Society and the Individual (D)
Society and the Individual (D) ISS 210
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Buster Heller on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 210 at Michigan State University taught by Michelle Kaminski in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/207778/iss-210-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Social Sci at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR EXAM 2 ISS 210 Section 002 Work in Modern Society Spring 2012 1 Describe these properties of groups and respond to the statements in parentheses a Roles give an example The demands of one role con ict with another Set of expected behaviors based on the role in the group Example 7 A Leader who makes decisions that affect the group is an example of a role A student is also an example b Norms give an example The set of expectations on how to behave in certain settings shared by the group members Example 7 Being quieter in church than you would be in public even though you are with the same people group both times c Cohesiveness does it predict performance The degree to which group members are attracted to each other and willingness to stay together in a group How much unity or solidarity there is in the group Performance depends on the group norms If the group norm is to perform well and the cohesiveness is high then the group will perform well If there is high cohesiveness but the norms are not performance related eg just hanging out then the group will not perform well This can predict performance but not always d Status what can a highstatus group member do that lowstatus members cannot The rankings of people within the group e g a leader is higher up than most of the group Higher ranks can break more norms than lowstatus members e Size what size groups are most effective for what kind of task The number of people in the group 12 is a large group Smaller groups are more efficient while larger groups can have more ideas but harder times putting things into action 2 There are 2 major theories about how groups develop over time a Describe the 5stage theory of group development Forming 7 Gets together confusion about roles who is in charge At the end of this stage everyone should identify with the group Storming 7there is con ict over who plays what roles and who is the leader At the end of this stage it should be clear who is in what roles Norming 7 Establishing common sets of behavior Performing 7 Doing the job accomplishing the task Adjouming 7 The group breaks up The group may not always get to this stage 7 some groups stay together and do not have a speci c end point b Describe the punctuated equilibrium model of group development What groups does it tend to apply to Very little will be accomplished in terms of the whole project until the halfway mark of the time is reached Then there will be a jump in the efficiency work ethic of the group and more will be accomplished at a higher rate Go from almost no activity to high activity at the halfway point This tends to apply to groups that have a fixed time frame Temporary groups with a deadline 3 What is groupthink How can it be prevented Pressure leads people to agree to a bad decision TO PREVENT Monitor group size devil s advocate group leader plays impartial role Play the role of critic or questioner and change that role every time Brainstorming nominal group technique silently first discuss then pick the best idea 4 What are the advantages and disadvantages of making decisions in groups vs individual decision making Advantages 7 generally more accurate More diverse More creative More acceptance Disadvantages 7 slow and long process Pressure to conform and groupthink a When is it best to use group decision making Best used when you have a large amount of time and a wealth of information Diversity of members Free and open communication and a complex task 5 What are these group process techniques a Brainstorming Idea generation process that speci cally encourages withholding praise or criticism b Nominal group technique Individual members meet face to face to pool their judgements The rst part is done in silence when thinking of ideas 6 Describe each of these major experiments and their major ndings a Asch The line test Conformity and groupthink The confederates would give the right answer and then at a speci c point in the test said the wrong answer and the test subject would conform b Milgram Volunteer in a room Another volunteer played the proctor of the experiment Teaching the word pairs to the person in the other room gets shocked The shockee asks to stop and the subject would ask the authority gure the authority gure says to press on The nding most people would follow authority even if they were causing physical harm to another human being c Stanford prison experiment Zimbardo Students playing as prisoners and guards the students playing as guards turned into sadists in a few days Expresses the power of the role not the human being in the role 7 What did the recent replication of the Milgram studies nd The people still listened to the authority gure STILL even though times have changed 8 What is the de nition of power Power 7 A has power over B to the extent that A can get B to do something that B would not otherwise normally do 9 De ne the bases of power in