Insects, Global, & Sustain
Insects, Global, & Sustain ISB 201
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angelita Tillman on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISB 201 at Michigan State University taught by Suzanne Thiem in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/207794/isb-201-michigan-state-university in Biological Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Major Themes ISBZ 01 FINAL REVIEW How science interprets the world Biospheric Principles quotOne Earth biosphere 9 portion of the earth including its land oceans and atmosphere where organisms can live holocoenotic everythingis connected and selfadjusting never static energy ows through the biosphere and is continually supplied by the ty of matter in the biosphere is finite and must be recycled for life to exist 0 O 0 sun 0 quanti O homo sapiens are animals and are part of the biosphere Geological and Biological History of Earth Matter and Energy laws and principles 0 energy ow ood webs trophic levels 0 biogeochemical cycles 9 all cycles are driven by the sun s energy 0 Howd GenesDNA water hydrologic o evaporation precipitation transpiration oxygen carbon 0 decomposition respiration photosynthesis combustion phosphorous nitrogen atmospheric lightning and volcanoes fixation nitrates denitrification Evolution ofliving organisms biodiversity oes it occur heritable genetic variability selection of successful existing variations of genes changes in alleles mutation migration genetic drift selection microevolution 9 within a species macroevolution 9 speciation entire population results habitat 9 where an organism lives niche 9 how an organism makes its living obtains nutrients acquires energy and interacts with other organisms 0 competition exclusion principle 9 no two organisms can occupy the same niche 0 gene 9 unit of heredity strings of DNA 0 chrom protein and RNA coding osomes 9 compacted genes o nucleus 9 contains chromosomes 0 Interactions among organisms and the environment ecology 0 Types ofinteractions I predatorprey 0 food webs I competitors 0 interspecific o intraspecific I symbiosis o parasitehost o mutualism o commensalism I succession 0 primary 0 secondary o populationpopulation control I No population can continue to grow indefinitely because of limitations on resources and because of competition among species for those resources Biotic potential 9 the rate at which a population would grow under ideal conditions 0 always limits to growth in nature 0 environmental resistance 9 factors limiting the growth ofa population Effects of uncontrolled growth 0 agriculture greatest threat to ecosystems and biodiversity o deforestation over grazing soil loss desertification water usepollution pesticides loss of biodiversity depletion of fossil fuels affects on biogeochemical cycles 0 fishing 0 beyond sustainable limits 0 industry 0 deforestation mineral use habitat destruction water usepollution chemical waste depletion of fossil fuels 0 waste 0 more human waste than the environment can process naturally o wastes that nature can t handle easily I CFCs I pesticides I other industrial waste o carrying capacity K 9 the number of individuals ofa given species that can be sustained in a given space I keystone species 9 in uences the population size of many other species in its community I r species I K species I cultural carrying capacity 0 also see matter and energy 0 Climate and biomes climate change 9 an area s climate is determined mostly by solar radiation the earth s rotation global patterns of air and water movement gases in the atmosphere and the earth s surface features 0 Major factors I moisture I temperature 0 Biomes 9 terrestrial ecosystem types that eXtend over large geographic areas I distribution is driven by temperature and precipitation 0 Water properties use and pollution Insects biology and roles 0 Human impact on the planet 0 population explosion 0 food and agriculture 0 technology 0 economic systems I GDP and GNI do not take into accont o differences between beneficial and harmful services 0 how wealth and resources are distributed 0 natural resource depletion and degradtion 0 using renewable resources unsustainably I fresh water ocean fish and shellfish habitat destruction removing top predators disrupting migratory patterns extinctions o depleting nonrenewable resources I fossil fuels minerals biodiversity 0 climate change 0 Globalization 0 Sustainability 9 living off the interest and not depleting or degrading the capital Science 0 A way of knowing 0 Evidence based 0 observable by scientist and others 0 measurable o repeatable o interpreted using reason but skeptically considering alternative explanations Laws 0 Thermodynamics I 1 Energy is not created or destroyed I 2 Energy from the sun ows through the system 0 Conservation of Matter I Matter atoms are reused and recycled eg biogeochemical cycles Hypotheses o predictive o testable o falsifiable Theories Scientific Theory 9 A coherent explanation for a larger number of facts and observations about the natural world 0 internally consistent and compatible with the evidence firmly grounded in and based upon evidence demonstrably effective in problemsolving