturalismithe assumption that this universe is real and that we can use observation or empirical testing to nd out about it Ontologyiphilosophical study of being science says nothing about ontological naturalism which is the supernatural in the sense that it is beyond nature Emperical worldithe world that we can percieve through our physical senses empirical dataidata we collect using our physical senses Theoriesidescribe situations that have been observed many times by many people in many different circumstances Hypothesisia speci c prediction can never be falsi ed but only supported accepted or not Falsi able falsi edia hypothesis is no longer excepted when it is falsi ed using evidence Productiveileads to new ideas Explanatory power iexplains something Descriptioniwhat we see people doing what people say they are doing and what we think they are doing all make up description which includes observation and inference Prediction compare to Proscriptioniprediction is us wondering what will happen next proscription is making reccomendations and implicating courses of action for how to deal with the prediction Correlation compare to causationitwo things can be related or correlated however this does NOT mean one thing causes the other there can be an underlying factor for this correlation that we need to think about Observation Inferenceiobservation is what we see happening and inference is us thinking about what we observe Week 4 Descriptioniinvolves data facts statistics and trends over time as well as opinions actual behavior and reported behavior Analysisitaking an idea apart investigating the contributing variables and understanding how this all ts together Synthesis Participant observationimethod relies on the researcher becoming more involved with those being studies the problem here is that it takes a longer time and it s hard for the researcher to get into the group Methods of data collection in the social sciencesiask people interview observe people observe as a participant Proxy values proxy measures or indicators proxy means substitute so a proxy measure is a substitute for when we cannot measure something directly Modelican be mathematical verbal physical or conceptual simple model complex modelia simple model has a few variables few conections and is clear with unchanging relationships while a complex model has many parts many connections betweek variables and variable relationships Positivist approachesifocus on the group emphasis is on the shared aspects of the situation and on general ideas trends and so on Interpretive approaches interpretivistiemphasis is on the particular and individual situation and the unique features and details of it ISS 210 Rautman Study Guide Exam 1 4 Bell curveimost people will be in the middle of the curve the bell can be to the left or right which means it is skewed Venn diagramishow the relationships between groups Necessary conditionicondition we have to have Sufficient conditionineed only Precipitating conditionsithe tipping point Proxy measure or valueisubstitute measure to evaluate something you cannoy measure like school spirit Index measure or valueiindex values standardize the data to a common comparison Herodotus and Theucydidysisaid that history should be written from a neutral point of view primary secondary sourcesia primary source is a document or a record that is an original source of information about a topic while a secondary source is a document that comments on a primary source Adam Smithisaid that the role of individual selfinterest and competition can lead to economic prosperity market valueithe only real value of something all other value is based on what one is willing to pay Karl Marxisaid that workers and management are at odds with eachother baseithe forces of production the economy and the relations of production division of labor property relationships in a company Superstructureiideas culture institutions roles rituals the shape of the base is a big in uence on this Relations of productionithe relationship between workers and employers social classiproletariat the workers and the bourgeouise the owners of the means of production Max Weberiideas matter and we have to pay attention to the meaning and purpose that individuals attribute to their actions authority traditional charismatic rational Rational meaning spelled out documented according to rules beaurocracyiway of organizing labor a beaurocracy has standardized procedures division of labor a heirarchy or decision making and impersonal relationships calling or vocationipeople are called to serve a calling that helps people Thorstein Veblenisaid people seek to increase their social status evolutionary economicsibased on darwinian ideas of competition adaptation and survival social competitionipeople compete with one another to achieve social status conspicuous consumptioniindividual s attempts to achieve status and gain advantage by aunting their wealth Carl Sauerihumans are deeply interconnected with their cultural landscapes cultural ecologyistudy of interactions between people and the natural environment cultural landscapesihumans