organizations and give an example of each Coercive 7 dependent on fear from the negative result form failing to comply punishment Reward compliance achieved bonus for doing good work Legitimate Power 7I m in this role and you are in that role so you have to do it based on the roles parent over kid boss over worker Expert Power 7 special skills or knowledge that a person has Referent power 7 identi cation with the person who has certain traits that person is always nice and likes football so you start to like football to be more like them Proposed by French and Raven a Which bases of power are tied to the organizational role rather than the individual Coercive reward legitimate b Which bases of power are connected to the individual rather than the organizational role Expert and referent 10 What are appropriate and inappropriate uses of power Give an example of each Appropriate 7 Achieving an organizational goal Example 7 Mark Dantonio getting good recruits to win a BIG championship a goal of the MSU Football organization Inapproprate 7 Achieving a personal goal at the expense of the organizational goals Example 7 ENRON causing blackouts for personal gain of wealth 11 What in uence tactics are used in organizations Give an example of each Legitimacy 7 relying on an authority position boss tells you to do something Rational Persuasion 7 logical arguments Inspirational appeals 7 Win one for the Gipper Consultation 7 increasing target support by involving them in the plan MSU remodeling the dorms asks you for input on what to change and what you like so that you will be more tolerant of the construction noise and delays Exchange 7 doing something for someone and they ll do something in return scratch your back you ll scratch mine Ingratiation 7 sucking up brownnosing kissing ass you re so kind Iknow you won t mind doing this for me Personal appeal 7 asking for favors based on personal relationships known each other a long time do it for me and my sake Pressure 7 demands threats if you don t come in you ll get a dock in pay Coalition 7 forming a group or multiple groups to back your idea or political thing a Which are most effective Consultation rational persuasion inspirational appeal b Which is least effective Pressure 12 What is the general dependency postulate The greater B s dependency on A the more power A has over B 13 From the textbook Are politics inevitable or nearly so in organizations Why or why not Politics are inevitable in organizations because if they are not there then nothing will get done 1 People have different goals and interests but are not willing to completely align e g 5 people vying for the same position in the company leads to con ict 2 Limited resources leads to con ict eg 4 corner offices 3 Very ambiguous as to what good performance is in a big organization 14 What is leadership The ability to in uence a group toward specific goals 15 List each of the Big 5 personality traits and indicate the strength of their relationship to leadership EXtraversion 7 Strongest Conscientiousness 7 still strong but not a key predictor Emotional Stability Openness 7 weak but related still Agreeableness 7 no relation a If your personally is different than the one that is most common for leaders does that mean you will never be a leader Why or why not No personality is only 25 of the leader formula thing 16 Describe the results of the Lewin Lippitt and White study Autocratic 7 don t really get a choice don t accomplish anything when the leader is not there Democratic 7 asks what they want to do and is the best at accomplishing things when the leader is not there Laissez faire absence of leadership the worst 17 Describe the Ohio State University of Michigan Studies What were the 2 key dimensions in these studies Which OSU term matches which UM term OSU initiating structure UM task organization Focus on is the work getting done OSU consideration UM social orientation Be sure people get along and feel good about what they are doing 18 What are contingency approaches to leadership Some leaders are better in certain situations 19 Describe Fiedler s Contingency Theory The leastpreferred coworker scale you can change the situation but you can t change the person a If someone scores high on the LPC measure what does that indicate about their leadership style Focus on social relationships rather than the task itself b In what situation is the high LPC leader more likely to be effective In a situation that has moderate to low favorability to the leader A low LPC leader does well in a very low or very high favorability 20 What is charisma A personal quality that gives individuals in uence or authority over a large group of people The power to inspire people KAMINSKI 7 the person has a lot of appeal to a lot ofpeople people are attracted to that person and view them as a hero and want to be around them 21 What is transactional leadership Use rewards and legitimate and coercive power Utilizing exchanges 22 What is transformational leadership What are its 4 components as traditionally de ned Inspire followers to transcend their own belief in themselves Charisma Individualized consideration 7 pays attention to individual followers within their inner circle Inspiring Intellectual stimulation 23 What are the 6 elements in Sashkin s summary of transformational leadership 