Insects, Global, & Sustain
Insects, Global, & Sustain ISB 201
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ISB 201 Lecture 13 Page ll 1 Lecture 13 Global Warming 2 Lecture 13 Goals 3 Understand the processes that explain Global Warming AntiWarming and Global Dimming Arguments b Understand the multitude of issues facing our climate today and some possible ways to solve them c Understand various ways to implement change in today s postmodern world 3 Global Warming Explained a gtRising amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere leads to warming b gtAs CO2 increases the amount of gas in the atmosphere increases the gas traps emitted heat and reflects it back to Earth c gtSome of the rays are able to escape the atmosphere however most return and heat the Earth d gtWe are left with warmer and warmer temperatures each year because the amount of C02 steadily increases e gtThe impact can be detrimental as increasing the temperature only 5 C would result in a loss of 40 of species worldwide 4 The Main Warming Culprit The Greenhouse Effect diagram of greenhouse effect 5 The US and Global Warming 1 gtThe United States is by far the most inefficient user of energy resulting in almost 2x the amount of per capita emissions as the EU and more than 4x that of Japan 5 gtAs China s per capita income grows the per capita Emissions will skyrocket because more income in China will lead to more cars I gtChina is developing much faster than Western countries did it is building one coal power plant every 7 10 days 6 The US and Global Warming cont 3 gtAs the earth continues to warm polar ice caps which hold roughly 70 of the earth s fresh water shrink b gtAs population continues to grow Rethink the results of our consumption water consumption what will happen with increased competition c gtWhat will happen in the Great Lakes The world will be forced to think of solutions 7 GHG Emissions in the United States pie charts of Emissions data a gtBut remember Global Warming is a Theory 8 Polar Ice Core Data 3 gtScientists have postulated that increased C02 leads to increased global temperature yet they have also demonstrated that historically there have been repetitive cycles of hot to cold to hotwhat caused these cycles Are we in an accelerated cycle ISB 201 Lecture 13 Page 2 b gtHow do we know about temperature and C02 cycles One way is Ice Cores samples trapped air bubbles yield historical air C02 content to produce records c gtPlanetary regulatory functions what makes us believe that our current cycle is abnormal or that it will increase or decrease 8 Arguments Against Warming a gtThe argument for global warming is based on temperatures in the last 100 years linked to increasing CO2 levelsbut this CO2 data doesn t go back 400000 years gtf the earth has been able to regulate itself each time then why won t it be able to fix the 5 problem this time c gtNote a missing key factor plants take in C02 and emit Oz so doesn t the earth regulate global warming with plant life 10 Arguments Against Warming a Steady State Theory andor Global Cooling Theory b gtn a 2008 the US EPA produced a 73 pg report attacking the quotconsensusquot surrounding global warming c In this report EPA agent Marc Moreno presented a team of 650 highly regarded international scientists all who had qualms with the arguments for manmade global warming d gtScientists even cited the fact that temperatures have often failed to actually warm in certain climates e gtSeparate experiments used tree rings from various parts of the world to deduce the amount of C02 in the atmosphere and many showed little to no change over the past few centuries 11 Steady State Global Cooling Theories a gtCOZ 40 60 of Greenhouse Gasses Therefore both arguments for and against Global Warming don t account for all of the details b gtWe re leaving out 4060 of the gas that humans produce c gtWhat about the other gasses what effect do they have 12 The quotNewquot Theory Global Dimming a gtThe other greenhouse gases such as methane nitrous oxide sulfur hexaflouride tetraflouromethane CFCs 3 4 5 113 114 amp 115 also have adverse affects b gtSoot ash sulfur oxide and other quotvisiblequot particles play a role as well H20 attaches to these particles and eventually falls to the ground However with more particles in the clouds produced by exhaust the more water droplets form but some don t get heavy enough to fall to the earth Less density less rain more cloud cover less sunlight hits the earth c gtAs H20 stays in the Atmosphere it reflects some sunlight But a larger number of smaller particles reflects far more sunlight than a small number of large particles ISB 201 Lecture 13 Page l3 d gtResult More and more sunlight gets reflected by these particles Global Dimming is slowing Global Warming 13 Theories a E I 1Global Warming 2 Global Cooling 3 Stead State 4 Global Dimming gtThe four theories suggest necessary action but what action steps will actually remedy future change gtMost US Citizens are living unsustainable lifestyles We are using the resources of about 18 earths to support current rates of consumption The Earth cannot produce and sustain these biological ecological and biosphere resources at sustainable rates 14 What can You Do 72 fl amp 2 Ecological Footprint Measure Yours Practice Conservation Recycle Public Transportation Grow Plants 15 Present Problems What Must Be Done a I gtAll of the problems that we are facing today especially climate change are global issues which require a high degree of international cooperation but if the worst countries US China EU don t lead the way gtFirst thing What makes climate change more important than any other major issue world hunger war or pandemic diseases like malaria and STDs gtSecondly Can an issue like climate change be solved If so how Climate change is an important issue with the possibility of dramatic consequences 16 Kyoto Protocol a I amp gtThe Kyoto Protocol was ratified by 192 Parties 191 States and 1 regional economic integration organization including Canada Japan and Brazil gtThe US declined citing such as China and India which also should be held responsible for their emissions China declined in signing the Protocol pointing to the US s unchecked development and stated that China should have the opportunity to develop as well fGlobal Warming is real can the llbig powers like the US EU China India Brazil and Mexico cooperate 17 Global Warming Fixes a Technology gtndustry reform increased efficiency of power plants amp cars i b UnderConsumption This means YOU i gtmproved public transit less overall energy use ISB 201 Lecture 13 Page 4 c Environmental Education Ok are you educated i gtCommunity understanding of our large scale ecological and environmental problems d Legislative reform i gtMore stringent laws on industry and pollution proactive legislation holding industry more accountable for its actions e Community Action i gtThink globally act locally 18 Technological fix cleaner more renewable resources In gtncrease the number of clean energy sources such as Wind Water and Nuclear power sources 5 gtThe Eastern Rockies is annually one of the windiest places on Earth if the option of wind power was explored some believe much of the Western United States could get it s power from a completely clean and renewable resource I gtTrade off 510000 birds killed annually