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This 2 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Jim Jam on Monday September 8, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 50 views.
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Date Created: 09/08/14
NERVOUS SYSTEM The nervous system handles information just as the circulatory system handles blood The nervous tissues 1 The glia cells glue which provide structure support and nourishment to neurons 2 Neurons are individual cells in the nervous system that receive integrate and transmit information Parts of neuron 0 The soma is the cell39s body which contains the nucleus 0 The dendrites tree are branchlike parts of neuron that extend from the soma and that receive info 0 The axon axel is the long thin fiber that transmit signals 0 The terminal buttons are the small knobs at the end the axon that secrete neurotransmitters 0 The myelin is the fatty substance that insulates the axon This helps to speed up the transmission of signals The disease multiple sclerosis characterized by the delayed transmission of signals stems from the deterioration of myelin 0 The Nodes of Ranvier are natural gaps that exist between myelin Not to be confused with the 0 synapses which are gaps between entire neurons It is these gaps through which messages are transmitted The transmission of neurons is a complex electrochemical reaction A neuron at rest is like a battery stored energy An action potential is a brief change in a neuron s electrical charge that travels down an axon The resulting message is sent to the terminal buttons The terminal buttons then release chemicals neurotransmitters into the synapse and into an adjacent neuron via the dendrite Neurons follow the all or none law it either fires or it doesn t Neurons never touch each other The transmission of signals take place in the synapse The neuron that is sending the signal is referred to as the presynaptic synapse The neuron that receives the message is called the postsynaptic neurons The Postsynaptic Potential PSP is the voltage change at the receptor site on the postsynaptic cell membrane An Excitatory PSP makes the action potential more likely to fire whereas an Inhibitory PSP makes it less likely inhibit When there is an excess of neurotransmitters they are soaked up by the presynaptic membrane and metabolized in a process called Reuptake There are several types of neurotransmitters o Acetylcholine links motor motion and muscles It is involved in attention arousal and memory Alzheimer39s results from the undersupply of acetylcholine Curare is a poison that blocks the reception of acetylcholine thus inhibiting movement The bite of a black widow spider causes convulsion because it floods the body with acetylcholine o Dopamine is linked to muscle movement and pleasurable emotions Parkinson39s disease results from the shortage of dopamine This disease is characterized by muscle rigidity reduced motor control and tremor o Norepinephrine increase arousal and regulates mood An excess in norepinephrine results in manic states Manic states are characterized by wildly optimistic and hyperactive behavior in other words people who suffer from mania believe that they can do anything Cocaine and amphetamines floods the body with norepinephrine resulting in increased activity o Serotonin lowers activity levels and induces sleep It is related to positive emotions and anxiety Psychedelic drugs LSD mushrooms impair sleeping and cause hallucinations waking dreams Depression results from a shortage of serotonin
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