1 vision 2 power 3 7 self confidence 4 7 communicating the vision 5 7 empowering others 6 7 caring consideration for others 24 Which is more effective transformational or transactional leadership Transformational real life 7transactional leadership still gets things done 25 Are women or men more likely to be transformational leaders Women are more likely than men to be transformational leaders 26 What are the risks and benefits to society of transformational leadership More effective Cults Jonestown grape drank mass suicide Political organizations 27 Wichleadershxp tneones suggest there is only one best wayto be aleader7 mversal tneones Personabty based benamna1 theory and Transformational leadershxp 28 Desenbe the leadennnennben exchange LMX theory Focus on worway relationships between management and subordmates subordmates ofnot pexformmg as well 29 Desenbe the 4 eonmetnesolutton styles plus compromise When is eaen style 7 appropriate High Compete Collaborate II U a C a 2 t a U7 II lt Low Accommodate Low High Cooperativeness High Compete Collaborate P o Accommodate Importance of outcome Low High lmgonance of relationshig 30 Descnbe dlsmbuuve andrhtegratrve bargammg strategres helps the salesman Integratrve e both sldes can be helpeol expand the ple a When oloes rtrhske sense to use mtegauve bargammg397 Have trust wrth the party you are bargammg wth Have trust lh the relatrohshrp Both sldes have to be sehsruve to the other slde theth solutroh 31 What are the steps lh the hegouauhg process7 Prepare Revlew the lssue ur oals Your oppoheht39 s goals ATNA rouhol Rules Clarlfl can or and Justlflcatlon B argammg closure REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR EXAM 2 ISS 210 Section 002 Work in Modern Society Spring 2012 Describe these properties of groups and respond to the statements in parentheses a Roles give an example A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit b Norms give an example Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group members Ex arrive class on time c Cohesiveness does it predict performance The degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in group High Cohesiveness high performance d Status What can a highstatus group member do that lowstatus members cannot A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others e Sizewhat size groups are most effective for what kind of task Smaller groups are faster at completing task than in larger ones but large groups get better marks in problem solving 2 There are 2 major theories about how groups develop over time a Describe the 5stage theory of group development Forming the first stage in group development characterized by much uncertainty Storming the second stage in group development characterized by intragroup con ict Norming the third stage in group development characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness Performing the fourth stage in group developments during which the group is fully functional Adjouming the nal stage in group development for temporary groups characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance b Describe the punctuated equilibrium model of group development What groups does it tend to apply to A set of phases that temporary groups go through that involves transitions between inertia and activity 3 What is groupthink How can it be prevented A phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action 4 What are the advantages and disadvantages of making decisions in groups vs individual decision making Group decision is more accurate but takes longer to make a decision Individual decision takes shorter time but not accurate a When is it best to use group decision making When there is large amount of time to decide something 5 What are these group process techniques a Brainstorming An idea generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives while withholding any criticism of these alternatives b Nominal group technique A group decisionmaking method in which individual members meet facetoface to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion 6 Describe each of these major experiments and their major ndings a Asch conformity b Milgram Most of people followed authority even though authority s decision cause harms to others obedience to authority c Stanford prison experiment Zimbardo Power of roles Deindividuation Analogy to military Abu Ghraib 7 What did the recent replication of the Milgram studies nd Recent people were not different 8 What is the definition of power A has power over B to the extent that A can get B to do something B would not otherwise do 9 De ne the bases of power in organizations and give an example of each Rewards compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable Coercion the application of direct threats or force on the resisters Legitimate the power a person receives as result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization Expert in uence based on special skills or knowledge Referent in uence based on identi cation with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits a Which bases of power are tied to the organizational role rather than the individual Legitimate power is tired to the organizational role b Which bases of power are connected to the individual rather than the organizational role Coercion power isconnected