Media Impacts on Society
Media Impacts on Society TC 401
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tate O'Reilly on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TC 401 at Michigan State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see /class/207810/tc-401-michigan-state-university in Telecommunication at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
TC 401 Final Exam Review F813 1292013 61400 AM FINAL EXAM REVIEW Social media in society TC401002 Saturday December 7 13 IMPORTANT INFORMATION 0 The exam will take place in class on Tuesday December 10 2013 1245 pm 0 You will have the entire class to complete the exam 0 Make sure to arrive on time STUDY ADVICE Everything we ve covered since the midterm exam is fair game This includes the following readings slides videos referred to in the readings participation questions and CTEs If you have not completed the readings yet I advise you to GET STARTED There s a rather large amount of readings and not knowing what the readings say might hinder your ability to answer exam question correctly Use the slides found on Angel and the video lectures as guides to focus on topics from the readings Ensure to watch the video lectures The slides mostly include bullet points that are further explained in the video lectures STUDY ADVICE QampA Q Should I memorize everything A Yes and No The exam has mostly multiplechoice questions that ask about specific details in the slides and readings So you have to know and understand everything in the readings and on the slide but only memorize specific definitions and lists Use these slides as a guide Q OK this was not a decisive answer Seriously what should I memorize A In the exam you shou id be able to rem em ber definitions of major concepts as well as lists that provide context to some of the concepts Q Should I really read everything It s too much information A You SHOULD read everything but you SHOULD NOT memorize everything Q Should I know authors names A Yes Several questions reference authors names to ask you about certain concepts You do NOT need to memorize names but familiarize yourself with who wrote the articles TESTTAKING ADVICE Arrive at least 510 minutes earlier than class start time Bring at least one 1 pencil Keep your bagsnoteselectronic devicesmobile devices either at the front or back of the classroom Student cannot keep any items on this list under or by their seat No capshatshoodies are allowed Answer the questions So often students overcomplicate questions Most questions are straightforward Simply answer the questions Ask questions We will be available during the entire exam time to answer your questions if you have any Questions are encouraged in cases where you need clarification about an exam question Questions such as I answered Q10 as B do you think it s correct will not be answered Saturday December 7 13 EXAM LOGISTICS You will have the entire class period to complete the exam 80 minutes If you require accommodation make sure to A let us know about it ASAP and B remind the TA of the type of accommodation you require before the exam starts The exam has 40 multiple choice questions and three 3 shortessay questions ALL QUESTIONS should be answered on the scantron sheet including the essay questions Write your first and last names on the Exam Paper and submit it along with your scantron at the end of the exam Write your last name first initial PID number section number 002 and other important information on the scantron sheet 8 SOCIAL MEDIA ADDICTION o Symptoms of social media addiction 0 1 Blurred Lines between offline and digital identity for yourself and others 0 2 interference with social life 0 3 high level of digital proficiency o 4 continuous digital selfawareness and higher weight for impressions others form about us 0 5 need to be in constant connectivity o 6 negative health effects eg sleep o 7 high sense of reward from social media use 0 8 denial of being an addict o 9 acknowledgement of family amp friends of one s addictive social media use behaviors o Types of Internet addiction 0 1 Computer addiction Computer game addiction 0 2 Information Overload Web surfing addiction 0 3 Net Compulsions Online Gambling amp Online Shopping addiction 0 4 Cybersexual Addiction Online PornSex Addiction 0 5 CyberRelationship Addiction Online Relationships Kussamp Griffiths argue that Social Networking addiction is a type of cyberrelationship addiction but it could also fall under Computer and Information overload addictions o Definition of social media addiction 1 Social Media Addiction SMA same as addiction but the individuals pathological pursuit is for reward or relief by use ofsocia media SMAis a behavioral disorder related to excessive use of social mediathat can result in dysfunctions of brain reward memory and related circuitry on the psychological social and spiritual levels It is characterized by inability to consistently abstain impairment in behavioral control craving diminished recognition of significant problems with one s behaviors and interpersonal relationships and a dysfunctional emotional response as a result of this excessive use of social media o Brain responses to posting about one s self on social media 0 Rewards your brain the same way food amp sex does 0 STUDY paid to answer simple questions q s about themselves were worth less then other types of q s the average person gave up 1725 of possible earnings to talk about their own feelings 0 Normally people spend 3040 of conversation on themselves on social media its 80 o Major trends in social media addiction 0 1 in 3 under age 30 prefer social media freedom over salary o 56 wouldn t work where social media access is restricted regardless of salary o Five psychological traits driving social media use lst m Fear Of Missing Out Texting and status updates allow us to be more easily involved in the lives of others then ever before m 56 afraid of missing event news important status if they don t keep checking SM MyLifecom 2nd m Ouremotional attraction appears to be tied to having an audience more than toconnect socially our cultural obsession with self drives us to update our status to tag ourselves in photos Social media outlets are learning fast how to monetize this psychological drive it s big business 3rd Perceived Value Perception Reality We keep using social media because of incentivized values we get out of this use that matches our needs In addition to boosting out ego and bragging about cool things we like to win 4th Control As soon as consumers enter the marketplace they gain power because power comes from choice Consumer power is a brand new force and it s growing exponentially as a result of more affluence running in parallel with more choice Seth Godin We Are All Wired 5th Self Esteem We experience increase in selfesteem after having social connections and support reaffirmed Social connections are a valuable asset Counter Argument Says that its impossible to say someone