create a cultural landscape through use we change the land Sigmund Freuditheorized the unconscious mind ISS 210 Rautman Study Guide Exam 1 5 Unconsciousithe parts of our mind we are unaware of ego superego idiid involves the older and most animal instincts ego represents the unconscious mind and the superego represents the logical and rational brain talk therapyibring things out of the unconscious mind for psychoanalysis neurosis psychosisineurosis stems from repression and involves problems in cognition emotional response self control or social relationships Emile Durkheimisaid that social science is the study of institutions Anomieilack of feelings of being part of society organic solidarity and mechanical solidarityiorganic solidarity is the relationship of interdependence between people that arises from differentiation while mechanical solidarity is the idea that social relationships are based on similarity and that people feel connected with those they are similar to Margaret Meadiinvestigated western ideas like teen angst and gender roles sex and genderiwas a feminist and started the sexual revolution gender rolesichallenged old gender roles Week 5 Who is Vanessa Fongidiscusses the tensions of being in a new place and study abroad Anesnabeg people of the three firesiMichigan s first people 1 Ottawa Odawa 2 Chippewa Ojibwe 3 Potawatomi Federally Recognized Tribeispecial legal status a tribe has with the government French fur tradersil600 and 1700 Lumber and mining Finnish Swedish Comish71800l900 What is the Great Northern Migrationipeople moving from the south to the north in the 1920 s and 1930 s to work in factories 1919 First mosque in the USA Catholic Church Roman Catholic Cathedral schools Medieval times AD 10001200medieval school curriculum included the TRIVIUM which was general education like ISS Renaissance times AD 150016007leaming included out of class experiences focused on research and new ideas and was based on learning by doing The English Universityiincluded TRIVIUM or general education classes The German Universityibased on merit and ranking Trivium and quadriviumitrivium is general education and quadrivium is different subjects Lectures and seminarsi out of class experiences as part of a college education Paris Left Bank The Latin Quarterihub of intellectual conversation among university students Cosmopolitan Collegiate Gothicicombination of romanesque gothic church architecture and medeival styles hsd dormer windows slate roofs towers decorative limestone and quadrangle layout ISS 210 Rautman Study Guide Exam 1 6 Land Grant Universityieach state donates land and runs the university was made to unite north and south after the civil war Morrill Act 18627developed a national curriculum that includes sciences and the humanities MSU was founded in 1855 American Civil War 1861 to 1864 The southern states called it the war of northern aggression have you heard that before slavery AfricanAmerican slavery Spartans in ancient Greece spoke DORIC Spartan life and educationiages 07 boys learned at home 716 boys went to boarding school 1618 boys had military training 1865 boys were soldiers women had formal education Spartan cultureiwomen must be healthy and strong to have strong sons and families women needed to be stoic and emotionally strong women were important parts or public life women were an important part of religion and ceremonies Spartan men and women s rolesimen went to war and women took care of the home What does Spartan mean What does Laconic meanispartan means frugal not ostentatious or showy minimal and unadomed while laconic means brief terse and not talkatice Who were the Lacadaemoniansiconquered by the spartans are became helots who worked What s a Helotia serf a bonded servant tied to the land How did MSU get to have Spartans as their mascotiGeorge Alderton proposed it after the Michigan Staters was too long WEEK 6 world viewiconveys the idea of a point of view and that this point of view affects everything we see in the world the American world view itime focuses on future we should be able to control nature people should be counted on to do the right thing when given the chance an individual s wishes needs and aspirations should be counted as more important than the groups and that what one foes or accomplishes is more important than how they go about it white collar jobs compare to pink collar or blue collarij obs that are considered more prestigous and mostly directed towards men Midwestern cultureiopen friendly people very tolerant people typically The English entrepreneurial farmerifarm is a commodity The German yeoman farmerifarm is his own what is a yeoman In English history a small farmer who actually owns his own land Albionithe old name for the British Isles of England Ireland Puritansicame to America from Andlia in Eastern England more urban area seeked religious freedom and were very grouporiented Cavaliersicame to America from Western and Southern England were generally more statusconscious and heirarchial in organization Quakersicame from Northern England emphasized egalitarian relationships and group harmony