Society and the Individual (D)
Society and the Individual (D) ISS 210
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9913 I88 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Tuesday September 10 2013 Strict Churches Church of Jesus Christ of LatterDay Saints Mormons Unpaid work for church o Tithing Dietary restrictions Chastity laws 0 Mission trip Dress Strict Churches Orthodox Judaism Style of dress N o inte r m a rri age 39 L matrix J39E39EJ 7 ms rain am pm quot Wanint 91711315quot 11s 791713 1713397 L a n g U a ge new anquot 1353 715quot Sm 71551 1m I39w39mmsw we is 39139th roan mm gt 1 51quot 351 mm mm mm n ms 177 I quotnn39iaasmytnznxuvms Segregation is rue1131 n m39mn 5m 13 5 sm 11 I I I innerv 7311315 a39 r1er 39iyzi Life o n g re gi o u s stu d y o Dietary restrictions I n 1353 39immx vanm prom2 7 1 Wanna man 5 my Taym v xnm nahm 5x1 umim 1 yn mm x51 Mammary l Strict Churches Watchtower Society Jehovah s Witnesses Doortodoor preaching Rejection of military service and flag salute Reject blood transfusions No celebrations o Segregation Shunning Commonalities Among Strict Churches o Exclusive truth Comprehensive doctrine Adherence to distinctive faith morality lifestyle Condemn deviance Embrace eccentric traits Rational Choice Individuals weigh the costs and benefits of actions and take the ones that have the most benefit at the lowest cost Applied to religion 9913 Why do strict churches survive Commitment Group Ties Competition Freerider problem When the members of a group receive benefits in proportion to their collective not individual effort How to reduce it Penalize or prohibit activit es that compete for members resources 4G IMormon lReform E 35 lAssem D lJWitness z lNaz a 8 30 lQuaker D lAdvent 3 IMoLuth q lCatholic g 25 39AmBapt lSoBapt m lDisc 390 lEvLuth 5 t 20 lPres if 39UCClMeth g lEpis C o 154 lUnitarian 10 l l i f 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Distinctiveness FIG 1 Attendance versus distinctiveness 9913 Number of NonChurch Memberships 3 lUnitarian 25 2 39UCC IEpIS Pres IQuaker IEvLuth 39MDLUth IMormon 1 5 MethIDisc 39 ICatholic IReform ISoBapt 1 IAmBapt INaz 0 5 IAssem IAdvent IJWitness 0 I I I I 1 2 3 4 5 6 Distinctiveness FIG 2 N0nchurch memberships quotStrongquot members percent 075 07 IMormon 065 0 64 IReform IJWitness 39 IQuaker Assent IAdvent 055 0 5 IAmBapt IDisc IMoLuth 39 Na 0 45quot I SoBapt t I EvLuth 0 43 IUnItarIan Cathonc 035 lll39UCC IEpis I Pres 03 I Meth 025 I I I I I 2 3 4 5 6 Distinctiveness FIG 3 Strength of af liation Annual Income thousands 45 I Unitarian 40 I UCC I Epis IPres 35 IMoLuth I EvLuth nMeth ICathohc Quaker INaz IMormon 30A IReform ISoBapt IAdvent IDisc IAssem IJWitness 25 IAmBapt 2G I I 1 a 2t 5 6 Disti nctiveness FIG 4 Inc0me versus distinctiveness 9913 Limits to Strictness Wnen c051 of participation outweigh tne benefits A Too much sacri ce Cannot provide substitutes 5 Minute Break How to Measure Religiosity Pubiic Opinion surveys 9913 Anm i am r us ShivIVS n wwwmeamamm inr 395 Cuxidizu rim Sty um ine Sum mimal mm m Nun am mm angian Sialli lrs am am 7 Mon i us Survevg i MidimausturUnmrsitv mm v Arumr TimGUY Atllludes L Aim momi issues N u r About mhgmn and games About God Aboui rehmnnsgirimamy About heavenenum About the aeranormai Pollllcs Sn ia weirare s i Piirss ROOM was damn We ran ms Hum dedimn Religious affilla Innidenll Icaticrn S k Ema Hm nmnguu mnemmamai affihat nn ReH mus tr 3 amumr srrengm araf hatmn rssmmreesr es Lam sumlamm Religious behaviors new We Merriam Religious experiences met n Has resnandunLMad a ham anew axuerienm Has resnemenr mienu a mirazu nus Mammy uai39manzn er ume n wwwmeamamm H Luigiquot mimu Qimmd m Nun Ammr Frequency of prayer g in sra 7 uc Simon remain in surmamsksm i iii a S i 15 rmamm Frequency of prayer mew nir wri I rm w a E I mm m iw g rw M i s x I mm mm Lem 5lt r a m Sumavmm39m err Ar 7 I we r r A i r I WW new I my w i m r 32 Results wergmedby WTCUMBNR We mm 1990 i emmJuanJsuezzweir I1 i972 v W i951 ruszarnh i39epHratng 2 in swear awe amisqu Fuemsmn wwwmeamuom m r e unsurewun Qimmd rmNcn Cuxidizu Theifjtchws m use rm n7 7 2 qu m mllir mm ON RklIhION Asgmia un uf Religion Dara Ardrwes Mam Mil us CnllgrEga anal y izehgmv naie m4 We lncsukmmml MidimauslmrHmwrs tv mm v Ammr a LULSml S i L Ham Annular Mun Tunl in an Bank i can u sm kill mm c Amman 51310 Data mm Mmbmhm menammaimns Quicksiais Q 1 Re ous service attendance 5 leiilmu39 cum 1 Intraductmn 1 Religious service anemianee Quickstals gt u s urcvs gt HEM ees amrm gt sum Quirksus 2 i 1 r v m5 mm IMW mm 7 chzH39zim M 5 7 r o 7 s g e n w s H g sir m4 at L n m 4n i J arsmwms 5 4 e i e e v MM 4 w 7 Results weighted by WTEOMBNR E1 Nukes 9913 Puss RDDM mmm En sums c gt4 WW av m a e x mm rm at when Wam Names in wwwmeammm v mm 5 mums mnugamammwemy man mu Amaxcn m m mm m in Num AhumthARDA Tnnll Q a mucunmu mm w mm W Km 5 m no any Asiodallun or Rel glon um Avduves mm Sum in n Erna Inna quot5 cumjmga39k na unnmma Ions m a m IS 5 Archive I l l I Numbersmn D Q k5 5 0 H S Mips View of the BI Ie gmme gt u SM e 5st we gt eemsmmm me gt sunrcnqmrksu ram murmude hwm vu 39 w 39 en View of the Bible 7 a v mew arme Bible Generalsoualswvsy 2am CmssSmmn and Panel Cambium WWW A V A e Wu vsr nu 539 e a Hmm wl m M qu m mm u a y A Hm mmmmnm Mm memm I n m Wm m l m aruwn Results weighted by WTCOMBNR Nukes A Mess wow u m mmumm e mmvmvw c7 inmunmw Lnndwmm dgmn i39nz N39an szx ymts us swevs 37 wwwxheardimm v LinamWUmqumum rnemwmmmzs mm mm mgan u 4mm T m Arum hm 3mg us 5mm e mums mnugamammwemy man mu Amaxcn ms m v5 SunEv Attitudes Pol mm narzv msnh ra un Shawn me death uenaltv he enaugmo Hm 1asvasnanauntnaa a Dam in Ex nda mm enenca w s a umng mm Iran m num emsmr awed e nnran uugha m 7 pmmmmhammmmmme quotI39denl In H quotunzkmamtanuues Rellgious affillaf Ecnnmmauanu amhaunn Rehgmus grererzn e Rehnmu Dadman Inn m nfaf Hannn Religious behaviors vananHzmu mm Ev Fm HEM af raver mam Saved we Rem mus w arts 1 Rchumus serwm annnaanrc a Due 12 Puss RDDM xzn ammm Qsmmmvi JEVE EIKE mums n ASS an m m w qwn 0m Ardeis 1 wmvmeamaxam u v IJmmqVv n ivgvmmvl mmva m Cirrlnu msuwmw mausmmmm M nnqmil39v hmvuxh man mu mnmn m A M H r L M mmmmnnrnlq n humournu Lu my 4 muN Rlll 0 Kuhn no Assnumion amen an Dam Avcluves Mam Sew um us Cnngvngatmnal mquot E lnumannnil Mm th Dummlnalmlls Quickslaks QnKkLlsts Religious pmference omzksms gt v3 mm gt RehcmusAffmaumliamm zalmn gt scarce mucus r w Cm Inuudumnn V mum Rel 9 ans preference mm 1 h m rehgmn Cnmmned mm m Results weighted by WTCOMBNR Nukes A 9913 SSZlOiTHENDHHDUAL ANDSOCETY Thursday September 5 2013 How do you identify yourself SegtltSegtltuaiity MaieFemaieTrahsgehderHetero exuai EthnicityRace Asiah Chihese Mexican Latino AfricahrAmericah Poiish etc Profession Studeht Bank worker Lawyer etc Location Michigahder American Caiiforhiah etc Hobbies Athiete Chess piayer Gambier etc Other7 What is your religious identity v Christiah7 Cathoiic7 Pehtecostai7 v Buddhist7 Agnostic7 Atheist7 Other7 None 9413 9413 liiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii De r ngldent y Which of your identities is primary Secondary lIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII lden es Collectiveexpressive Involuntary Overlaps with other dent ties Individualexpressive Voluntary Independent of other social t es Involvement in Secondary Groups High Low quotCollective 0 Expressivequot HI h g g involuntary amp E immutable E E quotIndividual E L Expressivequot g OW transient amp E changeable Q Fusion of Identities Ethnicraciai and reiigious identities can be cioseiy reia ed but can vary in strength and meaning r Exampie