Appl Envir & Organismal Bio
Appl Envir & Organismal Bio ISB 202
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angelita Tillman on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISB 202 at Michigan State University taught by Brian Maurer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/207798/isb-202-michigan-state-university in Biological Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Chapter One 1 Earth a The earth amp its systems are finite and limited b We can change it amp damage its systems 2 Environment a All the living amp nonliving things around us 39 Animals plants forests farms etc Continents oceans clouds ice caps i i Structures urban centers living spaces iv Social relationships amp institutions 3 Humans are part of nature a Humans depend on a healthy functioning planet b The fundamental insight of environmental science i We are part of the natural world but we can also change it ii Our interactions with its other parts matter a great deal c We depend completely on the environment for survival 39 Increased health longer lives wealth mobility leisure But natural systems have been degraded by pollution soil erosion species extinction etc iquot Environmental changes threaten longterm health and survival 4 Environmental Science a Study of i How the natural world works ii How the environment affects humans and vice versa b We need to understand our interactions with the environment i To creatively solve environmental problems c Global conditions are rapidly changing i We are also rapidly gaining knowledge ii The opportunity to solve problems is still available 5 We rely on natural resources a A natural resource is any substance and energy source needed for survival b Renewable natural resources can be replenished i Perpetually renewed 1 Sunlight 2 Wind 3 Wave energy ii Renew themselves over short periods of time these can be destroyed 1 Timber 2 Water 3 Soil c Nonrenewable natural resources unavailable after depletion i Oil ii Coal Chapter One iii Minerals 6 We rely on ecosystem services a Natural resources are quotgoodsquot produced by nature i Earth s natural resources provide quotservicesquot to us b Ecosystem services arise from the normal functioning of natural services i Purify waterampair ii Cycle nutrients iiI Regulate climate iv Pollinate plants v Receive amp recycle wastes c We degrade ecosystem services i By depleting resources destroying habitat generating pollution Increased human affluence has intensified degradation 7 Human population growth amplifies impacts a There are over 69 billion humans b Agricultural revolution i About 10000 years ago ll Allowed people to grow more food iii Increased population iv Crops amp livestock v Stable food supplies c Industrial revolution i About 200 years ago ii Urbanized society powered by fossil fuels 1 Oil 2 Gas 3 Coal iii Sanitation and medicines iv Pesticides and fertilizers 8 Resource consumption exerts pressures a Exploitation and consumption of resources is also a problem b Garret Hardin s tragedy ofthe commons i Unregulated exploitation of public resources leads to depletion amp damage 1 Soil 2 Air 3 Water c Resource users are motivated by self interest i They increase use until the resource is gone d Solutions to the tragedy of commons i Private ownership ii Voluntary organization to enforce responsible use iii Governmentalregulations Chapter One 9 Our ecological footprint a Affluence increases consumption b Ecological footprint the environmental impact of a person or population i The area of biologically productive land water ii To supply raw resources amp disposerecycle waste c People in rich nations have much larger ecological footprints d If everyone consumed the amount of resources the US does we would need 45 Earths 10 Overshoot a Humans have surpassed the Earth s capacity to support us b We are using renewable resources 30 faster than they are being replenished 11 Environmental Science a How will resource consumption and population growth impact today s global society b Civilizations have failed after degrading the environment i Easter Island Greek amp Roman Empires ii Once lush regions Iraq are now barren desserts c Civilizations succeed or fail according to how they interact with the environment i Alone with how they respond to problems 12 The nature of environmental science a Environment 6 impacts 9 humans b ts applied goal solving environmental problems i Solutions are applications of science c An interdisciplinary field i Natural sciences examines the natural world 1 Environmental science programs ii Social sciences examines values amp human behaviors 1 Environmental studies programs 13 What is an llEnvironmental Problem a Whether an environmental condition is seen as a problem i Depends on the individual and situation b Example the pesticide DDT i In malariainfested Africa welcome because it kills malariacarrying mosquitoes ii In America not welcome due to health risks c People also differ in their awareness of problems depending on who they are where they live amp what they do 14 Environmental Science is Not Environmentalism a Environmental Science i Pursues 39 39 390 about the 39 and our 39 39 with it ii Scientists try to remain objective and free from bias b Environmentalism i A social movement ii Tries to protect the natural world from humancaused changes 15 The Natural Science Chapter One a Science a systematic process of learning about the world and testing our understanding of it i The accumulated body of knowledge arising from the dynamic process of observation testing amp