better than pollution from coaloil power i Visual Pollution Skyline of windmills 19 Solar Paneling a gtNew achievements in the field of solar power have made personal solar panels readily available to homeowners By installing solar panels on homes and businesses our reliance on non renewable resources will decrease b gtSolar panels can work in any type of climate as long as the sun is shining they can help with the cost of energy and in climates like Michigan they are mostly questionable c gtTrade offs Relatively cost inefficient solution If more people utilize this technology then its possible that the cost will decrease d gtWith more research solar panels may become more and more effective 20 Nuclear Power a gtMuch cleaner resource than coaloil and other older ways of producing power Nuclear energy from a fission reaction is used to spin a turbine which creates electrical energy b gtSetbacks Fallout problems within the power plant itself cause nuclear waste to leak into the atmosphere Relative lowrisk situation c gtBenefit worth the reward equation Positives Saving the ozone layer and perhaps many species vs the risk of one power plant d gtNuclear Waste everyday 6 pounds of Nuclear waste pile up from US plants We have some 30000 tons of it and technology to address decontamination 21 Cleaner Transportation a gtTechnologicaladvances i 1Hydrogencars ISB 201 Lecture 13 Page 5 ii 2 cleaner methods of mass transit will help us in the long run b Problems What about a implementing hydrogen fueling stations transporting hydrogen fuel 0 gtFuel Economy Standards 1 US is at the bottom rung of the ladder 2 the technology is available but US has not utilized it fully 22 Investment in Agriculture a While recognized as a source of emissions improvements in agriculture have increased yield and productivity so that less land can produce more crops Less land needed may mean less land is cleared for farming yet the burgeoning human population again threatens production Agriculture with shortages and the drive to plant more b gtAccording to one study yield improvements since the latter half of the 2039h century have prevented the emission of greenhouse gases the equivalent of 590 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide from going into the atmosphere 2 3 Etha nol a gtCorn crops are one of the top crops that deplete soil nutrients extracting large amounts of Nitrogen from the soil f crop rotation isn39t utilized the land can be devastated in just a few years Corn it is the second harshest crop on the soil gtSince the push for Ethanol corn has increased in price to over 4 a bushel that39s up 73 With this significant surge in price many farmers are opting to raise corn instead of other grains A recipe for shortage of other grains and greater damage of soil depletion With a shortage of other grains such as wheat simple laws of supply and demand will cause the price of wheat to go up There will be several areas in the grocery industry that will be directly affected by this Since corn is greatly used in feed for cattle we can anticipate meat and dairy prices to rise 24 UnderConsumption Changing our Habits a gtThe United States consumes more than 974 quadrillion Btu s British Thermal Units 1 Btu E n 100 Watts of energy each year which means that we consume more than the next three most consuming countries in the world China Russia and Japan However we have less than onesixth the amount of people as China 1 Change Your Light bulbs i gtMany consumers don39t know this but highly efficient compact fluorescent light bulbs CFLs last for years use a quarter of the energy of regular bulbs and actually produce more light 2 Drive Differently Or Drive A Different Vehicle i gtThe sad truth is that your car emits as much carbon dioxide as your entire house Anything you can do to improve the fuel efficiency of your car will have an enormous impact on climate change In fact experts say that paying attention to fuel efficiency in your car may be the single biggest thing you can do to prevent global warming Try carpooling consolidate your trips or riding your bike 25 Underconsumption Changing our Habits cont ISB 201 Lecture 13 Page 6 a ControlYourTemperature i gtEven small changes make dramatic improvements in household fuel efficiency A reduction by only a few degrees in the winter months could mean as much as 200 less on the next bill b Tame the Refrigerator monster i gtDid you know that your friendly refrigerator has a voracious energy appetite It is by far the single biggest consumer of electricity in the average household responsible for 1015 percent of the electricity you use each month c Think about your water i gtHot water heaters dishwashers washers amp driers are some of the most inefficient things in your household Try turning the temperature of your HWH down or using the energy conservation setting Try washing some dishes by hand and wait until the DW is full before running it Make sure that you wash full loads and not to use higher than necessary settings for drying clothes Small as it may seem each action could have a huge impact on your consumption 26 Underconsumption Changing our Habits cont a Plant some trees i gtWhile it is true that planting more trees will help in the short term because they essentially soak up carbon they also release carbon dioxide when they die So it just postpones the problem But there are other reasons to plant trees as wind breaks to save energy and as shade to lower cooling costs b Invest in Green Energy i gtmagine if we ran out of fossil fuels tomorrow what would we do Well we39d get our electricity from renewable sources solar panels geothermal and wind power sources Many utilities now give consumers the option to buy quotgreen powerquot c RecycleBuy Recycled Materials i gtThis may sound simple but it takes less energy to manufacture a recycled product than a brand new one So if you and every other consumer buy recycled you39ll help create a market and conserve energy along the way 27 Underconsumption Changing our Habits cont a Go Organic although organic production is often more costly and less productive i gtEven with our vast reservoir of scientific knowledge about farming most American farmers still spray a billion pounds of pesticides to protect crops each year When chemical pesticides are used to kill pests they also kill off microorganisms that keep carbon contained in the soil When the microorganisms are gone the carbon is released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide And when those organisms are gone the soil is no longer naturally fertile and chemical fertilizers become a necessity not a luxury b Be a Minimalist i gtWe know it39s difficult but in today39s consumer economy an easy way to conserve energy is to simply use and buy less Every time you buy something energy has gone into getting that product to you So the less you buy the more you save energywise It39s a simple equation ISB 201 Lecture 13 Page 7 28 Environmental Education Passing the Torch m I amp 2 3 gtEnvironmental education increases public and 39 about issues or problems In doing so it provides the public with the necessary skills to make informed decisions and take responsible action Awareness and sensitivity i gtTo the and 39 39 quot U Knowledge and understanding i gtOf the and 39 39 quot U Attitudes of concern i gtFor the environment and