insn Cathoi csProtestants intermarriage E xarnpie Koreans in Hawaii versus L05 Angeies Findings from Religion Research Stronger ethnic ties 9 remain in reiigion of ethnic group ore secondary organizationai commitments 9 higher reiigious invoivemen Where ethnicity is more important 9 higher reiigious invoivement v Evangeiicaiism in American South coiiectiver expressive pattern of reiigious identity Afri canAmen can Atheists is this a new phenomenon Exampies of merging of raciai and ethnic identity7 How does this affect indiViduais 9413 9413 5 Minute Break Politically Relevant Identity Groupings 1 Primordialism Instrumentalism Constructivism Primordialism Religious identity relevant today because it was yester ay Conflicts last for generations 9413 lnstrumentalism Political entrepreneurs When used Crisis and transition Example Yugoslav wars Constructivism Creating new identity by altering an old one Example fundamentalism Roger Christie s THC Ministry 102813 I88 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Tuesday October 29 2013 Religious Freedom and Persecution in MuslimMajority Countries Why Single out MuslimMajority Countries Violent religious persecution is present in 100 of Muslim majority countries compared to 78 of Christian countries and 86 of other majority countries 62 of Muslim majority countries have moderate to high levels of persecution compared to 28 of Christianmajority countries and 60 of other countries 102813 Ethnic Conflict is not the Answer Persecution in Muslimmajority countries is less often associated with ethnic conflict and more often associated with such things as the vision that differing religious groups have for their society p 177 Muslim Countries are Diverse 80 f 75 60 J 40 39 20 39 0 None Low lt200 ModerateHigh Very High gt1000 2001000 Cl SubSaharan Africa Asia amp Eurasia 5 Near East amp North Africa FIGURE 67 Religious persecution in Muslim majority countries countries with populations greater than 2 million 102813 Armed Conflict and Civil War Armed conflict does occur more often in Muslim majority countries than in Christianmajority ones but it alone does not help to explain why Muslim majority countries have higher levels of persecution Clash of Civilizations Even though a higher percentage of majority Muslim countries are found on civilizational fault lines when holding other factors constant being located on a fault line is not a cause of persecution 102813 Shari a Law Dar allslam versus Dar alHarb Apostasy Toleration of minorities and People of the Bookquot Colonialism Persecution is a result of struggles within countries about the role that religion should play in society Wahhabi school of Islam Pakistan Red Mosque incident of 2007 o Conservative versus more tolerant versions of Islam 102813 5minute Break Do Religious Freedoms Matter Denying religious freedom 9 physical abuse and displacement of individuals based on religi Religious persecution often occurs alongside other orms of social conflict Religious freedom is part of a bundled commodityquot of human freedoms 92413 I88 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Tuesday September 24 2013 Midterm 1 is on Thursday 926 Come to this classroom during the regular class hours Bring a 2 pencil Egtltam format multiple choice and truefalse 92413 Surveys of American Religiosity General Social Survey 1972present Gallup Organization Pew Faith Matters Survey 200607 Robert Putnam and David Campbell Religiosity Index How frequently do you attend religious services How frequently do you pray outside of religious services 3 How important is religion in your daily life How important is your religion to your sense of who you are Are you a strong believer in your religion How strong is your belief in God I J L71 03 92413 The God Gap Political differences of people at different levels of religiosity THE quotGOD GAPquot STRENGTH OF RELIEIOSITY PREDICTS PARTY IDENTlFICAT 0 mm standard demograplik characteristic held constant mm I Repuhiim 90 Demum 70 independent Religiosity quimiles 92413 THE LINK BETWEEN RELIGIOUS ATTENDANCEAND PARTY whites only with standard demographic characteristics held constant 035 02 Correlation 0 395 ween religion 0 I attendance and Republican Party idend mxion Q05 0 I950 1955 mm l96 mu 975 1930 was i99n 1995 mm was 10w Coalition of the Religious Churchattending people find common cause politically Issues abortion amp samesex unions moral traditionalismquot 92413 For 4 L A 391 39 NO ABORTION OR ONLY IN CASES OF NO SAMESEX MARRIAGE RAPE was on WHEN THE on CIVIL UNIONS MOTHER39S LIFE IS AT RISK 73 47 W W W Low High Lo Religiosily quinlilzs Renglos39ny qumiles Finn II 5 39 4 39 39 39 Mm Struneg Cnnnected tn RzplIhlican Party Identi catinn whites nnlywi111 Standard amngrapmc characteristicsth cnnslznt a 575 I ABORTION I a 2 Correlation M HOMOSEXUAIJTY Republican my identifimtion I971 975 1930 was mu M795 1000 2005 20m Same General Sncial Suxvey 92413 Figure 1111 Americans an11 Ages Have Became Mare Accepting nf Samesiex Marriage but YnungPenple Must anll 60 Burn before 50 I946 Preheomerx Peraeur who a 40 gree rhar Bum between homosexuals I946 mud WAS should be Baby boomers aiiawed a 30 quot 39 7 7 marry 20 Bum between 1966 and I990 Pusxrhuomers m iIL 0 7 999 1004 1006 1008 Salute General Sncizl Survey Figure 121 Pnliticzl Activity at Church IsRelztively Rare and Varies AerussReligjuus Tradiuuus 0 was 2094 31m 41m sax am 70 m sax max Cami 5 7 f congreganon Mzi nlin Pmeruur Have social or puhtical sermons murth or me Emgeiaeai Pmeruur Ever hav voter mark regIsUaKinn Pmeruur or your gamer lewish Ever evganrze mzrchei Menan Other him I Source Faiui IVIattErs Survey 2005 Figure 123 Pnlitical Mnhililztinn IsLezst Cnmmnn Thrmlgh Church Have you ever been urged by someone you know 0 vote a certain way lfm how did you know that pemunl Percent of the this channel 9e Friends Famin Neighbnrs Wark china SaumeFaiLh1VIaners Survey 2005 Where are Americans Getting Ideas About How to Vote Church sermons Church selection Social networks 92413 92413 5 Minute Break Religjnsity Predicts Bath Secular and Religjnus anumeering Figure 13 m 401 VDIunteered Ill last 1 months for seKuL39Ir or rEILgIous orgamzatlon Low my Rdlgmslty qumuluy Same Faith Matters Survey1006 92413 Figure 13 Rdigjosity Encourages Giving as aPercaJt ofIncome 7X new gmquot 5x 1 car rellgnux causes 5 Giving as 4 muons giving percent of a nonrdlynus annuzl 3 7 must imaczd Income 2 Nunrelweus 5quotquot m 7 7 W ox lnw High Rummy quinhlexy Smart Faith Matters Survey 1006 RFmRMrRmIP 24 HX a Law High Law Hy Religiusity quimiles Rellgloslzy qulndles wanna m mm w my an High Law Hag Religiosity quinnles Religmsity qulmllex ATTENDED ANY PUEIJC MEFI39ING VOTE MOHIALL LOCAL ELECI39IONS Law H Law H39 Religiosiny quinnles z Religiosily quimiles quot3h 92413 Correlation does not prove causation Statistical controls Other factors that aren39t being measured Multiple surveys of the same people Causal mechanisms pathways Causal Mechanism Beliefs amp Values 1 Religious teachings the Golden Rule 92413 Figure 135 Religjnns PenpleExpress Mm Amman Values alter hemselves and no overly see happenl39 always worry about othersquot agree x 159 75 Law High Low Hig Religiusiq quincilu Rummy quinrjlesl Source Faith llIatters Survey1006 Causal Mechanism Beliefs amp Values 1 Religious teachings the Golden Rule 2 Trust 11 Figure 13 Sncial Trust Increaseswith Religinus Attendance hutDeereaseswith Fundamentalism Hug mu mud 339 e le Amer wzekly Law mm Low Medium my Theologlml Fundamennhsm Salute Faith lVIattErs Survey 2005 Figure 137 Sncial Trust and Gail s