discovery b Civilization depends on science and technology i Science tries to understand the world and steer a safe course c Science is essential to sort fact from fiction i Develop solutions to the problems we face ii It must be accessible and understandable to the public 16 Applications of Science a Policy decisions and management practices i Restoration of forest ecosystems altered by human suppression of fire b Developing technology i Energyefficient electric car 17 Science Asks amp Answered Questions a It is an incremental approach to the truth b Scientists do not simply accept conventional wisdom i They judge ideas by the strength of their evidence c Observational descriptive Science information is gathered about organisms systems processes etc i cannot be manipulated by experiments ii phenomena are observed and measured iii used in astronomy paleontology taxonomy genomics 1l 18 The Scientific Method a traditional approach a It tests ideas i Scientists in different fields approach problems differently b Assumptions i The universe works according to unchanging natural laws ii Events arise from causes and cause other events iii We use senses and reason to understand natural processes c A scientist makes observation and asks questions of some phenomenon d Hypothesis a statement that tries to explain the question e The hypothesis generates predictions f Experiments test the validity of a hypothesis 39 Variable a condition that can change Independent variable can be manipulated iquot Dependent variable depends on the independent variable iv Controlled experiment the effects of all variables are controlled 1 Except the independent variable whose effect is being tested v Control an unmanipulated point of comparison vi Quantitative data uses numbers Chapter One vii Qualitative data does not use numbers g Hypotheses are tested in different ways i Manipulative experiments yield the strongest evidence 1 Reveals casual relationships 2 Lots of things can t be manipulated ii Natural tests show realworld complexity 1 Results are not neat and clean 2 Answers aren t black and white h The scientific process is part of a larger process i It guards against faulty research 1 Includes peer review publication competition for funding 19 Theories amp Paradigm Shifts a Theory a welltested and widely accepted explanation i Consolidates widelysupported related hypotheses b Paradigm shift a dramatic upheaval in thought i It changes the dominant viewpoint ii Example the theory of gravity c Wicked problems are complex with no simple solution i Example environmental problems 20 Sustainability amp the Future World a Sustainability we must live within our planet s means i So the Earth amp its resources can sustain us and all life for the future ii Involves conserving resources 1 Developing longterm solutions 2 Keeping fully functioning ecosystems b Natural Capital earth s total wealth of resources i We are withdrawing it faster than its being replenished ii We must live off of Earth s natural interest replenishable resources not its natural capital 21 Population amp Consumption a Population growth amplifies all human impacts i The growth rate has slowed but we still add more than 200K people to the planet each day b Resource consumption has risen faster than population i Life has become more pleasant ii Rising consumption also amplifies our demands on the environment c The 20 wealthiest nations have 55 times the income of the 20 poorest nations i 3 times the gap that existed 40 years ago 22 Ecological Footprints are Not all Equal a Not everyone benefits equally from rising affluence b The ecological footprints of countries vary greatly i The US footprint is much greater than the world s average Chapter One c In the US the richest 1 of people have 25 of all income 23 We face challenges in agriculture a Technology expanded food production i Leading to increased population and consumption b It s one of humanity s greatest achievements but it comes at an enormous environmental cost i Nearly half of the land surface is used for agriculture ii Chemical fertilizers and pesticides poison and change natural systems 24 We face challenges in pollution a Waste products amp artificial chemicals i Are used in farms industries amp households ii Contaminate land water amp air iii Kills millions of people b Humans are affecting the Earth s climate i Melting glaciers ii Rising sea levels iii Impacted wildlife forests health amp crops iv Changed rainfall amp increased storms 25 We face challenges in biodiversity a Biodiversity the cumulative number amp diversity of living things b Human actions have driven many species extinct i Biodiversity is declining dramatically ii We are setting in motion a mass extinction event 26 The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment a Most comprehensive scientific assessment of the condition of the world s ecological systems b Humans have drastically altered ecosystems c These changes have contributes to human wellbeing and economic development but at a cost d Environmental degradation could get much worse e Degradation can be reversed but requires work 27 Our energy choices will affect our future a The lives we live today are due to fossil fuels i Machines ii Chemicals iii Transportation iv Products 57 Fossil fuels are a onetime bonanza i Supplies will certainly decline c We have used up V2 of the world s oil supplies 28 Sustainable solutions abound a We must develop solutions that protect both our quality of life and the environment
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