Insects, Global, & Sustain
Insects, Global, & Sustain ISB 201
Popular in Course
Popular in Biological Sciences
Helen Blick Sr.
verified elite notetaker
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angelita Tillman on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISB 201 at Michigan State University taught by Gabriel Ording in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see /class/207788/isb-201-michigan-state-university in Biological Sciences at Michigan State University.
Reviews for Insects, Global, & Sustain
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/19/15
Name Katie Rumptz PID A 43253855 ISB 201 Homework Due Thursday October 28 in class i 10 pts Using both the textbook and internet resources answer the following questions Pleuse Weyour responses in your own words copying undpusting will result in u loss of 20 pts You must provide citations for ull resources used 1 Conduct research and clearly explain what M ilankovitch Cycles are and how EACH of them is thought to impact global climate Be sure to include in your discussion issues associated with temporal scale If the earth s tilt changes even slightly every year over time this will cause an impact on the seasons because it will affect where the sun is hitting the earth Ifthe earth s tilt changes the orbit of the earth can be altered accordingly making it either more round or more oblique this would have an impact on the overall temperature depending on how far away the sun is Also due to the tilt changing the precision of the solstices will be altered creating more extreme seasons NOAA 2 Conduct research and clearly describe how it is thought that Plate Tectonics and the Orographic Effect actually helped to drive Human Evolution Plate tectonics creates the subduction and convergent mountain regions which help to create the orographic effect The orographic effect and plate tectonics both drive where human population will thrive Due to high mountains often unwelcoming nature to pass over through or live on these did not make for ideal locations to set up a colony They do however provide a barrier between two different regions wet and dry which could drive one species over time to evolve Plate NOAA Paleoclimatology Program Orbital Variations and Milankovitch Theory nd NCDC National Climatic Data Center NCDC Retrieved November 1 2010 from I httpwww m dc nnan v I 394 mm Plate Tectonics and Climate Change nd UMass Geo Retrieved November 1 2010 from P www Den mass 39 Climate 7 APPnntn t t 1 4 he ISB 201 Fall 2009 Test 1 Study Guide Major Environmental Science Themes Emphasized o What is Environmental Science 0 A systematic study of o How the Earth Works 0 How we are affecting the Earth 0 How we might deal with Environmental problems we face 0 Biosphere and Biospheric Principles 0 The component of our planet where life is able to exist 0 Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere 0 Principles 0 The Biosphere is H oloceonotic and selfadjusting it is never static 0 Energy ows through the Biosphere and is continually supplied by the sun 0 The Quantity of matter in the Biosphere is nite and must be recycled for life to exist Homo sapiens are animals and are part of the biosphere 0 State of the World 0 Environmental issues were once regarded as irrelevant to economic activity but today they are dramatically rewriting the rules for business investors and consumers o What must we do in the 21st century7especially in 2009 and the years just following7to head off the kind of climate catastrophe that many scientists now see as likely 0 Environmental Movement Key Moments 0 1962 7 Rachel Carson Silent Spring birds and their extinction 1970 7 Clean Air Act 1972 7 Clean Water Act 1972 7 UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm Sweden 1992 7 Rio Earth Summit Second UN Conference 0 Agenda 21 7 what we could do to reduce family growth but wasn t successful because nothing enforced it o 1997 7 Kyoto Protocol 7 required nations to reduce their C02 level 0 Some didn tjoin US signed but didn t radify o 2002 7 Joberg Earth Summit Johannesburg SA 0 Lately 7 Go Green Campaigns Movies Cars EPA standards were lowered so fact01ies were able to pollute more 0 O O O 0 Sustainability 0 Sustainable Society One that accommodates its needs without compromising the ability of future generations from doing the same 0 