Nature 70 50 r r quotMeir People 50 43x can be m trusre is agree amt quot 2m 1quot It Never ox Raer v uhzn Same 39mes quot7 50mm quot How ofren do Ram y N Vzry often you leei God39s V judgment How a en do you eel God39s lave Source Faith Matters Survey 2006 92413 12 92413 Causal Mechanism Beliefs amp Values 1 Religious teachings the Golden Rule 2 Trust 3 Tolerance Causal Mechanism Social Networks Index of religious social networks number of close friends in congregation participation in small groups in congregation frequency of talking about religion with family and friends devout people who sit alone in the pews are not much more neighborly than people who don t go to church at all The real impact of religiosity on niceness or good neighborliness it seems comes through chatting with friends after service or joining a Bible study group not from listening to the sermon or fervently believing in Godlt is religious belonging that matters for neighborliness not religious believingquot p 47273 91113 I88 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Thursday September 12 2013 Democratic Values Francis Fukuyama and the End of Historyquot Have a large majority of people embraced liberal democracy Did the end of historyquot end on 911 Islam and democratic values Arab countries Central Asia 91113 Why Islam 1 Until recently we did not know much about Islam Specialists on religion not interested in social scientific questions social scientists scared away by shortage of data Religion is a touchy topic What we do know about Islam has been inadequate Insufficient evidence Bias 0 What Can Social Scientists Do Improve data Present honest findings Be honest of shortcomings 91113 Arab Countries The Present Day Middle East and North Africa 0 Capitol 200 400 500 800 1000 Mlle 200 400 600 m Kllunm Central Asia The Caucasus and Central Asia snzsssu 0055 100 91113 Support for Democracy a More than 80 percent of people around the world think of democracy positively No Arab country in 2010 was considered to be a democracy but support for democracy was high Between 83 and 96 agree democracy is a good form of government What Support for Democracy Means FIGURE SUPPORT FOR DEMOCRACY SECONDWAVE RESULTS man mlllld be xoml I HAung a lrmuuuus sph m hi my 2mm 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 70 7 7 7 5W 7 7 7 7 7 30 7 7 7 7 7 xvir7 7 7 7 7 107 7 7 7 7 All Jonlnn Lebanon mlenme Yemen Emu Tums All represents an average calculated m1 appplesl sample nrrespnnslents r pm AlgerraJnr slan Lebannn Palestlne and Yemen the ve cpuntrres mclnded m bnth waves lt shwuld be plesl that the number at espnnslents dxffers between these ve cwunmes Note Sample slzes vary by cnuntry as fulluws A117 6191A1gena 712201nrs1an 711 23 Lebannn 7 1 192 Palestme 71200 Yemen7 1200 Egypt 712191hmsla 71196 91113 What Support for Democracy Means TARLE l RELICIOUS OBSERVANCE AND S P ORT EOR DEMOCRACY PERCENTAGE in Kazakhstan December 2001 and 1964 interviews in Kyrgyzstan between 16 October and 27 November 2001 Alternatives to Democracy TABLE 2 RELIG10US OBSERVANCE AND S RT EOR DICTATORSHJP PERC quotWe could live better if the parliament would be waukl be abolished and a 91113 5 Minute Break Recitation of verses of the Qu39ran I Dhikr a Sufi ceremony Fayoum AlAteuf near Ghardala Algeria Oasis Egypt What Does Democracy Mean Free elections Freedom of speech Political equality Low economic equality Basic necessities for all Eliminating corruption Freedom amp Equality US Declaration of Independence We hold these truths to be self evident that all men are created equal that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life Liberty and the pursuit ofHappiness United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights All human beings are bornfree and equal in dignity and rights Democratic Political Culture Interpersonal trust Political interests Involvement in community and civic organizations Tolerance of others 91113 I88 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Thursday October 17 2013 Religious Persecution The 2013 Meet and Greet Friday October 18 noon to 1pm International Center room 303 For Muslim Studies students faculty staff and alumni Luncli will be provided Meet Muslim Studies faculty representing various disciplines ross the universityiregional studies languages social sciences arts an humanities medicine eng neenn communication arts and more Find out how theirfield ofstudy pertains to Muslim Studies Meet students interested in Muslim Studies learn about the new Muslim Studies Suident Organimu39ou Meet Muslim uii it help them Meet our MSULibrarian assigned to Muslim Studies and the Middle East and other MSU Sta involved in work related to Muslim Studies 101713 101713 Questions How does denying religious freedom contribute to increased violent religious persecution Religious pluralism9conflict 7 Regulations that try to impose religious uniformity 9 conflict 77 Clash of Civilizations 200 cases per country 1200 cases per country 0 cases Civilizational Divides and Persecution I Ilnternal Divide 10 1 Border Divide 63 1 END Divide 69 Number of countries in parentheses 20 40 60 80 FIGURE 31 Civilization Divides Compared wit7 Religious Persecution Persecution Where One Religion Dominates l I 200 cases per 33 39 count 39 l W 20 I l l 39 39 39 Dominance by One Religion 1 l 1200 cases per 2800 39 39 I country 2600 II I El Multiple or No Dominant I I I Religion 76 I l l Number of countries in 40 parentheses 0 cases I 55 I I l I l I 0 20 40 60 FIGURE 32 One Religion Dominant Compared with Religious Persecution 101713 101713 Rational Choice Perspective From Gill based on the idea of religious groups competing in a marketplace Ensuring universal religious freedom defuses the potential volatility of religious plurality HypothesesPropositions Insight 1 to the extent that a religious group achieves a monopoly and holds access to the temporal power and privileges of the state the everpresent temptation is to persecute religious competitors openly Insight 2 to the extent that religious freedoms are granted to all religions the state will have less authority and incentive to persecute religion Hypothesis 1 to the extent that governments deny religious freedoms physical religious persecution and conflict Will increase Hypothesis 2 to the extent that social forces deny religious freedoms physical persecution Will increase 101713 Religious Freedom Neutral izes Social Pressures Leading to Persecution when religious freedoms are protected vigilante policing actionsquot of religious and social movements are less tolerated when religious freedoms are protected social and religious movements are unable to convince the state to take action against religious minorities when religious freedoms are protected religious minorities have fewer grievances and are less likely to protest against the actions of the state 5Minute Break 101713 Alternative Religious Explanations Economies Model FIGURE 33 Alternative Explanations Compared with the Religious Economies Model Government Restriction of Religion Does the government interfere with an individual s right to worship Does the government restrict missionaries Does the government restrict proselytizing public preaching or conversion Does the government limit religious freedom or respect it 101713 Social Restriction of Religion Are societal attitudes toward religion negative or mostly tolerant Are societal attitudes toward conversions tense Do societal attitudes or clerical edicts discourage proselytizing Do established or existing religions try to shut out other religions Are there