motivation to improve or maintain environmental quality Skills to identify i gtAnd help resolve environmental challenges Participation i gtn activities that lead to the resolution ofenvironmental challenges 29 Legislative Reform Get In Touch 1 5 Call your senators i gtLet them know that they aren t doing enough environmentally Stay up to date on environmental legislation i gtEspecially locally where your impact could mean the most Take environmental issues into mind when voting or discussing politics the more pressure we put on our government to change the more pressure they will eventually put on the industry to change 30 Community Action Think locally act globally 3 b gtEven if the national government isn t going to comply with global environmental standards there are still ways to help solve the problems Figure 5 shows regional programs that increase energy efficiency in one way or another States have the power to regulate emissions as well gtThe opposite figure is a map of different cities nationwide that are committed to the quotUS Mayors Climate Protection Programquot a national program that focuses on local governments and how they can reduce their contribution to global warming East Lansing and Lansing are signed up along with 600 others nationally This also shows that something can be done at all levels of government 31 The quotSeven Wedgesquot 3 gtThe solutions are not simple we have a multitude of problems Global Warming potentially being the most dangerous As you can see it is going to take a very large amount of under consumption and a large government initiative in order to succeed in the eradication of global warming quotl W P U39l ISB 201 Lecture 14 Page 1 Lecture 14 The Environment and Ecosystems Lecture 14 Goals a Understand how economics can affect the environment b See the economic issues associated with global development and global trade c Economic systems are just structures processes patterns Evaluation environmental ecological and social patterns created All life is based on that above equation Economic Systems More pesticided used in urban subured America than in agricultue MSU uses a lot of pesticides which are mostly in eating and living falcilities a Key questions i Do llmore growthquot economic systems affect ecological sustainability More growth systems are regulated and feedback Does the US economic system affect local national amp global ecological sustainability Dollar can be used in a lot of places because of the economic status and history of the US Be ready to defend your response scientifically logically amp with statistics this is a democercy A lot ofjobs are related to ecological principles Diagram Everything is connected to everything else water catchment is allthe downsteam surface water areas impacted by town township and regulations comes from catchment Z in of rain on LP of mi results in more than 2 billion gallons of run of surface water in 2 WEEKS Lake MI is nothing more than a puddle 465 feet deep One of the largest lake in the world Salt runoff from roads impacts EVERYTHING is connected Few open loop systems Agricultural Sustainability policy is as important as the drain system in town and drain commissioners Treatment system for campus on torbiridge road a Definition llthe ability of a farm to continue in timequot more we threatened future agricutral is key in our survial b It s at least a presumption or presupposition about the future top of tri 4economoics 3 Society 2 The scosystems 1 The environment lt we have this tri turned upside down all the time because we aren t making indstriyy pay for great lakes involves at least d How well is the US measuring economic policy outcomes relative to sustainability Squot 6 Ecosystems Abiotic without life and Biotic living Integration ltall intergration system H structure process patterns a Abiotic Environment 39 Physical laws and structure earth soil water minerals atmosphere Cycles H20 C N etc iv Chemicallnteractions v metabolism amp synthesis vi degradation amp mass action viI Energy flux light charge o H 5 U1 lm H 00 ISB 201 Lecture 14 Page 2 viii eg heat long wave length light ix eg electrical charges x chemical bonds amp enzymes b Biotic Systems on exam i Species ii Populations iii Communities iv Agro Ecosystem v Ecozones vi Hemispheres vii Biosphere viii Earth ix Solar System x Universe Diagram Functions of an Ecosystem not just goods and services there are advertising how goods are used and waste stream For any good the manage waste stream is vital STUCTURE Graph What do Industrial economies use learn about the renewables and erosion We have best erosion in the world cause we value agricultural and soil Chart Industrial Metabolism Processing of soy beans We make plastics out of soybeans Cups we drink out of are made out of corn Modern fibers come from soybeans and corn Biodegradeable clothing Good lether comes from cow Synthetics in shoe soles are biodegraderables effective amounts depdneds on the design Packaging 98 ppl out of college getjobs in marketing Cause everything is package Use less plastic and more bio Most membranes in food is laying in container which can or cannot be biodegradeable Plastic container for grapes is made of biodegradable films Huge impact of the environment Storage most ofthe invasive species got 4 newjust this fall are threatening fruits Future fuel is gonna come from corn and soybeans Transportation Supermarkets cost a lot more to put your food on a certain self lower selves teacher is an invasion guy and has own business with his wife Graph U Gross Domestic Product by Sector 2009 GDP Huge sectors are personal comsumption expentditures and services Graph Urban Population by Region Graph Projected Global Industrial Growth guessing a 3 growth World Map Projected Land Scarcity land scarcity is in china If land policies don t change they will lose ways to export products out of there Farms in turkey are handed down generation to generation and are divided up Farms tend to not to be divided up in pieces ltin north America Kamodity prices in our economy are HIGH ltinflation and farming communities to feed societies ISB 201 Lecture 14 Page 3 19 World Map Water Scarcity Impact financing is mirco in scale Global warming can be a huge benfit in Africall ltit will help with water scarcity FDR lt a policy that something about the dams built a fish latter which was too short and the fish died and we causes 2 species of fish to become extincted 20 How does our US economic system mesh with pretty complex What gets measured gets managed a 1 Biology b 2 Agriculture and the c 3 Environment 21 Final Goods From the Environment Dr Environmental amp Ecological Amenities amount of soap we use in shower is part of ecological footprint 3 Energy i Calories from food chain ii Temperature iii Light iv Radiation shielding 22 What our environment Contributes greatest contribuator to global warming is cows farting a Matter i Air gas composition ii Water humidity drinking water bathing water iii Food nutrients carbohydrates protein fats iv minerals vitamins v Sights sounds smells taste sensations vi Shelter vii Cothing viii Waste assimilation ix Aesthetics 23 What our environment contributes to our economy on exam 3 Intermediate Goods on exam b Photosynthesis and Food chain c I Hydrological cycle water purification irrigation d I Climate system temperature and