Gaia Hypothesis 0 Earth is a single selfregulating super organism 0 James Lovelock 7 English atmospheric Chemist 0 Levels of organization of the Universe 0 Interrelatedness Holoceonosis 0 Natural Capital Resources vs Capital 0 Resources 0 Air Water 7 most important resource for a sustainable human culture Soil 7most importan Energy Minerals 0 Services Population Control Nutrient Recycling Climate Control Pollution Control Waste Treatment Biodiversity PestDisease Control 0 Ecological Footprint o A measure of human demand on the Earth s ecosystems 0 Globalization 0 It is occurring and everything is interconnected Human Nature to improve standard of living India 1 in 6 people on planet In Poverty by US Standards China 1 in 4 people on planet Quickly Developing Global Population Projection by 2050 is 9 7 20 Billion People 2 Major Problems 0 Over Population Developing Nations 0 Over Consumption of natural resources Developed Nations 00000 0 Myth of Inexhaustibility 0 We cannot exhaust our sustainabilityresources 0 Maximum Sustainable Yield 0 How much is produced compared to how much is used 7 Renewable resources 0 Tragedy of the Commons 0 Collective consciousness 0 Garrett Hardin 0 Short sighted use of natural resources for immediate economic gain with no consideration for long term Sustainability 0 Common resources owned by none claimed by all 0 Scienti c Method 0 Observation 7 looking in a way to understand 0 Hypothesis 7 a testable statement that explains the observation 0 Experiment 7 a test of the hypothesis using a control for comparison of results 0 Conclusion 7 a summary of results hypothesis correct or incorrect based on the experimental results 0 Publish 7 making results available to the world Rule of Falsi cation 0 Observations can support hypotheses 0 Observations to the contrary can disprove or Falsify 0 Pure vs Applied Science Pure Science 7 Research done simply to answer a theoretical question 0 Applied Science 7 the use of knowledge gained from pure science for some functional purpose Examples 7 Optics Genetics Ecology Lasers O 0 Economic Systems 0 Capitalist Market Economics Drive out competition 9 Monopolies Global Free Trade Lobby for Govt Subsidies Withhold info about products Maximize pro ts Pass harmful costs resulting from production on to 0 Public 0 Environment 0 Future generations GNI vs GDP 0 Standardized Method to Compare Economic Output of Nations 0 Problems with application of GNI and GDP 0 Ignore harmful environmental and social effects of producing goods and services 0 Do not include the depletion degradation of natural capital 0 Tells nothing of income distribution or economic justice Full Cost Pricing 0 Economic Solution to Improve Environmental Quality 0 Internal Costs 0 Those factors which drive the market price 0 EXtemal Costs 0 Harmful effects passed on Structure of Planet 0 Core 7 solid nickel and uranium thermonuclear reactions produces heat 0 Mantle 7 molten liquid rock plastic moving 0 Crust 7 solid composed of plates oats on mantle Plate Tectonics o A Foundation Theory 0 Continental 7 Igneous Granite Large Crystals Less Dense 0 3045 miles thick 0 Oceanic 7 Igneous Basalt Small Crystals More Dense o 45 miles thick 0 Continental Drift Theory 7 Alfred Wegener 7 lacked technology and mechanism 0 Convection Current Theory Molecules get heated speed up less dense go up cool down become dense and go back down CIRCLE o Pangaea 0 Geologic Principles and Processes 0 Geologic Active Zones 7 volcanoes earthquakes o Fossils Evidence 0 Paleomagnetic Evidence 7 magnetic polarity midocean ridges 0 Sea Floor Spreading 7 Harry Hess challenger oil extraction isotopic dating no Oceanic plate older than 300 million years Subduction Zone 7 oceanic plates go under continental because they are more dense 0 Space Geodesy Apollo Program Mirror on Moon Hawaii to Australia 0 Geologic Uplift 7 volcanic uplift Plate Collisions Mountains 0 Island Arc Systems 0 Distribution of Plants Animals and Fossils 0 Soil 0 o O 0 Terra Firma 7 Latin for Solid Earth Gradation 7 down cutting Erosion Transport Deposition 9 Sedimentary Rock Sandstone Limestone Shale Diastrophism 7 movement of solid rock Plates colliding Folds Faults Warps Metamorphic Rock Heat and Pressure Quartzite Marble Slate Volcanism 7 movement of liquid rock Lava 7 on surface Magma 7 below surface Igneous Rock Basalt Granite