religious social movements seeking power over other religions l Findings SOCIaI Restrictions miner nmel n Rest l i3 92913 I88 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Tuesday October 1 2013 Models of ReligionState Relations ReligionState vs ReligionPolitics While religion is often an ally in the pursuit of power once power has been secured religion can become an unwelcome constraint in the quite different processes of state administrationquot Demerath and Straight 1997 p 44 92913 Models 1 Religious State and Religious Politics 2 Secular State and Secular Politics 3 Religious State and Secular Politics 4 Secular State and Religious Politics Politics Religious Secular Brazil Pakistan Guatemala Religious Thailand Israel Northern IndoneSIa 1 Ireland N 5 India United Germany Secular States Egypt France England Poland Turkey China 92913 1 Religious State and Religious Politics Religious State State has an official religion State closely associated with a religion Religious Politics People organize themselves along religious lines People make claims to the state based on religion High potential for violence Politics Religious Secular Pakistan Religious Thailand Indonesia 3 India United Germany Secular States Egypt France England Poland Turkey China 92913 1 Religious State and Religious Politics Example Israel Religious State Homeland for Jewish eople Religious law amp courts 39 Right of Return Religious Politics Religious political parties 2 Secular State and Secular Politics Secular State A No official relationship between religion and the state Secular Politics A Religion is nota meaningful lelSlOi39i for political organization Leans toward vacuity Politics Religious Secular Brazil Guatemala Pakistan Religious Israel Northern Thailand Ireland Indonesia 3 India United Secular States Egypt Poland 2 Secular State and Secular Politics Example France Secular State o Lai39cite39 Secuar Politics o Highly secularized population But also recent Muslim immigration Burqa Law 2011 92913 3 Religious State and Secular Politics Religious State 1 Religiousness of the state is an empty symbol 2 Religion is tied to the state so the state can control it 3 State constructs its own religion Secular Politics 39 Religion is not a meaningful division for political organization Religious politics banned because it may cause conflict Attempt to frustrate the political mobilization of a genuine religious alternative Ix A Politics Religious Secular Brazil Guatemala Religious Israel Northern Ireland 3 g India United Germany Secular States Egypt France England Poland Turkey China 92913 92913 3 Religious State and Secular Politics Example Indonesia Religious State Pancasila MW MD quot emu N M rimmmmuw cm 4411 39 39 mailman 5quot5391quot P lumnls HI LJh Secular Politics I saw rm Preventing religious groups from organizing 7 SW new g politically gutting mu m Mmhol mdn fun 5 W mm mm gum mm 4 Secular State and Religious Politics Secular State Strict separation of religion and the state Religious Politics Religious interests can be represented politically without undue influence or privilege 9313 I88 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Tuesday September 3 2013 Religion and Politics Historically Political leaders as gods Separation of political and religious author y Priests support politicians and vice versa If Religion and Politics Today 0 Some states support official religions Wars are still fought over religion Religious clergy try to influence political decisions Who Studies Religion and How Theologians Philosophers Social Scientis s r Sociologists soc al behavior v Political Sc e tlSE political behav or Religious truths and scientific obectivity Definitions of Religion 1 1 a system of symbols which acts to 2 establish powerful persuasive and long as ing moods and motivations in men by 3 formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and 4 clothing these conceptions vvith such an aura of factuality that 5 the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic Clifford Geertz Anthropologist Definitions of Religion 2 Religion is a set of coherent ansvvers to the core existential questions that confront every human group the codification of these ansvvers into a creedal form that has significance for its adherents the celebration of rites vv ich provi e an emotional bond or those who participate and the establishment of an institutional body to bring into congregation those who share the creed and ce e ra ion and provide for the continuity of these rights from generation to generation Daniel Bell Sociologist 9313 9313 Definitions of Religion 3 Religion seeks to understand the origins and nature of reality using a set of answers that include the supernatural Religion is also a social phenomenon and institution that influences the behavior of human beings both as individuals and in groups These influences on behavior manifest themselves through the influences of religious identity religious institutions religious legitimacy religious beliefs and the codification of these beliefs into authoritative dogma among other avenues of influence Jonathan Fox Political Scientist 5 Minute Break Secularization Theory As the world becomes more modern religion will decline and eventually die out 9313 Questions for Discussion How much influence do you think religion has on public life Do you see this influence increasing or decreasing in your recent experience Friedrich Nietzsche God is deadquot Sigmund Freud Religion is comparable to a childhood neurosisquot 9313 Karl Marx Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature the heart of a heartless world and the soul of soulless conditions It is the opium of the people Modernization Theory Urbanization Literacy amp Education Science amp Technology Rationalism Competing Political Ideologies Prosperity Mobility Three Versions of Secularization Theory 1 Demandside Supplyside 3 ExistentialSecurity Demandside Theory Ratwonahsrn r EnT ghtenmenmw 18m century Europe r Max Weber Functwonahsrn Ern e Durkhewm Failure of DemandSide Theories Rehgon TS dynamwc SecuTar pohtxcs faned Masses are more reTeyant End of the 0on War Rehgwon never went away Supplyside Theory Demand for rehgwon stays constant Cornpetton Tn a rnar etpTace Regu atxons and subsxdwes 9313 Existential Security Thesis Demandrside theory Leyei of deyeiopmerit m a society matters 9313 Begunquot Denmzik rim Gian m m z i i rm 3 w m Dziuivimn mumquot may mu m an mm mmwm WW anquot m Emmy m ammm migiuussewm at MW we 2mm mm m mm new we mum mmmvmmmm w Netheihnd Nouhem mum 5m A xe 2 in Frequelxy olwayel Eastern Praresranr 30 40 Emmmk nequainy Figure7 w as wemmmwmyMamwimmmwmwmam yawn Maigmmigmigge w 2 WWW Wham mu hnomrimquzny mm mm m w4mmmmm WW wiamw m Reiyim5urure Ramntamaii g y wwqimn w H mm W mum um mnumzmekm mm mbxwuz mm Wigwam mm imamme gig wwcmm 2 9313 Existential Security Thesis Demandrside theory Leyei of deyeiopmerit m a society matters There can be Withinrcountry variation iri ieyeis of secuiarization regionmwmm Permmmp puimmn tweimmmme gym kig w w m M mints mmmmwut WWW m m m Rigquot wwwwxiwma mmgwkmw i my H mm mmummwtwmam Mm WWW mm M WWW My my Pekem ol populallon y a 4 a t 97quot 57 level olllxome rgm mng mummy UK We permnugmme meian pimzwmwmiym m regird m gm my mm W it minim mm gmipimmmgzi w a Mm minim mmwmmmamm Woiidvhiuessumly was My man I88 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Tuesday October 15 2013 Religious Persecution The 2013 Meet and Greet Friday October 18 noon to 1pm International Center room 303 For Muslim Studies students faculty staff and alumni Luncli