humidity e control air purification f I Soil formation g I Biogeochemical material cycles i I Pollination a lot of things are pollinated for free 623 different pollinators and some are single generation Loopinupin and fires in MI lton exammmmll WTF karnar blue butterfly ltendangered species 24 What our environment contributes to our economy no economy without environment a I Just as the economy transforms matter and energy the environment does likewise ISB 201 Lecture 14 Page 4 b I Just as production of economic inputs requires capital and inputs the environment and ecology require investment to assure sustainable production 25 What are the assumptions of a quotMore Growthquot system They think or vision the cost ofthe growth There isn t infinte growth in nite system a X growth per year are they taking climate into effect b top countries drag up the lowest countries as trading partners great economy is good for world cause they pull lesser ones up c economic growth inexhaustible ltwhalen agrees We switched our economy from basic to information age We charge for information d transition from real consumer goods and manufacturing to information or other forms of nonmanufacturing goods e market will dictate the outcome economic systems are blind they don t see 26 Impacts of Population based on Economics Map of Michigan 27 Impacts of Population based on Economics Map of Southwest Michigan 32 million acres of corn 28 Impacts of Population based on Economics Map of US Farms costs of a bag of GMO corn is 300 and increasing 29 Impacts of Population based on corn arcerage today is we harvest it Becausw of the price of corn we went from 63 million arces of corn to about 90 million acress of corn Economics Map of US erosion bad policy suburban spray impacts roads all cause erosion Why isn t more land conversed ltpotentional essasy 30 Impacts of Population based on forest green and ag are 46 of out GDP in the US Cournries that ran our of land that cut down are their forests are in TROUBLE We need long vision federal policy MI is about 28 public land In oragon 85 of the state is publice Wyoming is 91 Public policy determines what is happening in all that land Economics Map of US Land Conservation 31 Impacts of Population based on Economics World Map Land Transformation 32 Impacts of Population based on Economics Graphs Threatened and Endangered Speciessecond largest state for cucumbors MI exports more Christmas tress than any other state Xmas trees are great land holders and grow fast Light brown appleo f lt HOW do you know that you get an actual gallon of gas when you pull up the the gas station ESSSAY The mi department of agri actually goes out and measure if your getting an gallon 33 Graphs GDP Output vs Oil 602 emissions MI has huge deposites of shail gas Twice as much shailed gas as there is oil In the middle east Get gas by drill holes and pump at high pressure 34 Drivers of Fossil Fuel Use Globally Series of pie charts on fuel use gas would be better 35 Information as a commodity how do quotinformation systemsquot affect our economy today TEACHER IS SO ANNYOINGGGGGGG a electronic information information technology is growing rapidly Uses very little natural resou rces ISB 201 Lecture 9 Page 1 1 Lecture 9 Cell Division and Cancer outside of heart diasease cancer is the number one leading killer 2 Lecture 9 Goals a Define key terms Mitosis interphase tumor metastasis angiogenesis neoplasm benign malignant adenoma carcinoma tumor suppressor growth factor check point oncogene programmed cell death b Understand the difference between benign and invasive cancers causes of cancer and how it can be treated c Relate cancer promoting activities to life choices health issues and the scientific community 3 Cancer Cells run away reguluar cells a gtMake their own growth signals b gtnsensitive to growth stopping signals know this c gtnsensitive to self destruct signals auto distruct d gtmmortal unlimited replication All cells are preprogrammed to die X numbers of years to reproduce then dies after x time limited issues Cancer cells go AROUND this preprogramming e gtStimulate new blood vessel growth if cancer tumber can stimulte blood vessel growth then it cant move locations f gtnvasive move out of tumor How does cancer start Cellular biological control gone wrong control signals gone wrong Metosis regualer cell reproductions Meisosi sex cells a gtNorma cells protect their DNA information b gtDamage control system i Detect DNA and cellular damage Stop cell division prevent replication of damage Activate damage repair systems you can repair a broken signal reaction that leads to cancer A lot of progress has been made in research iv Activate self destruct system Illustration of cycle leading to cancer Illustration cancers cells no stop signal If it moves around that is bad P 9 5 N Tumor a gtAn abnormal mass of undifferentiated cells every cell in body is programmed to be a certain tissuecell But an abnormal cell is undifferentiated doesn t have a job and interferes with body function most of us are denying cancers in our body right now Body is responding to them and will kill them Older you get the greater the chance you will have run away growth b gtt often interferes with body functions c gtt can absorb nutrients needed elsewhere d gtt can be benign grow slowly and stay in one area e gtt can be malignant grow rapidly and spread to other parts of the body 8 Cancer Terminology a gtNeoplasm get cut off body i Cells that have no potential to spread to and grow in another location in the body b gtBenign i Noncancerous growth that does not invade nearby tissue or spread ISB 201 Lecture 97 Page 2 c gtMalignant out of control and moves around i Growth no longer under normal growth control d gtMetastasis moving around i Spread of cancer from its original site to another part of the body e gtAdenoma in system that produces hormones i A benign tumor that develops from glandular tissue f gtCarcinoma biggest orgin in body is skin i A tumor that develops from epithelial cells such as the inside of the cheek or the lining of the intestine 9 Benign Cancer Fibroids ltwomen have them in body a Undifferentiated growth with no obvious adverse affects 10 Invasive Cancer a Undifferentiated growth with adverse effects b Metastasizedinvasive 11 US Leading Causes of Death a Total US Population US Population 2024 i Heart Disease Accidents ii Cancer Homocide iii Stroke Suicide iv Lung diseases Cancer v Accidents Heart Disease vi Diabetes Genetic Disease vii Alzheimer39s disease HIV AIDS viii Flu and Pneumonia Stroke ix Nephritis Flu and Pneumonia x Septicimia Diabetes 12 Causes of Cancer a Carcinogens i Food and drugs ii Environmental iii Industrial iv Agricultural b Oncogenes c Promoters d Viruses 13 Carcinogens a Any substance that can trigger cancer b Foods and Drugs natural or synthetic pesticides additives preservatives coloring chemicals c extensive list of carcinogens 14 Causes of Cancer Environmental Carcinogens 15 Environmental a Natural b Electromagnetic radiation c Light i Heat ii Gamma rays iii Xrays I I im I I Lone NN I O NN WN MN 103 ISB 201 Lecture 97 Page 3 iv UV radiation v Beta rays d Turpenes chemistry that we love to smell Ex pine wood carcinogens A broad killer Causes cancer Causes of Cancer Industrial Carcinogens Industrial a Pictures smokestacks toxic waste etc Causes of Cancer