Isostatic Rebound Isostacy 7 another form of uplift Weight on plate pushes into mantle Michigan 7 Glaciers Colorado Plateau 7 Grand Canyon Soil Ecosystem More Diverse than the Tropical Rainforest More Productive than a Coral Reef 95 of Insects have some portion of their lifecycle in the Soil o Decomposition of organic material 0 Provides nutrition to support food webs 0 Water Puri cation o Fertility Minerals 7 Resulting from bedrock geology Nutrients 7 Result from decomposition of Detritus 7 dead organic material Water 7 too much too little 0 Gas Exchange Oxygen 7 Gas Exchange 0 Particle Size 0 Soil Compaction 0 pH 7 Review pH scale 0 Bedrock Geology 0 Granite 9 Acidic Soils o Limestone 9 Basic Soils 0 Input 0 Compaction o Contamination 7 pollutants o Desertification 0 Causes 0 Overgrazing o Deforestation 0 Surface mining o Erosion o Salinization 7 increase of salt in the soil 0 Soil compaction o Erosion and Transport 0 Texture 7the silt clay sand 0 In ltration Percolation 0 Water holding capacity 0 Organic Material 0 Humus moistfertile soil 0 Exchange Capacity 7 the amount of nutrients available for exchange 0 Macronutrients 7 organisms require a lot N P Ca Mg etc o Micronutrients 7 organisms only need trace amounts but can be limiting o Ecology 0 Investigates how organisms interact with the biotic and the abiotic factors of their environment 0 Biotic o are all the living things or their materials that directly or indirectly affect an organism in its environment 0 Example disease 0 Abiotic o are those nonliving physical and chemical factors which affect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce 0 Examples 0 light intensity temperature range type of soil or rock pH level acidity or alkalinity water availability dissolved gases level of pollutant 0 Species and Populations 0 Species 7 a group of organisms who have the potential to interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature 0 Population 7 a local group of individuals belonging to the same species 0 Range of Tolerance 0 Limiting Factor Principle 0 Too much or too little of any single abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population even if all other factors are at or near the optimum range of tolerance o Photosynthesis vs Respiration o Photosynthesis o Takes in 0 Carbon dioxide water and energy from the sun 0 Producesreleases 0 Sugar glucose with stored energy 0 Oxygen o Respiration o Takes in 0 Sugar glucose and Oxygen o Releases 0 Carbon Dioxide water and heat 0 Aerobic Respiration o In the presence of oxygen 0 Produces C02 0 Heat is a waste product 0 Anaerobic Respiration Fermentation o In the absence of oxygen 0 Produces other gases 0 Methane CH4 0 Heat is a waste product 0 Ecosystem Components 0 Producers 0 Green plants chlorophyll o Autotrophs o Photosynthesis o Respiration 0 Consumers o Heterotrophs o Respiration 0 Primary Consumers o Herbivores 0 Secondary Consumers o Camivores o Omnivores o Decomposers 0 Highly Evolved Highly Efficient Respiration Critical to Biogeochemical Cycles 0 Energy Flow 0 lst Law of Thermodynamics 0 Energy can neither be created nor destroyed it can only be converted from one form to another 0 2quotd Law of Thermodynamics o No energy conversion is 100 efficient In any conversion there is a net loss of energy 0 Energy runs out eventually Plants Solar to Stored Energy Heat loss through respiration Decomposers are most efficient in converting energy When we eat meat we lose energy ow because of the thermodynamics the meat goes through secondary biomasses didn t transfer all energy 0 Biogeochemical Cycles 0 Oxygen Cycle 0 Water Cycle 0 Driven by the Sun 0 Nitrogen Cycle 0 Atmospheric Nitrogen Fixation o Breaks N2 0 Formation of NOx o Dissolves in rain 0 58 of all fixed Nitrogen 0 Biological Fixation 0 Three Sisters 0 Corn 0 Beans o Squash 0 Industrial Nitrogen Fixation o Haber Bosch process High Pressure and Heat Combines N and H Natural Gas or Petroleum Form Ammonia NH3 German Chemist o Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918 0 Father of Chemical Warfare 0 World War I 0000 0 Phosphorus Cycle 0 Heavily impacts biota of Biosphere o Involves Geologic Processes Rock Cycle 0 Requires Erosion Hydrologic Cycle 0 CarbonOxygen Cycle 0 Importance 0 Marine Phytoplankton account for approx 40 of photosynthetic activity across globe o Coral Reefs act as an