will be provided Meet Muslim Studies faculty representing various disciplines ross the universityiregional studies languages social sciences arts an humanities medicine eng neenn communication arts and more Find out how theirfield ofstudy pertains to Muslim Studies Meet students interested in Muslim Studies learn about the new Muslim Studies Suident Organimu39ou Meet Muslim uii it help them Meet our MSULibrarian assigned to Muslim Studies and the Middle East and other MSU Sta involved in work related to Muslim Studies 101413 101413 ReligionState Relations in the US Thomas Jefferson and James Madison on why the US did not need to establish religion First Amendment to the Constitution Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 Article 18 Everyone has the right to freedom of thought conscience and religion this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom either alone or in community with others and in public or private to manifest his religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance quot 101413 Religious Freedom United Nations Freedom to choose one39s religious beliefs 39 Freedom to change one39s religious beliefs Freedom to practice religion and worship in public or private individually and with others Freedom to teach religion in public or private Freedom to observe the law39s of one39s religion in public or private 39 Freedom to proselytize Freedom from control by another religious group Debate over Religious Freedom Tension between Islamic Law Shari a and UN religious freedoms Apostasy Blasphemy 101413 l Enforcement of Religious Freedom Structures for enforcement Government agenores to regrster momtor or oontrot Refusat to proteotfreedoms Support or opposition of social groups l 5 Minute Break 101413 Violent Religious Persecution physical abuse or displacement of people because of religion this includes forced relocation and imprisonment due to a person39s religion and bodily harm ranging from physical injury to death Examples of Religious Persecution Pakistan Blasphemy laws Iran Targeting of Baha39is Nigeria Boko Haram Pervasiveness of Persecution KetlglUlla 1 CIOOLVtvwvru 100 100 100 100 91 83 80 quot 60 quot 40 a 20870 0quot 0 6 o b 9 39 Any AbuseDisplacement I gt 200 AbusedDisplaced FIGURE 12 Percentage of countries with Violent religious persecution N 143 the total includes all nations with a population of 2 million or more with the exception of the United States The State Department does not report on the US or regions under the control of the United States Perniciousness of Persecution 10000 17 none 14 1 quot cou2n5tries 10 15 countries 201 1000 quot 17 10 200 28 FIGURE 13 Persons abused or displaced because of their religion in I 23 countries where religious persecution is reported 101413 Persecution by Religious Tradition TABLE LI Religious Majority by Levels of Violent Religious Persecution Other Majority No Religion Muslim Atheist with More Christian World Majority Buddhist Hindu than 50 Majority Average Level of Abuse Jewish None reported 0 o 25 22 I 5 1 200 abused or 38 15 42 51 45 displaced gt2oo abused or 62 85 33 28 43 displaced Total countries 3 9 I 3 12 79 I4 3 Motives for Denying Religious Freedom 1 Religious and Social Protect a true faith Protect individuals from brainwashing Protect the culture and society as a whole Protect the favored religion and restrict competition 2 States Secure political stability and survival 101413 10302013 ISS 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Thursday October 31 2013 Religious Freedom and Civil Liberties in the United States Matthew J Zalewski Lecture Overview 1 Overview of Civil Rights and Religious Freedoms as bundled commodities Theoretical Interpretations ofthe Establishment and Free Exercise Clauses Case Studies Evaluating Free Exercise Claims 5Minute Break Freedom ofSpeech Issues and Case Studies Other Civil Liberties B 99 8 10302013 Religious Freedom amp Civil Liberties Overview Fm mm 5 5 quotWWWquot anamoin a 6 mm mid um form CMI quotW 5 NW om incom 0 for wnmm Garner 4 Mom bury cmpmmni and lmoumunl L I quot 7 F I quotmm x Lowell In asap 4 r 5 Lemur I latlun 9 ovum Irvcurry Himr as m 009 mm 19 on punk mun Economic Mum 3i Luau pow y 35 FIGURE 39r it Iurrrlarinn nl religion er L d m wirh nrhrr trvnlum arid wcllhting within countries Religious Freedom amp Civil Liberties Overview Freedoms are a bundled commodity High correlation between nonreligious freedoms and religious freedoms General freedom requires protection of religious freedom Religious freedom does not mean religious favoritism Subsidizing or favoring religions is correlated with more restrictions on religious freedoms not fewer 10302013 Separation of Church and State in the US The First Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances Separation of Church and State in the US Theories of Interpretation ofthe Religion Clauses Strict Separation Strict Neutrality NonCoercion NonPreferentialism Voluntarism and Separatism Challenges in Interpreting the Clauses What is Religion What is Exercise Collision of rights What happens if one allowing Free Exercise to one person creates an Establishment toward another 10302013 Religious Establishment Claims For a law to satisfy the Establishment Clause it must Have a secular purpose Have a principal or primary effect that neither advances nor inhibits religion Not cause an excessive entanglement with religion Lemon v Kurtzman US 1971 Free Exercise Claims Evaluating a Free Exercise Claim ls law neutral and of general applicability Church ofthe Lukumi BabaluAye Inc v City olHiaeah us 1993 Is the goal of the law Whether overt or hidden to interfere with religious practice Mt Elliott CemeteryAssociation v City 0 Troy 61h Cir 1999 Religious Freedom Restoration Act 1993 and Religious Land Use and Institutionalized PersonsAct RLUIPA 2000 compelling interestquot standard for substantially burdeningquot religion Free Exercise claims focus on accommodation of a secular law to a religion Hybrid Rightquot Free Exercise claims are usually though not always brought in connection with other claims and often require a violation of another right ie Free Speech Employment Division v Smith US 1990 10302013 Establishment Free Exercise Neutral MAGNAVCDX I Establishment Free Exercise Neutral In the video clip What is the regulation being enforced Is it serving a secular purpose Does it promote or inhibit religious practice Is it burdening free exercise If so is that its intent If so is there a compelling interest Lawsuit aftermath Free Exercise and Establishment Case Studies o Ceremonial Deism References to God that are deeply rooted in American tradition and have become so secularized that they are understood not to be endorsing a specific religious belief Examples Nondenominational legislative prayer Oath of of fice Presidential inaugurations and addresses Pledge of Allegiance In God We Trust on money Free Exercise and Establishment Case Studies Religious Holiday and Religious Document Displays Some argue that they are ceremonial deism Others argue that they violate nonpreferentialism and separatism Considerations Purpose Context of the display Is there more in the display thanjust religious symbols 10302013 10302013 Free Exercise and Establishment Case Studies School Prayer Coercion issue Lee v WeismanUS1992 School principal acting as a state actor Obligatory attendance at school or school events Right to not participate vs Peer pressure to participate School Organizations Equal Access Act 1984 makes it unlawful for any public secondary school that receives federal funds and has a limited