examples theory of evolution cell theory plate tectonics theory thermonuclear reactions drive this Scientific or Natural Law 9 a description ofa natural phenomenon or principle that invariably holds true under specific conditions and will occur under certain circumstances 0 examples laws of thermodynamics mendelian laws of heredity law of gravity Natural Capital 9 natural resources natural services 0 resources air water soil land life nonrenewable energy 0 services airwater purification soil renewal nutrient recycling food production pollination pest control waste treament Insects 0 most abundant organisms on earth 0 provide essential ecological services 0 evolve quickly 0 found everywhere except open oceans o impact human lives in numerous ways Global problems 0 overpopulation developing nations 0 over consumption developed nations Impact of economy on sustainability 0 production based GDP I environmental costs I resource use I human wellbeing 0 full cost pricing OOO Study Guide 1 Major Environmental Science Themes Emphasized What is Environmental Science systematic study of our environment and our proper place in it highly interdisciplinary integrates natural sciences social sciences and humanities in a broad holistic study of the world around us seeks new valid contextual knowledge about the natural world and our impacts on it the study of how earth works how we are affecting the earth how we might deal with the environmental problems we face Biosphere and Biospheric Principles Biospherethat component of our planet where life is able to eXist the zone of air land and water at the surface of the earth that is occupied by organisms Biospheric Principles 1 The39 39 r39 is 39 39 quot and 1f 139 ing it is never static 2 Energy ows through the Biosphere and is continually supplied by the sun 3 The Quantity of Matter in the Biosphere is nite and must be recycle for life to eXist 4 Homo sapiens are animals and are part of the biosphere Sustainability one that accommodates its needs without compromising the ability of the future generations from living within the bounds of nature based on renewable resources used in ways that don t deplete nonrenewable resources harm essential ecological services or limit the ability of future generations to meet their needs Natural Capital 7 Resources vs Capital NC what keeps us and other species alive Natural Capital Natural Resources Natural Services Natural Resources air water soil land lifebiodiversity renewable energysun wind water ows nonrenewable energyfossil fuels nuclear power Natural Services air purification water purification soil renewal nutrient recycling pollination grassland renewal waste treatment climate control population control pest control Ecological Footprint the amount of land and water area a person or a human population would need to provide the resources required to sustainably support itself and to absorb its wastes given prevailing technology Globalization process of interaction and integration among the people companies and governments of different nations a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology this process has effects on the environment on culture on political systems on economic development and prosperity and on human physical wellbeing in societies around the world Myth ofIneXhaustibility the belief that we cannot use up all of the available resources that are given to us at this time Maximum Sustainable Yield the amount of a resource we can impact and use without affecting future populations over an infinite period stopping at the limit which allows a population to productively grow Tragedy ofthe Commons situation in which multiple individuals acting independently rationally consulting their own self interest will eventually deplete a shared limited resources even when it is clear Garret Hardin argued that any commonly held resource inevitably is degraded or destroyed because the narrow selfinterests of individuals tend to outweigh public interests wams about human over population an inexorable process of degradation of communal resources due to selfish selfinterest of free riders who use or destroy more than their fair share of common property Scientific Methods lObservation 2 Propose a hypothesis 3 Develop a test for the hypothesis 4 Predict the Result 5 Gather data from you test 6 Interpret results Scientific Hypotheses vs Scientific Theories vs Scientific Laws Scientific Theory a coherent explanation for a large number of facts and observations about the natural world Theory of Evolution Cell theory Atomic theory Theory of relativity Plate tectonics theory Scientific Law a description of a natural phenomenon or principle that invariably holds true under specific conditions and will occur under certain circumstances Law of Thermodynamics Mendelian laws of heredity Law of gravity Conservation ofmatter In any chemical reaction matter changes form it is neither created nor destroyed Flow of Energy Laws of Thermodynamics First Law states that energy is conserved that is it is neither created nor destroyed under normal conditions Energy may be transformed but the total amount does not change Second Law states that with each successive energy