to the individual rather than the organizational role 10 What are appropriate and inappropriate uses of power Give an example of each Appropriation use of power using power to achieve a goal that can give positive effects for everyone Inappropriate use of power using power to bene t only fewpeople and harm others 11 What in uence tactics are used in organizations Give an example of each a Which are most effective Rational Consultation b Which is least effective Pressure 12 What is the general dependency postulate The greater B s dependency on A the more power A has over B 13 From the textbook Are politics inevitable or nearly so in organizations Why or why not Politics are inevitable in organization because it is ambiguous what good performance is 14 What is leadership The ability to in uence a group toward the achievement of a vision or a set of goals 15 List each of the Big 5 personality traits and indicate the strength of their relationship to leadership Strongest relationship EXtraversion Other key predictors Conscientiousness Emotional stability Weaker but still related 0 Openness to new experience No relationship Agreeableness a If your personally is different than the one that is most common for leaders does that mean you will never be a leader Why or why not No personality counts only 25 16 Describe the results of the Lewin Lippitt and White study Autocratic Democratic Laissezfaire 17 Describe the Ohio State University of Michigan Studies What were the 2 key dimensions in these studies Which OSU term matches which UM tenn Ohio State Univ of Michigan Consideration Employee social orientation 18 What are contingency approaches to leadership Developed because universal approaches had limited support Some approaches work in some settings 2 to focus on F iedler s Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness Vroom amp Yetton s Normative Model of Leadership Decision Making 19 Describe Fiedler s Contingency Theory The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and in uence to the leader a If someone scores high on the LPC measure what does that indicate about theirleadership style Focus on social relationship b In what situation is the high LPC leader more likely to be effective Moderate favorable situation 20 What is charisma Charisma is personal quality to in uence others 21 What is transactional leadership Exchange Rewards for effort achievement Guiding or motivating followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements 22 What is transformational leadership What are its 4 components as traditionally de ned Charisma Individualized consideration Inspirational motivating Intellectual stimulation Transformational leadership is more closely associated with overall longterm organizational performance 23 What are the 6 elements in Sashkin s summary of transformational leadership Self traits Others behaviors Vision Communicating the vision Power Empowering others Selfconfidence Caring consideration for others 24 Which is more effective transformational or transactional leadership Transformational is more effective leadership in long run 25 Are women or men more likely to be transformational leaders Women are more likely to be transformational leaders 26 What are the risks and benefits to society of transformational leadership Transformation leadership can support at various job levels and in disparate occupation but it is not equally effective in all situation 27 Which leadership theories suggest there is only one best way to be a leader Personality traits or individual differences theory Behavioral theories task v social and Transformational leadership suggests there is only one best way to be a leader 28 Describe the leadermember exchange LMX theory A theory that supports leaders creation of ingroups and outgroups subordinates with in group status will have higher performance ratings less turnover and greater job satisfaction 29 Describe the 4 con ict resolution styles plus compromise When is each style appropriate Competing when a person seeks to satisfy his or her own interest regardless of the impact on the other parties to the con ict it is competing When you place a bet that only one person can win or when outcome is important and relationship is not important competing style is appropriate Collaborating when a personattempt to nd a Winwin solution that allows both parties goals to be completely achieved it is collaborating When parties intend to solve a problem by clarifying differences or when outcome and relationship is important collaborating style is appropriate Avoiding When a person ignores con icts it is avoiding When one of parties is totally insane or outcome and relationship is not important avoiding is appropriate Accommodating When a person place the opponent s interests above his or her own it is accommodating When you need to support someone else s opinion despite your reservations or when relationship is important accommodating style is appropriate Compromising Ifthere is only willingness to ration the object of the con ict and accept a solution that provides incomplete satisfaction of both parties concerns it is compromising When intentions are not fixed compromising is appropriate 30 Describe distributive and integrative bargaining strategies Distributive bargaining strategy is conducting a negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources Integrative bargaining strategy is conducting a negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win win solution a When does it make sense to use integrative bargaining When parties are willing to be engaged for common works and goals it makes sense to use integrative bargaining 3 1 What are the steps in the negotiating process The steps in the negotiating process are preparation and planning definition of ground rules clarification and justification bargaining and problem solving and closure and implementation 32 What is BATNA BATNA is the best alternative to a negotiated agreement the least the individual should accept 33 What is a mediator What is an arbitrator How are they similar and how are they different A mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning persuasion and suggestions for alternatives An arbitrator is a third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement 188 210 Work in Modern Society Review for Exam 1 Spring 2012 1 What are the components of an attitude Using one attitude give an example of each component Affect Behavior Component 2 Do attitudes cause behavior Causally related to behavior later research concludes attitudes follow behavior 3 What is cognitive dissonance Give an example Cognitive dissonance incompatibility between two attitudes or an attitude or behavior Example woman that believes financially stable is important but dates a man who is financially unstable 4 What is job satisfaction Positive feeling about one s job resulting from an evaluation of it s characteristics Is it related to job performance Yes but weakly i Yes the better the job satisfaction the better the job performance the worse the job satisfaction the worse the job performance Directly correlated b Is it related to other outcome measures Yes job satisfaction is related to other outcome measures including but not limited to motivation to do work and how well the performance of the work is done These are also directly correlated i Organizational citizenship behavior 1 This is how well the employee behaves in the organization When the job satisfaction is high the organizational citizenship behavior tends to be high as well When low this should be low as well Directly correlated J ii Absenteeism 1 High job satisfaction low absenteeism 2 Low job satisfaction High absenteeism a inversely correlated iii Turnover 1 High job satisfaction low tumover 2 Low job satisfaction high turnover a inversely correlated c Besides the job itself what else might cause job satisfaction i Personality trait GENETICALLY DERIVED 5 Describe the job characteristics model Give an example of each of the 5 core job characteristics The 5 core job characteristics are skill variety task identity task significance autonomy and feedback Skill varitety how many different skills are required to complete the job Task identity cabinet maker actually makes the cabinets Task significance nurse helps determine people s well being IS SIGNIFICANT Autonomy salesperson who controls own schedule Feedback assembling iPods and testing them Skill variety and task identity ad significance gt experience meaningfulness of work Autonomy experience responsibility for work actions Feedback gt knowledge of actual results of work activities 6 What are 2 active responses to job dissatisfaction l voicing dissatisfaction 2leaving or exiting the job 7 What is job involvement Actively participating and how well you perform your job is related to your self esteen a Is it related to i Job performance Yes positively ii Organizational citizenship behavior Yes positively iii Absenteeism Yes negatively iv Turnover Yes negatively 8 What is empowerment Sense of control over the job a Is it related to i Job performance Yes positively ii Organizational citizenship behavior Yes positively iii Absenteeism Yes negatively iv Turnover Yes negatively 9 What is organizational commitment Being loyal wanting them to do well continue to survive and thrive and a Is it related to i Job performance Weak Yes positively ii Organizational citizenship behavior NO RELATIONSHIP iii Absenteeism Yes negatively iv Turnover Yes negatively lOWhat is perceived organizational support The degree to which an employee s believe an organization values their contribution and cares about their wellbeing a Is it related to i Job performance Positively but weakly ii Organizational citizenship behavior positively iii Absenteeism No relationships iv Turnover No relationship llAre human beings rational like computers Not entirely be somewhat rational but have emotional components that aren t rational 12What is bounded rationality A simplified version something something something l3What is selective perception Give an example Where you pay attention to certain things more than others Remember faces better than names l4What is a stereotype Give an example Set of expectations and beliefs associated with certain personality traits Ex Old people can t drive 15What is the halo effect one trait about the person affects your perception about another trait of that person ex They are courteous so you think they are nice and other things too l6What is the selffulfilling prophecy Give an example A prediction that directly or indirectly comes true due to the nature of the prophecy Ex Keep