open forum to deny equal access to student who wish to have a meeting based on religious political philosophical or other content of speech at such meetings 5 Minute Break 10302013 Freedom of Speech Freedom of Speech claims are frequently used as a way to protect expressive religious activity o Forum analysis determines levels of protection Private property Governmentowned property the Public Forum Traditional Public Forum Designated Public Forum Nonpublic Forum Role ofthe Government Protect speakers amp speech Protect public amp unwilling listeners Freedom of Speech Protecting Public and Speaker Example Terry Jones protest in Dearborn MI 2011 Freedom of Speech Protecting Public and Speaker Freedom of Speech Balancing Protections First Amendment protects speech on matters of public concern Matters of political social or news interest Whether it is controversial is irrelevant Does not include hate speech fighting words obscenity 10302013 Freedom of Speech Regulating Speech Even protected speech is not equally permissible in all places at all timesquot Frisbyu Schultz us 1988 Time Place and Manner Regulations 1 Must be contentneutral 2 Must be narrowly tailored to satisfy a substantial government interest 3 Leave open ample alternative channels of communication Freedom of Speech Case Study Arab International Festival Dearborn MI 2009 Street festival no admission charge no controlled access points streets and sidewalks remain open vendors set up on the sidewalks Protesters seek to distribute literature and speak to Festival attendees City enforces restriction requiring distr bution of flyers and other materials to be restricted to a fixed booth Court rules this is unconstitutional Proselytizers cannot be restricted from roaming open 5 reets and While handbilling restrictions might be e to co ac sedaccessf stiva h ci accessible to the public 10302013 10 91713 I88 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Tuesday September 17 2013 Twin Tolerations Alfred Stepan political scientist religious institutions should not have constitutionally privileged prerogatives that allow them to mandate policy to governments AND individuals and religious groups have the freedom to worship privately and to organize in civil society to advance their values publicly A different approach to democratic values How religious groups and leaders use religion to cause political change Historical narrative Daniel Philpott on Catholicism One Holy Apostolic and Catholic Churchquot Change over centuries State church supporting monarchs and dictators 9 force for social change Doctrine has not changed as much as institutions and approach to the world 91713 Very Brief Moments in Catholic Church History Thirty Years39 War 16181648 Peace of Westphalia sovereignty Pope Innocent X null void invalid iniquitous unjust damnable reprobate inane empty of meaning and effect for all timequot o Enlightenment 17 118th centuries Pius IX Syllabus of Errors 39 Second Vatican Council 19631965 Pacem in tens articulated rights Dignitatis Humanae religious liberty Gaudium etspes democracy Variation in Support for Democracy Advocacy Spain Poland Malawi Brazil Philippines South Korea East Timor Kenya Zambia Chile Ghana Poland Lithuania Passivity Argentina Uruguay Paraguay Uganda Cameroon Rwanda Czechoslovakia Hungary 91713 91713 Pope John Paul II Oppo onto connnunBtregunes proponentof democracy Poland Why the Variation in Support for Democracy Differentiation churches eschew constitutional privileges their clerics forgo temporal powers and state officials in turn refrain from trying to govern the Churchquot p 41 o Elements of differentiation Autonomy from the state Transnational ties Alliance with national identity o The nature of the Church s relationship to the state then is more important for democracy than a country s level of religious belief or practice p43 91713 5 Minute Break JS Bach St John Passion Mein teurer Heiand My dear savior Protestantism in Brief Martin Luther s 95 Theses 1517 and the Protestant Reformation Indulgences Characteristics Salvation is not earned Close reading of the Bible in vernacular Priesthood of all believers Minister s role Diversity of Protestantism I88 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Thursday October 24 2013 Religious Freedom and Persecution Case Studies Social Restrictions 0 countries Monopolistic Social Pressures persecutionconflict 60 14 countries including India Indonesia Russia Turkey Sociopolitical Monopoly persecutionconflict 74 13 countries including Bangladesh Egypt Pakistan Iran Freedoms with Some Tensions persecutionconflict 22 19 countries including Brazil Philippines High Levels of Religious Freedoms persecutionconflict 08 47 countries including Japan Power is Partitioned between Religion and State persecutionconflict 34 30 countries including Ethiopia Germany Nigeria Mexico Midlevel Religion as a Political Threat persecutionconflict 42 17 countries including China Vietnam Government Restrictions ses Ranging from o none to IO high The 17 countries used as examples in Figure 35 are among the most populous countries and account for nearly twointhree 62 of the world s population in 2009 FIGURE 35 Typology of Social and Government Restriction of Religion Com pared with the Level of Violent Religious Persecution and Conflict in parenthe 102413 102413 Religion as a Political Threat High levels of government restriction of religion Low to midlevels of social restriction of religion Mid to high levels of violent persecution 17 countries Religion as a Political Threat China Historically persecution of some religions and favoritism of others including Confucianists 102413 Religion as a Politica reat China Communist Party comes to power in 1949 attempts to bring religion under state control Threeself standards Cultural Revolution 196679 Some easing of restrictions after Mao s death in 1976 Religion as a Political Threat China Groups targeted with the most persecution Uygur Muslims in Xinjiang Falun Gong aka Falun Dafa Tibetan Buddhists 102413 lVlonopolistic Social Pressures Midlevel government regulation of religion High level social restriction of religion and pressure to have a single religion monopolize public life 14 countries Monopolistic Social Pressures India Majority Hindu with Christian Muslim and other minorities Hindutva movement Bharatiya Janata Party BJP RELIGIONS IN INDIA PAKISTAN 102413 Monopolistic Social Pressures India Ayodhya in 1992 Hindu nationalists destroyed a mosque built on what is claimed to be the birthplace of Hindu Lord Ram Sociopolitical Monopoly High levels of government restriction of religion High levels of social restriction of religion High levels of violent persecution 13 countries 102413 Sociopolitical Monopoly Iran 98 Muslim mostly Shia 2 Zoroastrian Christian Jewish Baha39i and others Theocratic government since Islamic Revolution in 1979 Supreme Leader is highest political and religious official l 5 Minute Break 91913 I88 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Thursday September 19 2013 Pentecostalism Modernday manifestations have roots in the US Characteristics Gifts of the Holy Spirit tongues healing redemption prophesying Spread to other denominations Charismatic renewal Spreading fast and continues to grow 91913 Pentecostal Worship Santiago Chile l Why the Rapid Growth Order stability and hope to those suffering from instability alienation and lack of norms Style of worship Cultural compatibility Response to modernity 91913 Strains of Pentecostalism LegaHSUc and otherwor d y Prospe ty Gospe Hohstwcor progresswe