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World Food Popul & Poverty

by: Tre Braun Sr.

World Food Popul & Poverty EEP 260

Tre Braun Sr.
GPA 3.85

Richard Bernsten

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Richard Bernsten
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tre Braun Sr. on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EEP 260 at Michigan State University taught by Richard Bernsten in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/207782/eep-260-michigan-state-university in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
WEEK 7 HOW CAN LDC IMPROVE HEALTH amp NUTRITION F2008 Richard H Bernsten Agricultural Economics Michigan State University Key Factors that Affect Health amp Nutrition 0 Economic prosperig trends in economic growth amp development vs economic stagnation Why 0 Populationrelated factors trends in population growth fertility rate migrationrefugees and age composition Why 0 Social factors trends in urbanization housing sanitation hunger amp malnutrition education poverty unemployment and environmental conditions Why ll Global Health Trends Key Indicators A Life Expectancy Life expectancy at birth a key megaindicator O Steady improvement now 67 yrs worldwide WRI20052010 Due to both national and international efforts Investments in health sanitation water systems Medical interventions vaccines antibiotics Health campaigns smallpox polio Economic development rising incomes 0 But large differences between World Bank 2004 Poorrich countries 20 year difference High income79 yrs M76 F82 Low income59 yrs M58 F60 Regional of the world 28 year gap vle 20050 2010 N America 79 yrs Europe 75 yrs S America 73 yrs Asia exc ME 70 yrs SSaharan Africa51 yrs ME amp N Africa 69 yrs 3 County amp Gender malefemale World Bank 2004 gt Highest Japan 78 vs 85 yrs malefemale M75 F80 yrs Note US in 190047 yrs Successful LDCs China M70 F73 yrs Indonesia M66 F69 yrs India M63 F64 yrs gt Lowest Zimbabwe M38 F37 yrs VV Huge difference e 40 yrs between E amp m developed countries largely due to gt Infantchild lt5 yrs mortality rates gt Civil conflict Sierra Leone Sudan Congo gt AIDS in recent years SubSaharan Africa gt Impact of higher income amp technological progress AA v Threats to continued progress gt New world health threats Examples gt Threats to continued investments in improving world health Examples 4 B Infant lt1 yr amp Child lt 5 yrs Mortality def death1000 births 0 Large reduction in all regions Infant mortality decline by region 196570 vs 200005 World 54 31 Africa 61 Asia 47 LAC 35 0 But much regional variation in infantchild mortality rates Child lt5 yr mortality1000 World Bank 2004 World 84 High income countries 7 Low income countries 119 0 And large variation in child mortality among counties World Bank 2004 Highest Sierra Leone 283 Niger 259 Lowest Singapore 3 W Europe amp Japan 4 5 Interestingl China 31 vs India 85 USA ranks 17m 81 000 births Note In 1900 the US s infant mortality rate165 Why 5 C Maternal Mortality def deaths100000 births D Big Differences in Health Indicators Within Countries 0 Incidence About 500000yr 99 in LDCs Rate varies by region World Bank 2004 0 SS Africa 921100000 o 8 Asia 564100000 o LAC183100000 o E Asia 117100000 gt High income 14100000 0 Low income684 gt Note US now 17100000 but in 1900850100000 0 Lifetime Risk North America less than 003 lifetime risk SubSaharan Africa 6 lifetime risk of death in childbirth o Contributing factors LDCs Lack of prenatal care Lack of delivery care Lack of postmaternal care Compounded by poor maternal nutrition Why 6 lll Leading Causes of Death A Causes of Death in DCs vs LDCs All Ages 1993 no new data Cause DCs LDCs Circulationdegenerative Q 10 Cancer 2 9 External 8 8 Infectionparasites 1 Respirator 8 5 Birth related 1 8 Otherunknown 15 17 Discussion 0 Key causes of death in DCs 0 Key causes of death in LDCs What s missing Note DC vs LDC differencesfuture for LDCs For example GlobesityThrifty gene plus social trends Examples 7 B Causes of Child lt5 yrs Deaths in LDCs Leading Causes Worldwide WHO 2003 Perinatal causes birthrelated 23 Pneumonia 20 Diarrhea 15 Why Malaria 11 Measles 5 HIVAIDS 4 Other 22 Malnutritiona major contributing factor associated with 53 of child deaths makes kids more vulnerable C Many of these cause of death are easily preventablecurable 0 So what s the problem IV Major HealthDisease Threats in LDCs Today A Examples of successes o Smallpox only disease to ever be eradicated Traditional vaccination used in W AfricaTurkey Modern vaccine