Agricultural Carcinogens Agricultural used to put a lot of carcinogens out in the world Cleaned up its game Carcinogens are class c or D most of home owner use of pestisides compared to agricultural pestisides a Pictures fertilizer insecticides dump Causes of Cancer Oncogenes Oncogenes a gtGenes who s products transform normal cells into cancer cells b gtRequired for normal cell cycling c gtProducts of these genes are no longer regulated 1 llgain of function of reproduction d gtTumor suppressors body has P53 P53 is available in cancer treatment Is one drugs that treats AIDS In cancer cells they lose P53 which shuts off cells from reproducing i Proteins that prevent the progression of the cell cycle ii P53 is a DNA binding protein that recognizes damaged DNA and stops DNA replication 1 llloss of function Causes of Cancer Promoters chemical compounds Promoters a Tobacco Smoking and Chewing i 4000 different chemicals Smoking and Cancer a The smoke from a cigarette contains about 1010 particlesml and 4800 chemical compounds b gtThere are over 60 carcinogens in cigarette smoke that have been evaluated for which there is 39sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity39 in either laboratory animals or humans c gtThese compounds damage DNA in the cells of the lung The mechanism behind the damage is unknown d gtDamage leads to mutations makes DNA in cell transcription and translation Smoking and Cancer a gtp53 gets more mutations than other randomly selected sites as you age you P53 is muted And you39re more likely to get cancer gtThe mutations keep p53 from binding to DNA gtThis means that p53 can no longer prevent DNA replication when there is other damage 9 Causes of Cancer Viruses Viruses known promoters of cancer a Human Papilloma virus HPV 40 million Americans are infected with HPV Evidence of HPV in 90 to 95 of cervical cancers 2006 US Statistics 52957 ISB 201 Lecture 97 Page 4 i 11150 new cases of invasive cervical cancer ii 3670 women died from the disease iii Of the survivors 90 are sterile e graph cases and deaths in US from 1998 2006 28 Viruses continued a Vaginal warts doesn t do much until it is stressed Leads to biological i Benign undetected b Stressors that promote virus expression i PIV other STDs pregnancy injury biological stress How to diagnose How to treat Regular pap smear Trichloroacetic acid Coloscopy Surgery Biopsy Cryothera py Olin Health Center Laser Surgery 29 Understanding Cancer a gtCell Division b gtGene Regulation c gtProgrammed Cell Death 30 Cell Division a There are two types of cell division i Mitosis for growing results in two identical cells ii Meiosisfor sexual reproduction results in four cells with only one copy of chromosomes b Key concepts of Cell Division i gtCell Cycle ii gtDNA Replication iii gtChromosome Division iv gtCell Division 31 Cell Cycle 61 then S then GZ then prophase a gtCycle starts when a new cell forms b gtDuring cycle cell increases in mass and duplicates its chromosomes c gtCycle ends when the new cell divides 32 Decoding the Cell Cycle a gtnterphase Phase between division and starting division again cells does most of work here b gtThree intervals of Interphase i G1 1st Growth phase cell makes parts and does normal things ii S Synthesis phase DNA replication iii G2 2quotd Growth phase making parts for cell division iv G0 Zero Growth phase cell in remission or paused state 1 Like getting stuck in park 2 Terminaldevelopment c Key Concept i At each step the cell must be in order Must have order to go to next step ii Longest part of the cycle s phase iii Cell mass increases iv Cytoplasmic components double v DNA is duplicated ISB 201 Lecture 97 Page l5 W W Control of the Cycle a gtOnce 5 begins the cycle automatically runs through 62 and mitosis b gtThe cycle has a builtin molecular brake in 61 p53 tumor suppressor c gtCancer involves a loss of control over the cycle malfunction of the quotbrakesquot Cell Division Mitosis a gtDuring mitosis each cell gets a high fidelity copy of each chromosome b gtMultiple check points prevent runaway cycling c gtCancer cells are in runaway mode the checkpoints are broken or ignored Key Concepts DNA is in 3D and codes proteins Every thing but s phase As s It unrevels and replicate a gtEach chromosome has two strands of DNA b gtEach chromosome has one copy of each gene c gtEach somatic cell has two of each chromosome d gtEach somatic cell has two copies of each gene assume single copy genes 04 4 W U39l 36 Chromosomes a DNA and proteins arranged as a cylindrical fiber b Chromosome A double stranded DNA molecule and attached proteins c Almost no naked DNA 37 Meiosis a First division mitotic b Second division reduction c chart meiosis Understanding Cancer Gene Regulation gtGene Regulation hormones Signaling a gtG rowth Factors 39 Signaling molecules that enhance cell division Activate quotcascadequot of signaling inside cell Hyperactive cascade members can trigger cell division by turning genes on at the wrong time iv Hyperactivity lets cells ignore regulatory signals b gtAnchorage dependent cell cycle arrest i Adhesion is required for normal cell division complex ii Cancer cells loose cell adhesion molecules ii Cancer cells don t respond to limiting signals 40 Gene Regulation a gtmmortalization run away 39 Norma cells only divide about 50 times in a petri dish if you can get them to divide Cancer cells just keep dividing HeLa cells Teomers ends of chromosomes usually spell the end for normal cells but they don t wear out b gtAngiogenesis controlled by signals cells releases i Blood vessel formation Cancer cells trick blood vessels into supplying nutrients iquot Cancer cells secrete the growth factors that they are using 41 Understanding Cancer Programmed Cell Death 42 Programmed Cell Death LOU L000 ISB 201 Lecture 97 Page 6 a gtCells are caused to die on purpose i Two examples Epithelial cells Damaged cells gtBased on a balance of protecting proteins and killing proteins gtCancer cells often have high levels of protecting proteins long lived Doesn t die BAD if you have cancer i AKA Apoptosis 43 Programmed Cell Death a The cell death program i Activated by cell surface receptors ii Makes pores in Mitochondria engery portion makes energy iii DNA is chopped up AA floating around iv Blebbing not popping v Absorption by neighbors 1 Nematodes frog tails webbed fingers and HIV 44 Programmed Cell Death a Colon Cancer slow growing i gtCrypt ii gtPolyp can have these removed years in apart without getting cancer ever iii gtMalignant polyp 45 Endoscopy a pictures of lumen healthy tissue precancerous and cancerous flesh Spread of Cancer a Two linked processes i gtMetastasis 1 migration of cancer cells to a new location ii gtAngiogenes 1 formation of new blood vessels b gtMetastasized cancer cells require angiogenesis to produce another malignant tumor 47 Two linked processes continued a Metastasis i gtCancer cells leave the tumor and establish new colonies in other tissues b Angiogenesis i Depends on growth factors released by the invading cancer cells 48 Picture illustrating cancer needing nutrients 49 Picture cancer sending signals 0 Picture new blood vein growing for cancer 51 Angiogenesis and Metastasis a illustration of process 52 Cancer Markers a gtMarkers are proteins found in blood b gtMarker level correlates with certain cancer types c gtSome tumor markers are