transfer or transformation in a system less energy is available to do work That is energy is degraded to lowerquality forms or it dissipates and is lost as it is used Economic Systems Economics the social science that analyzes the production distribution and consumption of goods and services GNI vs GDP Gross national product the sum total of all goods and services produced in a national economy Compromises the total value produce within country together with its income received from other countries Gross domestic product the total economic activity within national boundaries measure of a country s overall economic output It is the market value of all final goods and Major 0 services made within the borders of a country in a year Positively correlate with standard of living Includes production of citizens outside national borders and excludes production of foreign nationals residing in the country Cap and Trade a environmental policy tool that delivers results with a mandatory cap on emissions while providing sources exibility in how they comply Successful cap and trade programs reward innovation efficiency and early action and provide strict environmental accountability without inhibiting economic growth Full Cost Pricing Intemal Costs those factors which drive the market price Extemal Costs harmful effects passed on Structure ofPlanet Core solid nickel and uranium thermonuclear reactions produce heat Mantle molten liquid rock plastic moving makes up vast majority Crust solid composed of plates that oat on mantle Plate Tectonics the core heats the mantle so the liquid rock rises and moves toward the crust then when it gets away from the core the rock cools again and sinks back toward the core This process moves the plates on the crust Types of continental igneous granite large crystals less dense 3045 miles thick oldest oceanic igneous basalt small crystals more dense 45 miles thick Explains Geological uplift volcanic uplift plate collisions island arc systems distribution of plants animals and fossils Entomological Themes Emphasized Binomial System and Taxonomy Species Concept Biological Species organisms are classified in the same species if they are potentially capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring Arthropods Exoskeleton a hard protective covering around the outside of the body Segmented body that allows movement Jointed limbs and jointed mouthparts allow extensive specialization Ventral nerve chord as opposed to a vertebrate nerve chord which is dorsal The Reasons for the Success of Insects o Biotic potential the inherent power of organisms to reproduce and survive They reproduce a lot Diverse niches Dominant Species on the planet 8095 percent ofall known species Nearly 1 million species described Potentially 30 million species OOOOO Name Assignment 3 Science Due Mon Ian 23 InstructionsThere are two parts For part 1 go specifically to the Science 101 website to answer the questions For part 2 do an independent web search Answer the questions using word processing and submit in the dropbox for assignment 3 Remember to save the document with a file name that includes your name and the assignment number 1 Exploreread Science 101 http undsciberkeleyeduindexphp and answer the following questions a 9 What is science What are its characteristics Verbatim from Understanding Science 101 Science focuses exclusively on the natural world and does not deal with supernatural explanations Science is a way oflearning about what is in the natural world how the natural world works and how the natural world got to be the way it is It is not simply a collection of facts rather it is a path to understanding Scientists work in many different ways but all science relies on testing ideas by figuring out what expectations are generated by an idea and making observations to find out whether those expectations hold true Accepted scientific ideas are reliable because they have been subjected to rigorous testing but as new evidence is acquired and new perspectives emerge these ideas can be revised Science is a community endeavor It relies on a system of checks and balances which helps ensure that science moves in the direction of greater accuracy and understanding This system is facilitated by diversity within the scientific community which offers a broad range ofperspectives on scientific ideas How is science done It is a dynamic process that involves examining current understandings hypotheses and theories about the Natural World to answer new questions that arise from this prior knowledge and from new observations The process involves making testable hypotheses those that result in a predictable outcome of tests experiments if correct and different predictable outcomes if incorrect This may require many iterations at different levels and does not necessarily ow in a straight line It involves interactions and discussion among people scientists and others publication or presentation of findings and peer review Name C Q Did the explanations you found on this website differ from the answers you came up with in class discussion How This will vary but from my readings ofvarious group responses for most ofyou the procedure