Routmwzed 5 Minute Break 1 Pentecostalism amp Personal Transformation Max Weber The Protestant Ethic and g the Spirit of Capitalism 1Iliriltie iitil1ll war lie it L Tl m 1 Pentecostalism amp Personal Transformation capitalist ethic vs traditional ethic Two ideas from Protestantism Camng Predes nahon Pentecostals are Protestants but different from Mainline denominations like Lutheranism and Calvinism 91913 91913 Protestants v Pentecostals Pentecostalism and Economic Advancement Selfworth Forms of worship Community Social services Deliverance Transferable skills Discipline wowewwe 10813 I88 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Tuesday October 8 2013 Religious Freedom Rational Choice Theory Individuals weigh the costs and benefits of particular actions and take the ones that give them the most benefit at the lowest cost It is a given that everyone has preferences varying needs and desires Given a set of preferences people will try to achieve their goals ie their preferential needs and desires in the least costly manner possible given the various environmental and strategic constraints they face 10813 Alternatives to Rational Choice Theory Secularization Theory Structural shift ldeational shift Why Gill says Secularization Theory is Wrong Modernized countries vary in their degree of religious liberty Religious liberty doesn39t always move forward Why do some ideas win why others fail Who are the relevant actors and how do they win or lose Definitions religious goods fundamental answers to the deep philosophic questions surrounding life that have as their basis some appeal to a supernatural force religious firm ie a church or denomination an organization that produces and distributes religious goods religious marketplace the social arena wherein religious firms compete for members and resources religious liberty or freedom the degree to which a government regulates the religious marketplace Assumptions Axiom religious preferences in society are pluralistic Axiom 2 proselytizing religious firms are market share maximizers they seek to spread their brand of spiritual message to as many followers as possible Axiom 3 politicians are primarily interested in their own political survival Axiom 4 Politicians will also seek to maximize government revenue promote economic growth and minimize civil unrest Axiom 5 Politicians seek to minimize the cost of ruling 10813 l 5Minute Break Main Points of the Theory 1 Religious majorities favor a religious monopoly and religious minorities favor religious freedom Therefore religious freedom depends to a great extent ori religious demography 10813 10813 Main Points of the Theory 2 Politicians will have the following goals in the following order Political survival Maximizing government revenue and minimizing costs of governing o Politicians thus base their decisions on religion policy on these factors Main Points of the Theory 3 The tools that politicians have to ensure compliance from a population are coercion patronage and ideological legitimacy Ideological legitimacy is the least costly Where possible politicians will try to coopt religion to support the state and will give privileges to a religious organization up to religious monopoly to accomplish this This increases the chance of political survival 10813 Main Points of the Theory 4 To the extent that political survival revenue collection economic growth and social stability are hindered by restrictions on religious freedom or subsidies to a dominant church religious regulation will be liberalized or not enforced de facto liberalization In other words when restrictions on religious liberty have a high opportunity cost deregulation of the religious market results Concomitantly restrictions on religious freedom will increase if it served the aforementioned political and economic interests of policymakers p 52 Main Points of the Theory 5 In a politically competitive atmosphere eg during elections the bargaining power of religious organizations is dependent upon the extent to which they are challenged by religious and secular forces 92913 I88 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Thursday October 3 2013 ReligionState Relations in Democracies Question How would you define the separation of religion and state SRAS 92913 Separation of Religion and State SRAS One way to define it is by looking at its opposite how much the government is involved in religion GIR 80 states with SRAS 2 low GIR We can measure GIR using the Religion and State Dataset developed by Jonathan Fogtlt Elements of Government Involvement in Religion GIR Official support Official hostility General restrictions Religious discrimination Religious regulation Religious legislation 4 u Iv 39J l 0W Added together these form a measure of general GIR 1 Official Support No Support Supportive Cooperation Civil religion More than one official religion One official religion 2 Official Hostility No hostility Separationist Inadvertent hostility Hostile 92913 3 General Restrictions No religions are illegal and there are no significant restrictions on religions No religions are illegal but some or all religions have practical limitations placed on them 39 No religions are illegal but some or all religions have legal limitations placed on them Some religions are illegal All religions are illegal 4 Religious Discrimination Restrictions on public observance of religious services festivals andor holidays including the Sabbath Restrictions on building repairing andor maintaining places of worship Restrictions on access to places or worship Forced observance of religious laws of other group Restrictions on formal religious organizations Restrictions on the running of religious schools andor religious education in general Arrest continued detention or severe official harassment of religious figures officials andor members of religious parties Restrictions on the ability to make andor obtain materials necessary for religious rites customs andor ceremonies l G v Ln Jgt I at 92913 4 Religious Discrimination cont d LO Restrictions on the ability to write publish or disseminate religious publications Restrictions on the observance religious laws concerning personal status including marriage divorce and burial Restrictions on the ordination of andor access to clergy 4 Restrictions on conversion to minority religions Forced conversions Restrictions on proselytizing Requirement for minority religions as opposed to all religions to register in order to be legal or receive special tax status Restrictions on other types of observance of religious law H G gt u c 4 AU U 5 Religious Regulation l Restrictions on religious political parties Arrest continued detention or severe official harassment of religious figures officials andor members of religious part39es Restrictions on formal religious organizations other than political parties Restrictions on the public observance of religious practices including religious holidays and the Sabbath Restrictions on public religious speech including sermons by clergy Restrictions on access to places of worship Restrictions on the publication or dissemination of written religious People are arrested for engaging in religious activities Restrictions on religious public gatherings that are not placed on other types of public gat ering Restrictions on the public display by private persons or organizations of religious symbols including religious dress nativity scenes and icons Other religious restrictions 92913 2 r C J 3 In J 6 Religious Legislation 1 9 Dietary laws restrictions on the production import selling