antigens others are enzymes d gtExample prostatespecific antigen PSA is a marker for prostate cancer in males 3 HeLa Cells a Cancer research i Growing cells in culture allows researchers to investigate processes and test treatments without danger to patients 9 4 m U1 U1 ISB November 1 2010 Lecture 13 Climate change SUB TEACHER COOL Greenhouse effect carbon dioxide is an insulating gas When sun hits earth heat is absorbs into whatever it hits More sunlight hits the more it keeps the heat of the sunlight around the world and the heat acts as a blanket Emission C02 increase thanks to burning organic fuels 0C2 comes from fuel coal transportation metals ect Temp goes up cause problems because on a world scale they are not a good thing If temp goes up weather patterns change Some areas are dryer some are wetter Extreme rains Problem of disease limited to tropics for temp but if temp goes up then the disease spread faster And Natural world doesn t adapt quicker then human world does Natural world deals with things over long periods of time Coral reefs are very important and they keep islands a oat and are very sensitive of CHANGE IN TEMPERTURE Also if temp goes up ice sheets around the world the water level will increase and some areas will disappear Polar ice caps hold 70 of fresh water H Ifwe melt ice would the water in this ice turn into salt water ltThat s a big question debated today And with global warming there is a loss in biodiversity Decreased water resource comp is not a potential threat of global warming lticlicker question Correlation two things happen at same time does not equal causation something that causes something else Climate of the world has change through life Ex ice age dinosaurs Human records of climate data only go back 200 years so why can we think we can predict future weather changes Well we don t know enough to really know but we can try This might make us overreact or under react Scientist does a thorough job but do they have enough data If global warming is real its humans fault And its up to everyone to have to deal with it National scale whose economy is at the most fault Idea that current American average of resources is unsustainable and we use more and more resources and those resources will run out and we wont have them anymore Technology fix windmills Technology improves efficiency But doesn t fix consumption N H V 3 5 E ISB 201 Lecture 115 Page 1 quotEnd of the Line video clip Lecture 115 Threats to the Hydrosphere Minilecture Goals a Understand effects of invasive species US Largest consumer of sushi b Understand effects of overfishing c Understand other manmade threats to hydrosphere OIL d What can you do Invasive Species 3 Nonnative species of plants fish etc make their way into water bodies where they can wreak havoc on the ecosystem Linked to ocean through series of chains and canals Often reach Lake Michigan Have a large impact on us The species have been transferred accidently b These nonnative species can be transferred accidentally such as by ships releasing ballast water from other seas or lakes and intentionally where a species may be released for a positive effect but has other unforeseen effects Invasive Species 3 Eurasian Watermilfoil Is a plant close to algae has almost no roots grows up to surface of water and photosynthesis and reproduces One of most important in Great Lakes Clogs the system So to fix this use as an aquarium plant Causes a lot of problems is acts as a mat shutting off light for other plants so they can t photosynthesis and is also a home for mosquitos i Was once sold as an aquarium plant ii Was introduced to the eastern US in the 1940 s possibly as early as latenineteenth century iii Spreads from lake to lake by small pieces clinging to boat trailers fishing gear etc 1 Can reproduce from very small plant fragments 2 Forms dense mats on surface of water 3 Provides breeding ground for mosquitoes 4 Lowers oxygen content of water by preventing wind from mixing surface water to deeper water 5 Increases sedimentation rate by trapping sediments 6 Over shing Diagram of overfishing cycle ISB 201 Lecture 115 Page 2 7 Over shing Bad citizens don t care that they have overfished Good citizens who regulate how 00 8 much they fish keeping the cycle going Asias s over sh Not everyone wants to protect whales and salmon If nets escape which happens a lot kills many fish that can39t be used It s a product of bad shing Bessey Bay net escaped killed so many no one could go to beach because of smell 3 Orange Roughy It was over fished in about 57 years by 10 years it was exterminated and it s not around It s a 100 year cycle so we quickly over fished it Unlike cod 5 year cycle Overfished for years may not recover for decades Live to almost 100 years old don t breed until 20 iii Caught when they gather to reproduce killing several generations at a time Fished by bottomtrawling which destroys the seafloor harming other species which are then dumped as bycatch Other ManMade Threats a Overuse of Water Use salt water for mineral extraction b Pollution The Earth leaks into the ocean There is continual oil leaking in C cl Coral Even mining coral calcium Coral reefs are very important because millions of organisms Exploiting for minerals live in the reef which are killed when we hunt the reefs e Drilling for and transporting fuels i ExxonValdez HP didn t have required clean up equipment ii Deepwater Horizon When oil spill happens how do we measure how much impact Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill a Deepwater Horizon Rig exploded on April 2151 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico eleven people were killed and oil leaked into the ocean for months i Between 35000 and 100000 barrels of oil spewed out dailyOne barrel equals 42 gallons ii Underwateroil plumes iii Crude oil washing up on shore iv Devastating effects on marine life and ecosystem 10 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Would be a sound system of monitoring and a better clean up system We need oil and we re going to continue to drill for oil but we need to make better changes a So many unknowns i How long will the Gulf be affected 1 2 8 E ISB 201 Lecture 12 Page 1 Lecture 12 Solid Toxic and Hazardous Waste Lecture 12 Goals a 1 Solid waste Important for future b 2 Waste disposal methods c 3 Shrinking the waste stream 1 Recycing cl 4 Hazardous and toxic wastes Federal Legislation EE RCRA Resource Conservation and RecoveryAct CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and LiabilityAct aka E Superfund 4 e 5 How can you reduce your ecological footprint How much ecological space you take up in Management Options the system How fast do you drive wheat vehicle What do you eat b Waste in the United States c gtAccording to EPA US produces 11 billion tons of solid waste annually cl gtAbout half is agricultural waste Most of it s waste comes back into production of soil Has tremendously cleaned up its act When shuck corn we throw out the husk We should put it in compost instead of throwing out e gtMore than onethird is mining related f gtndustrial Waste 400 million metric tons A lot is reused in US not in a lot of other countires a HazardousToxic 60 million metric tons gtMunicipa Waste 200 million metric tons When we flush the toilet our waste goes to the treatment facility Takes out waste and cleans