Appl Envir & Organismal Bio
Appl Envir & Organismal Bio ISB 202
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Module 2 Exam Food and Water the Currency ofLife Chapters 1 2 7 10 Water for Life 0 Identify the properties ofwater Water is a polar molecule dissolves and carries nutrients to and from cells Water L 39 39 L L supporting capillary actionquot W t r as ahigh surface tension Living organisms seeds pollen etc can sit on top ofwater Water expands when frozen and ice oats Underice remains unfrozen where organisms can still live Water has high speci c heat Requires a lot ofheatto change temperature Water has high heat ofvaporization Evaporative cooling ofthe surface a er is absorbed via imbibition u my mi W a and 1th i 9 with othersurfaces 0 Explain why the properties ofwater are essential for life 39 L r L um quot 39 in which all living processes occur Water dissolves nutrients and distributes them to cells regulates body temperature supports structures and removes waste products 0 Diagram the water cycle A Warm MsGmN wu Cnmpamz m ammmmmm Ia mmucmmww Movemem or malsl an lmm ocean n land 40000 it 3 er mien over land Trailswallqp mun m3 quotOmegmargm 39 39 4 m Prempxialmn over ocean 385 an 39 l rn 50quot r an l akes moon km3l Ev a gquot mm ocean 425com m3 quot39 39 r rle and itiS The path ofwater through Uul 39 A 4 L 10 Ni 7 1m 39 3 in the oceans butsolar e Ipulntc uii waieiand 39 A 39 39 apui Water in L I nn nrfn quot 39 iland and perspiration Eventually this moisture L L 39 J again L L wnm nu i u and fm global I cells IUI L l properties Water is so important that Water 39 hen astronomers look for signs oflife on distant planets traces ofwater are the key evidence they see Discriminate between ground water and surface water Groundwater Stores Large Resources Copyrigth 1 39 lnc Transpira on Precipitation from plant surfaces Iv I r z 4 t Evaporation from land and water surfaces Runoff ae ration Zone of saturation ne of aeration Shallow layer of soil containing both air and water ne ofsatura 39on Lower soil layer with pores filled with water Water table Top of zone of saturation that supplies most wells Surface Runoff Requires Regular Replenishment Rivers lakes and wetlands have a short hydrologic cycle Need constant replenishment from precipitation The 16 largest rivers in the world carry nearly half ofall surface runoff on Earth Lakes contain nearly 100 times as much water as all rivers and streams combined but much ofthis water is in a few ofthe world39s largest lakes Changes in precipitation patters will greatly alter quantity of surface runoff Identify how ground water and surface water are unequally distributed globally Water cycles endlessly through the environment Solar energy drives the hydrologic cycle by evaporating surface water which becomes rain and snow Because water and sunlight are unevenly distributed around the globe water resources are Very unevenly distributed T quot39 t quot quot ofwater39 39 interms of39 39 inwhich water resides Nearly all the world39s water is in the oceans Only a out 02 percent ofthe world39s water is in a form accessible to us and to other organisms that rely on fresh water List the compartments ofwater and the relative amount ofwater in each summommemw Hulcamumuu lle F mm mun mum 1m mmmmumm San mamqu Mmslure m mama Fresh Walnr Gwmdwa e 23 M and ammals 233 2 4 2 0 oceans 1 m1 mmusphm arm E7133 Q Freshwater lakes 4 m 612530 mm 1 3 x mm m s 939 ms n 5 39 Ware 0 3 ml waler Fresh water quuld lvesh surface waler mm Hg Wm M Explain why the atmosphere is atransporter rather than a storer of fresh water T 39 l WW 39 mechanism for redistributing water around the world An individual water molecule resides in the atmosphere for about 10 days on average Some water evaporates and falls within hours Water can also travel halfway around the world before it falls replenishing streams and aquifers on land De ne an aquifer Porous waterbearing layers ofsand gravel and rock below the earth s surface reservoirs for groundwater Geological Layers that Contain Water are Called Aquifers Explain how surface water enters an aquifer L ea Wa ev mm gvound wam he d by mo ecu av amatnon sunounds suvfaces ofvock pamdes Appvoxwma e eve o he wa ev mm AH opemngs be ow wa ev ab e mu ofgvound wa ev Label 3 crussrseczmn ufland and Identifythe zuneswat2rtable aquifer etc Viewplczure example surface Water Liquid Gold I Differentiate between water rich and water poor nations Poor countries have much less to spend on sanitation I Discriminate between what it means to have water availability versus accessibility The availability of water determines the location and activities of humans on earth I Discriminate between what it means to have water availability and or accessibility versus safe water availability and accessibility I Identify reasons for water pollution Sewage treatment in the wealthier countries of Europe generally equals or surpasses that in the United States Sweden for instance serves 98 percent of its population with at least secondary sewage treatment compared with 70 percent in the United States and the other 2 percent have primary treatment Poorer countries have much less to spend on sanitation Spain serves only 18 percent of its population with even primary sewage treatment In Ireland it is only 11 percent and in Greece less than 1 percent of the people have even primary treatment Most of the sewage both domestic and industrial is dumped directly into the ocean Parts of Russia along with former socialist states in the Balkans and Central Asia remain some of the most polluted places on earth In Russia for example only about half the tap