invented in early 1800s USEurope Eradicated worldwide WHO campaign 1970s 0 PolioMajor WHO campaign is having success Cases have fallen by from 350000 1988 to 700 2003 Eradicated in 190 countries by 2000 Still hot spots in Nigeria India and Pakistan 34 of cases Pro39ected to be eradicated worldwide by soon 0 Guinea Worm some countries in SubSaharan Africa In 2000 cases down by 97 from 1986 3 million cases Funded by Gates Foundation28 million gt Filter water gt Educational campaign expect to be eradicated by 2009 B New amp Emerging Infectious Disease 0 O O 1970sgreat optimism about conquer infectious diseases Today renewed concern lnterrelated mix of contributing factors responsible Ecological chan es eg global warming land use changes Human factors eg war sexual behavior IV drug use overcrowding International travel amp commerce eg travel global markets Technological amp industrial factors eg food processing livestock handling organ transplants Microbial chan es eg antibiotic amp pesticide resistance Breakdown of public health measures eg sanitation vaccination insect control C Major Infectious Diseases in LDCs Table handout 0 Definitions Epidemic many cases of a disease in a localized area 1 Pandemic multiple geographically dispersed epidemics 0 Key Diseases in LDCs amp Method of Transmission Note US ampEurope had most ofthese problems 100 yrs ago Diarrheadysentery waterlfood borne bacteria Typhoidcholerawaterlfood borne bacteria Tuberculosis amp bronchitisairborne bacteria HlVAlDS sexual contact contaminated blood Malaria river blindness yellow fever sleeping sickness dengue fever vectorlinsect borne 0 Biggest danger to you if you visit a developing country D Major Health Threats amp Initiatives 1 Malaria Resurgence good aspects slowed colonialism in Africa 0 Extent ofthe Problem V1 million die annually 90 in Africa amp increasing V200500000 new cases each year 70 young children V20 world s population 90 countries threatened Airport malaria a new problem in Europe amp the US Photo Major economic impact in AfricaGDP 20 less Note Sickle cell gives some protection 0 Contributing Causes of resurgence VGlobal climate change Drug resistance chloroquine Mass human migrations civil conflicts Deteriorating health systems VBan on DDT spraying Silent Springs ecoimperialism Mosquito resistance to pesticides 12 0 Prevention amp Treatment Roll Back Malaria Multiple prevention treated bed net spraying Focus on mothers amp kids most vulnerable Rapid communitybased diagnosis amp treatment pill 027 Research to develop a vaccine Gates foundation Return to spraying DDT South Africa 2 HIVAIDS Extent of the Problem First diagnosed in 1981 V2005 39 million infected 31 m deaths 5 m new cases Recent successfel to 27 m new cases in 2007 PERFAR Spreading rapidly more people have died of AIDS than all wars LDCs gt90 cases but DCs90 expenditures for treatment 13 VGrowing threat in India 5 million China amp Russia 09 million o SubSaharan Africa most threatened today Two thirds 63 of world s cases gt25 million in 2005 x 7 countries HIVAIDS rate gt25 Note S Africa gt51 million most cases in any country 17 million have died 23 of all deaths in 2000 Projected lifetime risk high Shift in cases from elites to marginalized people gt Urban to rural gt Rich to poor gt Men to women 54 19 X higher than rest of world Why gt Older to younger female 0 23 new cases are 1519 yr females 0 34 of infected 1524 year old are female 0 Direct amp Indirect Impacts lncreased health costs for government amp families Less government for other investments Reduced future GDP 30 reduction in mostaffected countries Lost wages amp loss of skilled labor eg South Africa Wives left without husbands income Orphansgrandparentled families 15 morphans 95 Africa Loss of farm labor farmland abandoned satellite photos Undermined educational system eg Kenya Life expectancy fall to lt40 yrs in 11 African countries by 2012 15 0 Factors Contributing to Rapid Spread in in SS Africa pandemic Characteristics of the virus Customsgender inequality sugar daddies Economic patternsseasonal migration to jobs Limited health awareness amp low level of education Weak medical systems amphigh cost of treatment Large rural populations Some governments have been slow to respond 0 Prevention amp Treatment VGovernment commitmentpolitical will is critical to success VProvide sex ed at schools amp via traditionmodern media VProvide free access to condoms 14year Treat other STDs immediately VProvide voluntary testingcounseling Photo VPrevent mom to child transmission