out and goes back into Grand River but can39t get rid of medicines or hormones This affects microbes and fish a a Twothirds of a ton per person b Waste Stream US Domestic Waste graphs of waste generated and disposal methods LOOK AT GRAPH Waste Disposal Methods a Open Dumps Many are going away in the US but in the rest of the world there are groups of people who live on clumps They live right in the dump the poorest of the poor a gtOpen unregulated clumps are still the predominant method of waste disposal in developing countries ISB 201 Lecture 12 Page 2 b Ocean dumping Is nearly uncontrollable In North pacific 50000 northern fur seals are entangled in refuse and in the 1000 km of fishing nets lost each year They drown or starve to death Eskimos would slay seals because women liked to wear their fur We did something about it the seals became protected But no one gets excited about protecting from lines and nets being released a gtEvery year 25000 metric tons of packaging are dumped at sea and wash up on beaches even in remote regions 6 Waste Disposal Methods cont a Exporting Waste a gtAlthough most industrialized nations have agreed to stop shipping hazardous and toxic waste to lessdeveloped countries the practice still continues A lot of cardboard is thrown overboard each year Cardboard is made with many chemicals and glue to produced Made out of corregated materials Computers are one of the most significant impact on polluting b Landfills We may need more a gtSanitary Landfills Granger is the larges landfill in East Lansing area 1 Refuse compacted and covered every day with a layer of dirt 2 Dirt takes up as much a as 20 of landfill space 7 Land lls 339 a gtHistorically landfills have been a convenient inexpensive wastedisposal option b gtRising land prices and shipping fees and demanding construction and maintenance requirements are increasing costs We are running out of space to do this A love canal is building a city on top ofa toxic dump n Vermont Connecticut polluted because we didn t know how to handle waste products 1 Suitable landfill sites are becoming scarce 2 1200 1500 landfills have closed 3 Communities are rejecting new landfills gtPositive trend in landfills is methane recovery c Waste Disposal Methods Incineration also called Energy Recovery Very expensive mainly used in cities Very complex system Have been able to do mass burning Acid rain has been mainly cured by the way to a handle waste in our country A mass burning incinerator sorts in categories and burns different things at different temperatures Carbon Exchange soil is 85 of soil Buffalo jumps heat underneath makes the buffalo jump and they jump into a ditch and die Their carcus are used for calcium a gtEnergy Recovery heat derived from incinerated refuse is a useful resource ISB 201 Lecture 12 Page 3 E Burning garbage is used to create steam used for heating buildings or generating electricity E nternationally there are well over 1000 such plants 3 gtHowever EPA has found alarmingly high levels ofdioxins furan lead and cadmium in ash which may be controlled by removing heavy metals batteries and plastics before burning 9 Electronic Waste a gtDemanufacturing is the disassembly and recycling ofobsolete appliances and electronics 1 Most office machines are used 3 years most TVs used 5 years 300 million computers await disposal This is because a newbetter computer is always being produced 2 70 of heavy metal contamination comes from e waste and batteries make up another 10 to 20 3 In Europe manufacturers have quotcradle to gravequot responsibility for their products Can we make sure babies aren t born with birth defects 10 Shrinking the Waste System look at picture Most people aren39t at the very top ofthe triangle yet a Recycling 1 gtRecycling is the reprocessing ofdiscarded materials into new useful products 2 gtCurrently about twothirds of all aluminum cans are recycled 3 gtOld tires are turned into road surface 4 gtNewspapers become insulation 5 gtRecycling copper is so lucrative that thieves are stealing copper pipes and wires causing gas leaks and explosions 11 Recycling a Benefits a gtSaves money raw materials and land 1 Costs 35ton as opposed to 80ton to landfill gtEncourages individual responsibility 9 gtReduces pressure on disposal systems 1 Japan recycles about half of all wastes Leading the world They get their resources from recycling Which reduces air consumption 2 Lowers demand for raw resources d gtReduces energy consumption and air pollution 12 Shrinking the Waste System a Producing Less Waste a gtExcess packaging of consumer products is one of our greatest sources of unnecessary waste Packaging is amazingly sealed this way so people can t steal stuff ISB 201 Lecture 12 Page 4 1 Paper plastic glass and metal packaging material make up 50 of domestic trash a Decrease unnecessary packaging b ncrease use of photodegradable and biodegradable plastics b gtNew laws in European Union By 2020 50 of municipal solid waste and 70 of construction waste will be reused or recycled 13 Recycling Manages pollution good forjobs good for economy encourages indiv responsibility reduces pressure on transportation system Recycling is going up because there is a high demand for minerals The dose makes the poison We have mercury in our body and we get rid of it by putting it in our hair We get rid of toxins on our body by putting it in hair nails skin urine poop ltrecycing process in our bodies Recycling is going to be MUCH more important throughout our lifetime 3 E I amp gtPresent policies tend to favor use of new raw materials because energy raw materials and water are often sold below real cost to create jobs and stimulate the economy gtState local and national statutes requiring government agencies to purchase a minimum amount of recycled material have helped Should elect those in favor gtYou can help by buying recycled products LOOK AT GRAPH Yard waste makes up 12 of waste stream Methane is a short carbon gas and it has lots of energy and burns easiey has carbon dioxcide and water Over 500000 tons of debris from World Trade Center was recycled Thermal conversion processes cooks manure paper processing waste and plastics into oil Processof recycling where we can use heat is the way of the future We want to compost all organic matter We want to make sugar and turn it right back into resources and soil Soil is a carbon mix and the darker the soil the more healthy it is 14 Reuse is More Efficient Than Recycling Expensive to recycling plastic 3 b fl gtAuto parts brass fittings woodwork bricks are routinely reused and can bring a high price gtGlass and plastic bottles are washed and refilled plastics don t biodegrade fast And micorobes have a hard time attacking plastics so it doesn t break down easily Plastic also converts to tixics materials In the breakdown process Plastic bottles tha contain water and burn it FAGJENE gas what lIitler used to kill Jews gtn developing countries poor people make a living by scavenging sorting and reprocessing scraps from dumps up until recently western nations had exported ships which shipped plastic rather then recycling them HORRIABLE 15 Hazardous and toxic waste 3 gtEPA estimates US industries generate 265 million metric tons of officially classified hazardous wastes annually Difference between metric tons and us tons a At least 40 million metric tons