water is t to air As we saw earlier in this chapter at least 200 million Chinese live in areas without suf cient fresh water Sadly pollution makes much of the limited water unusable g 1021 It39s estimated that 70 percent of China39s surface water is unsafe for human consumption and that the water in half the country39s major rivers is so contaminated that it39s unsuited for any use even agriculture The lessdeveloped countries of South America Africa and Asia have even worse water quality than do the poorer countries of Europe Sewage treatment is usually either totally lacking or woefully inadequate In urban areas 95 percent of all sewage is discharged untreated into rivers lakes or the ocean The most serious water pollutants in terms of human health worldwide are pathogenic diseasecausing organisms Among the most important waterborne diseases are typhoid cholera bacterial and amoebic dysentery enteritis polio infectious hepatitis and schistosomiasis If any coliform bacteria are present in a water sample infectious pathogens are usually assumed to be present also Drain pipes pointsource improper disposal of industrial and household waste pesticide runoff dumping of contaminants on recharge zones leaks through abandoned wells Explain the relationship between poor sanitation unsafe water and water borne human pathogens In the US summarize the nature of our water crisis US Water Quality Today The 1972 Clean Water Act established a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System NPDES which requires an easily revoked permit for any industry municipality or other entity dumping wastes in surface waters The permit requires disclosure of what is being dumped and gives regulators valuable data and evidence for litigation As a consequence only about 10 percent of our water pollution now comes from industrial and municipal point sources 39 One of the biggest improvements has been in sewage treatment In the US provide examples of how we use water at s Dishwashers 17 01h er 4 39 2 3 Faucets Laundry 15397 21 6 I Companies inc Permission required for reproduction or display 6 Domestic Industrial Km3 of water i Withdrawal Consumption o Inthe US explain the sources ofwater pollution and safe water concerns Wmon manwwuammnm W mumrewind minimum my mum Aqulier mime 1quot lndusirial wasia Agricultural spraying A 39W We 1 Leaking undevgmund Abandoned well storage rank lnieclmn we Leaking We semis iank Suriaca Organic Chemicals Include Pesticides and Industrial Substances e two p I rincipal sources of toxic organic chemicals in water are 1 improper disposal ofindustrial and household wastes 2 pesticide runofffrom farm elds forests roadsides golf courses and private lawns Inthe US e plain v uy v dLCI 39 potential quot39 US Groundwater Supplies are Being Depleted Groundwater provides nearly 40 ofthe fresh water for agricultural and domestic use in the United States In many areas ofthe United fahe t an natural recharge can replace i Water withdrawal also allows aqui surface follows 39 A is being 39 from t fers to collapse Subsidence or sinking ofthe ground nother consequence of aquifer depletion is saltwater intrusion 39 107 r39 b 39 bnnmlminn in arid 39 39 39 quot V am uppc warns 39 39 39 mm 3 m E M 39 The Water Crisis Explain the pattern of water quality quantity and human health Summarize the key components of the East Africa Crisis Causes ofthe East African Crisis The US we won39t go near any aid for any organization af liated with Al Qaeda The UN world food program could end the famine but are too caught up in US politics Somalia39s weak transitional government just keeping out of the way of the fighting AlShabab have killed workers and prevented aid from getting in Famine collective habit of finding money and resources only after it is too late Kenyawoefully scandalously undeIinvested in livestock support education and basic infrastructure in its most vulnerable communities Climate change droughts are coming thick and fast over the last decades 8 Population growth parts of northern Kenya have doubled in the last 10 years 9911WNEquot SummaIize some political is sues that might be to blame for this crisis Food Crisis due to weak Somali Gov39t 20 years of con ict in Somalia Weakcentralized government Corruption by militant factions Interfere with aid delivery Somali people eeing to refugee camps in Ethiopia and Kenya Provide other reasons proposed for this crisis Is there evidence to support them Proposed plausible solutions based upon what we know of the problem What would it really take to fix this situation Consider biological political cultural economic aspects of a solution Locally EPA J 39 http Cnn serveWater html Practice water conservation at home Low ush toilets Shut of faucets when not in use Fix leaks Plant water tolerant plants in your yard Regionally Michigan Water Environment Association http wwwmi weaorg about uspl1p Support local legislation in your district to properly manage water Nationally EPA Green Initiative http wwwepagovzoaintrntlindexhtm Petition representatives and senators for sustainable water legislation and management Make your voice heard regarding water quality issues 0 Globally World Health Organization WHO http wwwwhointtopicswaterlenz Water Aid http wwwwateraidameiicanrgl Water0rg http watenorgl UNICEF http wwwunicef0gwashindex Iinkshtml mmv Pnn nv Sponsor group involved in global water issues Join a cause Select a career to assist with global water management rights Food Energy for Life I Explain how plants and animals derive the organic molecules sugars etc used in cellular respiration to create ener Metabolizes sugars to create cellular