described here differed from your initial response It was less linear and did not follow a simple quotcookbook recipe on what should be done The stepwise method you probably learned previously in school is basically correct with regards to scientific logic and process in that it emphasizes testing ideas based on evidence What is peer review This is an examination of the methods and interpretations of scientific research findings prior to its publication or presentation by other scientists who are experts in the field The same process also occurs when scientists submit proposals for funding of future research to governmental funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation and private foundations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation It can be thought ofas a quality control process for science What questions cannot be answered by science Science cannot answer questions that do not pertain to the natural world Science also cannot determine what kind ofactions individuals or societies should do in response to scientific findings although scientists will often give their opinions or recommendations for actions 2 Use the internet or other sources to find the answers to the following questions and give the sources of information a b What are is plate tectonics The scientific theory that describes the movements of the Earth s solid crust the lithosphere across the Earth s mantle specifically the asthenosphere The moving lithosphere is broken into a number of large and small quottectonic plates which collide scrape past each other or pushed beneath each nother What evidence supports the idea of plate tectonics There is a lot so I may not list some of the points you made There is similar geology topology and fossilson continents that appear to fit together as ifa puzzle There is evidence for seabed spreading Ocean ridges were found and measured There are magnetic reversals in the oceanic plates surrounding oceanic ridges laid down by magma released at different periods when the theearths magnetic poles reversed The movement of continents has been measured from space using satellites Name Assignment 13 DueMonday April 9 Readings Chapters2 amp 4World on the Edge by Lester Brown Answer the questions using word processing and submit in the dropbox for assignment 13 Remember to save the document with a file name that includes your name and the assignment number 1 What percentage of fresh water is used in agriculture Why Appoximately 70 of available fresh water is used for agriculture globally Basically plants can t grow without water nor can livestock can t live without it We have expanded our croplands into many arid areas in order to increase food production for example the central valley in California Without the input ofwater we couldn t grow crops in these regions and would probably have encountered food shortages already 2 What are aquifers fossil aquifers and water tables What are the short and longterm impacts of using aquifers for irrigating crops Aquifers are underground water supplies essential underground rivers and lakes of water They are generally recharged by precipitation owing in However some aquifers called quotfossil aquifers were formed many years ago essentially by geological changes such as sedimentation and plate tectonic movements Because of the structures of the confining layers they cannot be recharged so when the water in these aquifers is used it is gone forever Examples are the Ogallala in North America one in China under the North China Plain and one that has essentially been depleted under the Arabian Peninsula Water tables is the water directly under the soil layers the saturated zone these waters are essentially at the same levels the surfaces of surface waters in an area the ponds lakes and streams With industrialization we have been able to pump all of these waters out of the ground for human use in agriculture domestic use and industry In many places we are pumping aquifers and groundwater faster than recharge rates and depleting fossil aquifers Shortterm problems are competing needs for domestic and agricultural use Some countries and whole regions will not be able to produce enough food and will need to import it some of these countries are already poor can they afford to do thisIt will also impact exports of food from countries that can still produce food but at lower yields to countries that cannot continue to produce crops Shortterm food security in many countries will be an issue Longterm we risk food shortages and likely famines because we wont have enough water to produce enough food to feed the growing human populationCon icts between countries that have more water resources and those that don t 3 How are surface waters used in agriculture Are there any problems or concerns with this source of water Surface waters such as rivers streams and lakes are diverted to agriculture Often this requires building dams which has enormous ecological consequences In addition rivers which are a major fresh water source do not know or obey political boundaries and are a potential source of con ict as upstream countries states
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