or consumption of specific foods Restrictions or prohibitions on the sale of alcoholic beverages Personal status defined by clergy ie marriage divorce and or burial can only occur under religious auspices Laws of inheritance defined by religion Restrictions on conversions away from the dominant religion Restrictions on interfaith marriages Restrictions on public dress Blasphemy laws or any other restriction on speech about religion or religious figures Censorship of press or other publications on grounds of being antireligious Mandatory closing of some or all businesses during religious holidays including the Sabbath or its equivalent Other restrictions on activities during reli ious holidays including the Sabbath or its equivalent lue lawsquot 6 Religious Legislation cont d Religiouseducation is standard i out of this portion of the educati Mandatory religious education in public schools Government funding of religious schools or religious educational programs in secular sc ools Government funding of religious charitable organizations government collects taxes on behalf of religious organizations religious axes public schools but it is possible to opt on Official government positions salaries or other funding for clergy anding for religious organizations or activities other than those listed ove Clergy alndor speeches in places of worship require government prova Some official clerical positions made by government appointment Presence of an official government ministry or department dealing with religious a airs Certain government officials are also given an official position in the state church b virtue of their political office ie the Queen of England is also head of nglican Church 92913 6 Religious Legislation cont d 23 Certain religious officials become government officials by virtue of their religious pOSItIon Ie as In Iran 24 Some or all government officials must meet certain religious requirements In order to hold office 25 IPresence of religious courts which have jurisdiction over some matters of aw 26 Seats in Legislative branch andor Cabinet are by law or custom granted at least in part along religious lines 27 Prohibitive restrictions on abortion 28 The presence of religious symbols on the state s flag 29 Religion listed on state identity cards 30 Religious organizations must register with government in order to obtain official status 31 Presence of an official government body which monitors sects or minority religions 32 Restrictions on women other than those listed above ie restrictions on education jobs that they can hold or on appearing in public without a chaperon 33 Other religious prohibitions or practices that are mandatory General GIR in 1990 Density 80 O 40 combined ras score 1990 92913 92913 General GIR in 2002 d 0 Density 0 40 60 80 combined ras score 2002 5lVIinute Break John Cokrane Spiritual I TABLE 1 Operationalizations of Separation of Religion and State Official Official General Religious Religious Religious General Support Hostility Restrictions Discrim Regulation Legislation GIR AbsoluteSRAS None None None None None None 0 Only NearAbsoluteSRAS 1 None None None Up to 3 Up to 3 Up to 3 Up to 5 NearAbsoluteSRAS 2 None Separationist None Up to 5 Up to 5 Up to 5 Up to 0 Neutral Political Concern 1 None amp None amp None None Up to 3 Up to 3 Up to 10 supportive separationist Neutral Political Concern 2 None amp None amp Practical Up to 3 Up to 5 Up to 5 Up to 15 supportive separationist limitations Neutral Political Concern 3 None amp None separationist Practical Up to 5 Up to 10 Up to 5 Up to 20 supportive amp inadvenent limitations insensitivity Exclusion of Ideals None All codings Practical Up to 10 Up to 10 See list Up to 30 supportive amp legal amp cooperation limitations What is an Appropriate Level of GIR in Democracies Table 2 most governments do not have SRAS this is true for democracies as well When we control for other things that may affect GIR democracies have lower levels of GIR than non democracies Orthodox Christian countries have higher levels of GIR than Catholic and Protestant countries More religiously diverse countries have lower levels of GIR Wealthier states have higher levels of GIR There is an upper limit to how much GIR democracies can have 92913 I88 210 THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Tuesday October 22 2013 Religious Freedom and Persecution Case Studies Social Restrictions 0 countries Monopolistic Social Pressures persecutionconflict 60 14 countries including India Indonesia Russia Turkey Sociopolitical Monopoly persecutionconflict 74 13 countries including Bangladesh Egypt Pakistan Iran Freedoms with Some Tensions persecutionconflict 22 19 countries including Brazil Philippines High Levels of Religious Freedoms persecutionconflict 08 47 countries including Japan Power is Partitioned between Religion and State persecutionconflict 34 30 countries including Ethiopia Germany Nigeria Mexico Midlevel Religion as a Political Threat persecutionconflict 42 17 countries including China Vietnam Government Restrictions ses Ranging from o none to IO high The 17 countries used as examples in Figure 35 are among the most populous countries and account for nearly twointhree 62 of the world s population in 2009 FIGURE 35 Typology of Social and Government Restriction of Religion Com pared with the Level of Violent Religious Persecution and Conflict in parenthe 102213 102213 High Level of Religious Freedoms Low levels of government and social restrictions Low levels of violent religious persecution v 47 countries High Level of Religious Freedoms Japan Warring States Period 1400s1500s Christianity introduced 1549 Toyotomi Hideyoshi 1587 ends Warring Period Shinto and Buddhism High Level of Religious Freedoms Japan 1945Sunenderand newcons tu on Sarin subway attack in1995 AuniShmrMyoand HsleaderShoko Asahara Governn1entresponse to attacks l Religious Freedoms with Some Tensions Low government restriction of religion o Midlevel social restriction of religion Midlevel violent religious persecution 20 countries 102213 102213 Religious Freedoms with Some Tensions Brazil 1891 constitution o Roman Catholic Church response o Growth of new religions 1985 civilian government Diversity less persecution Power Partitioned between Religion and State Midlevel government restriction of religion Low to midlevel social restriction of religion Higher violent religious persecution 37 countries Power is balanced between favoring some groups and controlling others Power Partitioned between Religion and State Nigeria Population split between Christians and Muslims Democratictransition quot in 1999 Competition between religious groups leads to conflict Shari a law in the Northern States 5 Minute Break 102213 Nigeria 250 distinct ethnic groups Over 100 languages Largest groups Muslim Hausa and Fulani in the North Muslim and Protestant Yoruba in the Southwest Catholic and Evangelical lgbo in Southeast Linguistic Groups Nigeria Historical Overview Islam introduced in 8th and 9th centuries to the North Christianity promoted by British colonialists in the South in 19th century British colonialism Conflicts 196465 elections o 1967 Civil War Military Dictatorship until 1999 Olusegun Obasanjo and People s Democratic Party PDP won in 1999 Goodluck Jonathan is current president since 2010 102213 102213 Conflict Plateau State Majority Christian Muslim HausaFulani settlers Violence over rights and balance of power Conflict Kaduna State o Equal numbers of Christians and Muslims oViolence in Zangon Kataf in 1992 Conflict over Shari a law and Kaduna Compromise