energy I Understand that cells require energy to do work I List the types of work that cells do Make stuff synthesis Breakdown stuff metabolism Move stuff transport Move themselves locomotion Reproduce themselves mitosis I Explain how plants and animals get the biomolecules they need to create energy to do work Either 1 Metabolized or broken down into smaller organic molecules 2 Synthesized or created from smaller organic molecules I Identify the main categories of biomolecules and their functions Lipids including fats and oils store energy for cells and they provide the core of cell membranes and other structures Hydrocarbons Carbohydrates including sugars starches and cellulose also store energy and provide structure to cells Proteins are composed of chains of subunits called amino acids Folded into complex 3d shapes proteins provide structure to cells and are used for countless cell functions Enzymes such as those that release energy from lipids and carbohydrates are proteins Proteins also help identify disease causing microbes make muscles move transport oxygen to cells and regulate cell activity Su ort Metabolism Transport Defense Regulation Motion Nucleic Acids are extremely important as signaling molecules they carry information between cells tissues and organs and as sources of energy within cells They also form long chains called RNA or DNA that are essential for storing and expressing genetic information Only four kinds of nucleotides occur in DNA but DNA contains millions of these molecules arranged in very speci c sequences These sequences of nucleotides provide genetic information or instructions for cells These instructions direct growth and development of an organism They also direct the formation of proteins or other compounds melanin Organic Molecules Summary iving things are made up of mainly carbon hydrogen and oxygen with traces of others calcium magnesium sulphur etc L organicmnlomlo things Mosrur mil kw 39 39 Functional groups when attached to a hydrocarbon skeleton ofa particular type in a certain way give the organic molecules their function Organic molecules are hmlzen rim n J to create structures thatcells need 4h cellsto v um or Diagram the ow ofenergyin an ecosystem mmme marmu Murinle m Parmlsslan Imullzd lanepmdudm a may Energy Conversions chloroplast co2 and H20 Chemical energy carbohydrate hast Chemlnal work anspnrl wark Mechanical wnrk ml mammalpummel a manual 0 only a Food Carbon and Energy Cycles 0 De ne the properties ofa biological system Healthy biological systems have stability and resilience J r Explain uuw 0 De ne food chain food web andtrophic system Food chain Food web Individual food chains become interconnected Tropic level An organism39s feeding status in an ecosystem 0 Diagram a basic trophic pyramid mmnmmamm lamam lm mammalsupmmmmw Trophlc levels Ternary consumers usually a quottopquot camivole Secondary consumers camlvores Consumers that lead at all levels Palasiles 24 Primary consumers scavengers herbivores D p photosynthetic planls algae bacteria 0 Diagram the carbon and nitrogen cycles Eupyuum Dmumcsmmm 9mm v Mm hummdlunuplmmchnnutnipuy Almospherlc co2 Respim oquot Resp gun cumbusriun human and name an Phalasynmesrs 60 a 5 I02 Pg 45 Nitrogen cycle 0 Give examples ofhow cycles are interrupted or altered by human agricultural activities Poor farmers may irrigate because they lack the technology to meter water and distribute just the amount needed Vise versa in wealthier countries farmers can afford watersaving technnlna urh 391 39 39 39 39 39 39 o F 394 mnrlnr39n rimrlhrral nrarlir Modern agriculture involves vast expanses ofa single crop often with little genetic variation w 39 h increases the need for new methods ofpestcontrol Pesticides have causes the killing of nontarget species creating new pests oforganisms that previously were not aproblem and causing widespread pesticide resistance among pest species Bene t pesticides Food Global Food Chain and Supply 0 Compare and contrast the bene ts and costs ofmodern agriculture Feeding Billions Benefils of Modern Agriculture Average caloric intake globally is increasing Access to high protein foods has increased substantially Investment intechnology has improved agricultural practices Increasing awareness ofsustainability concerns Ef cient food distribution machine Feeding Billions Cosls ofModern Agriculture verage caloric intake globally is increasing but quality of food is decreasing Access to high protein foods has increased substantially but at a cost to animal welfare and the environment Investment in technology has improved agricultural practices but we are not using our resources sustainabl Increasing awareness of sustainability concerns but hindered by threats of yield loss Efficient food distribution machine but this is based upon fossil fuels and food is becoming more processed Provide examples of each Support both sides of an argument for and against modern agriculture with an example such as corn I Apply corn as an example of how modern agriculture works from seed to product to distribution of products I Explain how corn has facilitated the abundance of food and other products derived from it I Answer questions related to the video America Revealed Food Machine Food Security and Global Food Crisis the End of Plenty I De ne food security Food security is the ability to obtain suf cient healthy food on a dayto day basis is a combined problem of economic environmental and social conditions I Describe the three pillars of food security Food Availability Sufficient quantities regularly available Food Access Resources to obtain food for a nutritious diet Food Use