additional carbon sink 0 Both result in the locking up of carbon into geology Major Entomological Themes Emphasized o Binomial System and Taxonomy 0 Classi cation 7 arrangement of organisms Nomenclature 7 naming and describing organisms Evolutionary Relationships Linnaeus 7 founder Introduced Binomial Nomenclature in Latin Lumpers ignoring little difference between similar species and Splitters recognizing differences between species 0 O O O 0 Species Concept 0 The biological species concept defines a species as members of populations that actually or potentially interbreed in nature not according to similarity of appearance Although appearance is helpful in identifying species it does not define species 0 The Reasons for the Success of Insects o Biotic Potential the inherent power of organisms to reproduce and survive 0 They can reproduce a lot NH 0 Primary goal of reproduction is to pass genetic material to next generation 0 High Biotic Potential 9 Increased Mutation Rate 0 Increased Opportunity for Bene cial Mutations to Arise 0 Increased Rate of Adaptation o Niches I Plant feeding I Predatory I Decomposers I Parasitic 0 Different forms of development in insects o Adaptation Any trait physical form function or behavior that helps an individual to survive and reproduce under prevailing conditions NOT MARINE o Ametabolous Development Little or no change between molts I Ancient Condition I Wingless Insects o 1 39 39 39 D 39 I r39 Metamorphosis I More Derived I Slight Changes between molts 39 Egg I Immature stages I Adult O O O Holometabolous Development Complete Metamorphosis I Most Derived Condition I Signi cant Changes 39 Egg I Larvae I Pupae I Adult 0 Major Advantage Reduce Intraspecific Competition Instar 7 stage between molts Molt 7 shedding of exoskeleton to allow for growth Risky I Exoskeleton needs time to harden I Vulnerable Stage to predators 0 Major Life History Traits O O O O O Voltinism 7 how many generations of an organisms per year I Univoltine l I Bivoltine 2 I Multivoltine 7 more than 2 Diapause 7 time of reduced metabolism I Allows insect to get through difficult environmental periods 0 Cold Period 0 Drought 0 Food Shortage Insect Wings Insects were the first group of organisms to evolve the ability to y on Earth I Alternative Hypotheses Explaining Original Function 0 Gills 7 respiration organ oxygen from water 0 Gliding Mechanism slide 0 Locomotion 0 Capture Prey o Thermoregulation I Provided for mobility long range transport and High Altitude Coevolution The process by which two different organisms evolve together I Insects and Flowering Plants I Fossil Record 7 Simultaneous Burst of Diversity with the Evolution of Angiosperms Carboniferous I Dragon ies with 3 ft wingspan I Different Plants Dominated I Speculation 7 Higher Atmospheric Oxygen levels 0 Body Plan and Signi cant Body Parts 0 Exoskeleton I Advantages 0 Strong Protective 0 Water proof 7 prevent dehydration 0 Rigid 0 Provides place of attachment for muscles 0 Keep out viruses I Disadvantages 0 Heavy potentially limiting size 0 In eXible 0 Must molt 9vulnerability 0 Head 7 Sensory Systems I Compound Eyes Detect color and movement Ocelli Simple Eyes Primarily light detection Antennae 7 can detect motion and orientation odor sound humidity and a variety of chemical cues Mouthpalts o Piercing sucking mosquitos o Siphoning bees o Sponging ies ProthoraX I MesothoraX I MetathoraX I Legs 0 One Pair Attached to each of the Thoracic Segments Ambulatory used for walking Cursorial modi ed for running Fossorial modi ed for digging Natorial modi ed for swimming These legs have long setae on the tarsi o Raptorial modi ed for grasping catching prey o Saltatorial adapted for jumping I Wings 0 2 pairs of Wings 0 Modi ed Wing Pair 0 Elytra in Coleoptera o Tegmina in Orthoptera Blattodea and Mantodea o Exceptions o Diptera Flies I 1 Pair of Wings I 1 Pair of Halteres o Gyroscope Hymenoptera Ants Isoptera Termites Blattodea Roaches Phasmatodea Walking Sticks 0000 o Abdomen I Cerci Circus Sensory Appendage I Ovipositor Egg Laying Apparatus o Modi ed Ovipositor Stinging Devices I Breathing and Respiration o Tracheal System 0 Spiracles o Diptera Order see Imes Flies Mosquitos Horse and Deer Flies o 1 Pair of Wings attached to mesothoraX o 1 Pair of Halteres 7 tiny vestigial appendages
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'