of toxic and hazardous wastes are released into the environment each year long term consquences we have increasingly put toxics into envirnment ISB 201 Lecture 12 Page 5 16 Hazardous and Toxic Waste a gtLegally hazardous waste is any discarded liquid or solid that contains substances known to be a b e 53 Fatal to humans or laboratory animals in low doses Toxic carcinogenic mutagenic or teratogenic massive mutations that lead to birth defects to humans or other lifeforms gnitable with a flash point less than 60 C difference between C and F Corrosive Acid or base PH above 7 is a base and PH below 7 is acid weak and strong acid strong is PH of 3 eats hole right through you On a log scale its not linear its curved linear Have to be careful what we do with PH material They are controlled by government for the envirnoment Exposive or highly reactive 17 Hazardous Waste Disposal a Federal Legislation a gtResource Conservation and Recovery Act RCRA 1976 big impact on how this country handles state and federal waste Still has impact on what is happening in MI 1 Comprehensive program requiring rigorous testing and management of toxic and hazardous substances 2 Cradle to gravequot accounting ltnot in US so much In Europe Idea that if you make something you have respon for that product through entire use life So at end you must deal with recycling it Ex cars 18 Tracking Cradle to the Grave diagram of quotcradle to grave cycle 19 Federal Legislation a CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act 57 99 gtGovernment does not have to prove anyone violated a law or what role they played in contaminating a superfund site Mi is highest superfund site In lansing we have 3 superfund sites Liability under CERCLA is llstrict joint and several meaning anyone associated with a site can be held responsible for the entire cleanup cost CERCLA amended in 1995 to allow containment if treatment is unavailable or too costly to administer superfund tax payers must pay to clean up past two centuries paint jobs people have right to know But it costs money Tracking cradle to the grave costs money 20 Superfund Sites tanning industry used materals to soften hide In sediments of lake eerie we will find valuable minerials Copper habor in up was used for minning lfwe open up soil and get into rock and bust up rock into tiny pieces so we can get minerials for it We do that and it concentrates lead mercury ISB 201 Lecture 12 Page 6 m gtEPA eviroment protection agency estimates 36000 seriously contaminated sites in the US General Accounting Office says 400000 sites huge durocracy lt hard to get things done b gtThere are currently over 1200 sites in the United States Most of the sites are old industrial facilities and chemical manufacturing plants around the Great Lakes and Gulf Coast c Superfund is a revolving pool designed to worst place gets cleaned up first a Provide immediate response to emergency situations posing imminent hazards b Cleanup abandoned or inactive sites 21 Brown eld liabilities and opportunities winking blinking and nod downtown and big towers where old GM plant was that39s a brownfeild Covered with cement cause soil underneath was contemanated with lead And in our life time it will have to turn into a superfund site How do you grow business when business creates toxins and pollutes As humans do anything we concentrate toxins lfwe don t know how to control them reuse convert recycle then we are poisoning outselves ESSAY a gtBrownfields contaminated properties that have been abandoned or are not being used up to potential because of pollution concerns a Up to onethird ofall commercial industrial sites in urban core of many big cities fall into this category b In many cases property owners complain that unreasonably high purity levels are demanded in remediation c Providing liability insurance against future cleanup costs is beneficial in reusing brownfields 22 Hazardous Waste Management Options a gtProduce Less Waste a Avoid creating wastes in the first place b Recycle and Reuse what is waste to one industry is raw product for another b gtConvert to Less Hazardous Substances technology a Physical Treatment Isolation ncineration Chemical Processing Transformation to nontoxic substances 52957 Bioremediation Microorganisms detoxify huge field here at MSU microbes that can eat up oil 23 Hazardous Waste Management Options old land lls are hot items in the free market ppl are gidding them up and abstracting the minerials It s a gold mine a gtStore Permanently a Retrievable Storage in containers in salt mines or caverns b Can be inspected and periodically retrieved if necessary b gtSecure Landfills a Modern complex landfills with multiple liners and other impervious layers covered by a cap Leachate is processed and monitoring sees that no toxins escape EXAM 2 Review Notes In power point everything in red Go through book Besides STD39s only need to know trends not statistics Know the goals of each lesson POTENTIAL ESSAY QUESTIONS How does a vector work Essay question Difference between developed worlds vs underdeveloped world How can under advance when fighting offinsect born disease essay question How much are advancement related to how you can fight off parasite Essay question Balancing economic growth with trying to conserve the environment green movement Essay question LECTURE 8 Know each disease and how you can contract it Less developed countries have difficulty developing due to diseasesbugs 510 diseases are carried by parasites Lyme disease by ticks Yellow fever by mosquitoes Malaria huge problem Know all about that Encephalitis diseases in MI STD39s know a lot Know statisticsall numbers Males vs females LECTURE 9 Know how cancer cells operate Know all terminology Know what a carcinogen is Today most pesticides are hormonal and target specific Still know cell division types General information about cancer cells send out signal to make new growth cells HeLa cells taken from a person used for cancer research Taken from woman grow in culture without hurting patients The woman died years ago but her cells are still alive HeLa comes from her first name and last name Human cancer cells can be grown in a culture Not much about aging You have only so many cell divisions before you die Hormones drive cell divisions in animals Know war on cancer slide P53 protein tumor suppressor protein prevent tumors from forming Do not need to know quotes LECTURE 10 From evolutionary theory find more information to build off Know how evolution is used Know what goes into process of natural selection What makes a person fit in evolutionary terms Allele and Locus Mico and Macroevolution Know about five pillars Pesticide resistance LECTURE 11 Know different spheres Gaia hypothesis What is bio diversity Forest types Fire management know all about it By stopping fire causes decline of certain species What does fire management have on environment as a whole Butter y LECTURE 115 Don39t need to know about film Know goals Invasive species Watermilfoil largest in great lakes Overfishing don39t need to know chart Don39t need to know about datesspecifics of oil spill Know what you can do to prevent spread ofinvasive species etc LECTURE 12 Grangerlargest landfill in East Lansing area Cradle Grave responsibility CERCLA super fund federal legislation
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