saying you ll fail a test you Will l7What does this equation mean B fps Behavior is a function of the person and the situation 18What is an attribution An attribution is a way to understand or explain someone s behavior determined by external factors a What factor do we consider when making attributions about other people s behavior i Distinct do it often and a lot ii Consistent do it over time iii Consensus does everyone else do it 19What is the fundamental attribution error Give an example The mdamenlal quot factors when making judgments about the behavior of others Ex Argument with friend attribute his behavior to internal ie he s a jerk andyour behavior is attributed to external factors ie you re stressed out a Who makes the fundamental attribution error Everyone Everyone 20What is selfserving bias Give an example Own failure external cau Own success internal cause Fail a test the test was hard Pass a testI m so smart and studied hard 21 List the steps in the rational decision making process Select the best alternative 22De ne the 2 decision making processes listed below They are both less than fullyrational Are they still useful Why or why not a Satisficing Picking the first good option without waiting for the rest of them to be shown b Intuition Decision is made out of consciousness based on past situations It takes a long time to make the rational decision model for everything so satisficing makes things easier and faster for certain decisions For important ones be more careful The same for intuition based on experience it s usually the right decision because of dejavulike feelings 23Define each of these common biases in decision making and give an example of each a Overconfidence bias Predicting future behavior because you think you ll be right more confident in your belief than is rational Place a sports bet and lose b Anchoring bias Tendency to fixate on initial information from which you fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information Fixate on a number for a car sale miss other important info c Confirmation bias People say information that reaffirms past choices Seek out information from the media that confirms your bias but ignore other evidence that challenges your belief ie religious freaks d Escalation of commitment Making a decision that doesn t work out but you stick with it and it s probably a bad idea anyways Keeping a junker of a car that always needs work done on it but you should probably get another one e Risk aversion Going with the decision even if there s a bigger decision that might have more risks Ex 100 chance of 50 50 chance on a coin ip for 100 Risk averters take the 50 24What are the Big 5 personality traits Define each of them OCEAN CANOE Openness to experience more open to working with others that have more experience willing to try new things opposite is CONSERVATIVE Conscientiousness doing what you ll say you ll do opposite is a liar Extraversion outgoing opposite is introverted Agreeableness Cooperative ie oh yeah whatever u want Neuroticism opposite of easygoing and calm a Are the Big 5 supported by research evidence Yes b To what extent are personality traits inherited Choice environment and genetics Genetics is 50 25Describe the MyersBriggs Type Indicator include the 4 scales Extraversion Introversion how you act in situations Sensing lntuiton how do you take care of info from the environment ie intuition is the big picture Thinking Feeling Judging Perceiving a Is the MyersBriggs model supported by research evidence Nope not useful in research 26What is core selfevaluation Positive image of themselves and feel that they are a good person 27What is Machiavellianism Don t really have morals the end justifies the means 28What is selfmonitoring Always paying close attention to how others perceive you EX Draw a Q on ur hed 29Which personality variables are related to job performance Conscientiousness selfmonitoring intelligence 30EXplain the concept of Bright and Dark traits and Bright and Dark sides to each trait Give an example Conscientiousness Agreeableness friendly altruistic Dark traits Conscientrousness Agreeableness avoid making hard decisions 31Why do we have informed consent procedures in organizational research To avoid abuse of the people participating in studies because there has been a history of abuse 32What is the difference between a study and an experiment Experiments have variables that you can control A study 33What is a positive correlation Give an example Relationship in which both increase and decrease at the same time Baseball RBI high pay high 34What is a negative correlation Give an example Relationship in which one increases while the other decreases Baseball vs golf vs Pay Golf score low pay high 35Does a correlation mean that one thing causes another Nope correlation does not imply causality 36Identify the 4 current generations in the workforce and about when they were born For each generation list two or three major events or developments that shaped their workplace values one or two defining workrelated characteristics of each generation a U Traditionalists hardworking and conservative WWII generation born during Great Depression after W W Baby boomers ambition dislike of authority during hippie times born after WWII
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