Insects, Global, & Sustain Lab
Insects, Global, & Sustain Lab ISB 201L
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angelita Tillman on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISB 201L at Michigan State University taught by Gabriel Ording in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see /class/207787/isb-201l-michigan-state-university in Biological Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Position Paper 2 Prachi Mandloi A44208478 October 10 2011 was celebrated is indigenous peoples dayWhat is meant by the word of indigenous lndigenousis in layman terms is referred to as something or someone belonging to a native place Something that is not indigenous will be referred to as exotic Invasive species are the exotic species that have been accidently or deliberately introduced into a new habitat or environment While sometimes these the new species are unable to survive in the new habitat other times they adapt and are able to overcome natural circumstances to sustain and thrive The exotic invasive specie covered in this paper will be the European Gypsy Moth or in the scientific terminology Lymantria Dispar This specie is native of Asia and Europe The accidental release of some experimental moths led to their population in North America The moths have no natural predators or disease to stop their growth in numbers In 1869 gypsy moth larvae that were being evaluated for silk production were blown from a window sill in Medford Massachusetts The first outbreak of European gypsy moth occurred in 1889 wwwcaukyedu The gypsy moths go through a holometabolic process That is a complete metamorphosis They have around 67 molts The female lays eggs in trees and branches basically in a spot where the larvae can crawl The females are said to be ightless The adult moths die after mating and after the females lay the eggs Unlike other moths which are mostly nocturnal in nature the gypsy moths are active in the night and day Gypsy Moths are known to eat multiple species of plant foliage but they are mostly found on oaks and aspen While this is all well and good for the moths this created tree mortality for such trees Some researchers even go as far as to say that it is possible that this may cause the extinction of some species of oak This kind of massive defoliation creates a ripple effect Loosing the foliage means a dead treat which can lead to the loosening of soil and further lead to higher runoff and more deposition in the water bodies which can harm the aquatic life and so on Environmental and economic effects The gypsy moth cause massive foliage degradation While this is all good for their food consumption pattems but is very harmful to the overall environmental life One of the effects could be a chain reaction to this depletion The loss of foliage will decrease and ultimately stop respiration and photosynthesis in the plant This most obviously will cause the death of the plant or tree Once the tree is dead its capability to hold the topsoil and other layers will be foregone Not only that the ecosystem it is providing habitat for like anthills nests of various birds etc will be destroyed too With the loss of the tree abiotic factors like wind and rain will cause soil erosion This will result in removal of the top layer of soil the fertile and arable soil This will run off into water bodies such as lakes rivers ponds and ultimately seas And this will be no good either since the addition of extra nutrients and minerals from this soli will cause imbalance in the water bodies like its pH and cause harm to aquatic life Some studies have also shown defoliation cased by the gypsy moths makes them more susceptible to other fungi s and diseases Although direct economical costs of this specie cannot be calculated the moth specie has affected the production f hardwood and land in the most powerful ways Oak and poplar being its preferred foor sources the loss of hardwood has been one of the most important economical losses for the country Controlling the population of this specie include the use of pesticides like NPV Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Bt Bacillusthurgiensis or also can be natural such as predators like birds frogs toads skunks raccoons foxes turtles snakes beetles squirrels chipmunks bats shrews and lizards While NPV is a more organic method Bt is a chemical used to eliminate the species This paper will focus more on Bt than NPV In 1961 Bt was first used in agricultural crop production and protection It was however discovered in 1915 first ohioonlineosuedu The insecticide is basically applied or spread on the surfaces where the insect is likely to go for food The insecticide needs to be ingested by the moth in order to work Only few organisms can ingest Bt and the gypsy moths are one of them The protein toxins when ingested kill the cells lining the insect s guts Bt has no measurable effect on most other organisms39 hence we are excluded from its effects when we consume the plant With advancement in fermentation technology Bt can now be produced economically by the gallon for production Why Bt is preferred over other insecticides is because its property of being environmentallysafe and not hurting the ecosystem balance of plants soil air or other insects One of the pros of this product is that it is made for a selected group of species and the crops that are harvested Which have bee treated with Bt are still safe and contain their nutritional values One of the major cons of the situation is the insect s ability to adapt to the insecticide and create an evolutionary change One example of this is the diamond back moth is the only insect found to have developed resistance against Bt The diamondback larvae feed on all plants in the mustard family including canola mustard broccoli and cabbage ucsdedu In conclusion the research for this paper has gone on to show how the use of Bt has more positive effects on gypsy moths rather than negative effects Not all invasive species are bad some like corn wheat and barley which now compose of out major food groups for us The European gypsy moths have created nuisance for farmers and other forest dense areas The use of Bacillus thurgiensis has created an alternate and safe method for us to fight back without negatively impacting the environment
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