at birth amp via breast feeding Make available antiretroviral drugs new goal but expensivell WHO Continuum of care Some Successful lnitiatives o Behavioral modification social marketing most important vS Africa educationalmedia programs to mobilize whole community including sex workers provides free condoms Kenya KICOSHEP programtargets slum kids with education testing counseling positive living classes uses soap operas to educate about prevention treatment Zambia HEART programpromotes abstinence among youth via songs TV commercials radio adds posters Senegal enlisted religious leaders encouraged youth to delay sexuse condoms targeted prostitutes with safesex campaigns amp testing VUganda President spoke out launched an awareness campaign opened Africa s 15 voluntary testingcounseling centers SubSaharan Africa boosting women s economic opportunity passing legislation to banmodify traditional customs bride price say no to sugar daddies ABC abstinence be faithful condoms 0 must also increase access to treatment VS Africa private sector providing treatment to its employees BrazilThailand cut cost of treatment by making generic drugs distributes them free forced drug price reductions Botswana launched Africa s 1 universal drug treatment program cost 710000patientyr gt90 adherence rate US committed 15 billion for AIDS treatmentrelief but criticized for emphasis on abstinence not linked to reproductive health pgms o Moral lssue Facing DCs amp Drug companies VGeneric drug costs 300yr vs 1012000year for patented drug LDCs wanted right to makeimport generics when facing a national health epidemic HIVAIDS TB malaria but US via VVTO threatened sanctions for voiding drug patent Recently drug countries were pressured to allow manufacturing in LDCs eg Brazil Thailand for sale in LDCs reducing drug prices 3 Childhood Diseases 0 Extent of the Problem Today 50 of childhood deaths 49 million due to diarrhea pneumonia malaria and measles 0 Prevention amp Treatment Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Health education Prompt recognition of symptoms VRapid treatment including oral rehydration Photo lmmunization breast feeding not Similac Monitor kids health 4 Maternal Mortality amp Perinatal Conditions 0 Extent of the Problem V500000 women die each year V50 million women suffer from pregnancyrelated conditions Accounts for 15 of childhood deaths 20 0 Prevention ampTreatment Integrated Mot of PregnancyChildbirth Provide antinatal amp postnatal care Delivery by trained birth attendant Treat birthrelated complications Promote family planning amp treat STDs New Drugs 5 Tuberculosis o Extent ofthe Problem 1 7 million die 8 million new cases each year 13 of the world s population has latent TB Poorest must vulnerable Growing drug resistance 0 Prevention ampTreatment DOTS 80 success rate Government commitment to sustained control lnsure early detection Provide access to drugs Supervise treatment for 69 months 03 N TobaccoRelated Diseases 0 Extent ofthe Problem 11 billion smokers most living in LDCs 80 5 million deathsyear 10 million by 2020 70 in LDCs Tobacco firms target LDCyouthsponsor teams free cigarettes 0 Prevention WHO treaty Framework Convention for Tobacco Control Requires strict regulations on marketinglabeling higher taxes Signed by 94 countries but notthe US Thailand banned public smoking can t display tobacco products gruesome packages Landmines o Extent ofthe Problem 24000 civilians killed per year many more maimed 100 million landmines in 64 countries 0 Prevention NGOsponsored treaty to ban landmines ratified by many countries butnotthe US 2 8 WaterFood borne Diseases 0 Examples 0 Prevention Education VClean drinking waterwater treatment 50 in 2005 Nonhealth related benefits saves women s time increases girls school attendance reduces price of water for the poor VProper human waste disposallatrines Photos India payasyougo community toilets biogas generator V Strategies For Improving Health amp Nutrition Health Is a Key Social Goal Governments should give priority to The attainment by all peoples of a level of health permitting them to lead socialy amp economicaly productive lives WHO A LDCs Must give priority to 0 Investing In improving sanitation watertreatment health systems but this will be difficult Health budget lt 15capita in many poor LDCs VConstraint debt crisis national poverty 0 Building stronger partnerships between government and NGOs eg India UN agencies eg UNAIDS WHO UNICEF UNDP UNESCO Private sector DCs


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