is addicted to social media because that would be the same as saying they were addicted to being social Research Found People addicted to SNSs experience symtoms similar to those experienced by those who suffer from addictions to substance or other behaviors 0 Risk for Higher SNS addiction narcissistic tendencies Identify themselves as SNS users amp look for belongingness on SNSs 0 Signs of Addictive use of SNSs High extraversion Low conscientiousness High sense of loneliness Low socialization Offline 0 Comorbiditx Prism Says that mental disorders can bring additional subclinical problems and disorders Must be addressed in clinical practice in order to improve treatment outcomes Causing emergence od clinical centers to treat SNS and Social media addiction More testing needed for treating comorbidity when dealing with social media and SNS use 9 COLLABORATION o Understand the concept of wisdom of the crowd o WOTC process taking into account the collective opinion of a group of individuals rather than a single expert to answer a question James Surowiecki says The Wisdom of the crowds lead to correct or most accurate decisions and judgements o Four conditions for wisdom of crowds JAMES SUROWIECKI lst Diversity Many different points of view make for better decisions than one where everyone know the same information 2nd Independence Peoples opinions are not determined by those around them Aka avoiding the circular mill problem 3rd Decentralization Power resides all over Incorporating new ideas EX Opensource software development 4th Aggregation Average Aggregation process of determining groups answer based on many individual responses Aggregation best done when group responses are reviewed by an individual and incorporated in a single shared vision for everyone in the group o 0 Definition of collective intelligence 0 Collective Intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration collective efforts and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making 0 Bonabeau E 2009 Decision The power of collective intelligence Collective intelligence perform better than theorists can explain Better suited for idea generation than idea evaluation 0 The collective intelligence typology by Malone Laubacher ampDellarocas 2009 groups of individuals doing things collectively that seem intelligent lst WhoUndertakes the activity Crowd gene is a central feature of web enabled collective intelligence systems a 2 types a Hierarchy someone in authority assigns people to perform the task a Crowd assignments undertaken by anyone in a large group who wants to no assigned tasks by an authoritative position 2nd Why partakeRecent yearse Love and Glory are motivatos Traditional Organization money is motivating force a My Financial gain is big motivator for actors n M intrinsic enjoyment socialization sense of contribution to a cause u m desire to be recognized by peers for contribution 3rd What is done a Create generating something new ex software code blog entry designing a Decide evaluation and selecting alternatives 4th How Independent Dependent Create Collection Collaboration Decide Individual Group Decision Decision a Collection items by crowd are created independently of each other a Collaboration dependencies exist between contributions a Group Decision 4 types lst Voting 2nd Consensus 3rd Averaging 4th Prediction Markets estimate probability of future events a Individual Decision decisions informed by crowd input but don t need to be identical o Markets formal exchange o Social networks network relationships translate into trust similarity commonality o Major Wikipedia trends 0 WHO uses wiki 8th most visited site 14 of internet users visited Wikipedia last month 50 of women amp 56 of men the more education higher use Wikipedia 0 m do people use wiki 69 edits to fix errors 73 edit because they like the idea of sharing knowledge 0 M is being done Create Decide editing and rating decide is content is credible 0 HOW is it being done Collection initial creation is independently done Collaboration editing provides a unified vision Group Decision amp Individual Decision both used on wiki anyone can edit Administrator can intervene o Major social media trends Facebook Twitteramp YouTube 0 Facebook 115 Billion users 700 Billion minutes spent on FB monthly 75 users outside USA Every 20 minutes a 1 million links shared a 2 million friend requests a 3 Million Messages sent 0 Twitter 550 Million users 50 million daily tweets 143199 Tweets per second highest 75 users outside of USA 0 YouTube 1 Billion unique monthly visitors 6 Billion Hours of video watched monthly 100 hours of video uploaded a minute 70 users outside USA 1834 year olds watch YouTube more than any cable channel Social Media Trends by Businesses and Nonprofits o Fastest Growing companies have corporate blogs 0 62 of fortune 500 companies active twitter accounts 2 increase from last year 0 Google and Whole foods have highest followers Marketing strategies using Facebook Twitter and YouTube 0 FACEBOOK marketing Paid advertising targeted Organic Presence IE Pages Sponsored Conversations Platforms IE Plugins amp apps 0 TWITI39ER ma rketing Organic presence profile Promoted presence Organic use of Trends 0 YouTube Organic presence channelsuploads Display ads Invideo overlay ads Promoted video InStream ads Marketing Ad PR Benefits of using Facebook Twitter and YouTube What s it good for 0 Facebook Monitoring Conversations Starting Conversations Targeted advertisingmarketing concepts Building relationships with consumers Engaging with consumers 0 Twitter Monitoring conversations about the brand Generating buzz Direct engagement with consumers Providing Instantaneous information Customer Service 0 YouTube Generating brand awareness through viral videos Direct engagement with consumers Driving traffic to brand websites Monitoring consumer interaction with the brand Tips for creating successful social media campaigns differentiate between tips for using media and tips for being social 0 Tips for using Media 9 Choose media carefully consider Target amp Message Pick app or make your own Ensure activity alignment consistency across multiple platforms Media Plan Integration Traditional and social media integration make up Corporate Image Access for all 0 Tips about being Social Be Active Be Interesting Be Humble Be unprofessional Be Honest o Characteristics of highly engaging campaigns list and define o Transparency Sharing news as it happens despite it not being beneficial for the organization 0 Interactivity Ensuring smooth information flow between community and brand where actions are initiated by both producers and consumers o Immediacy Releasing info as is becomes available 0 Commitment Consumers are as committed as producers o Cocreation twoway communication 0 Collaboration Producers and consumers work together to develop the brand and achieve a goal 0 Experience products viewed as experience not just purchases 0 M result of transparency cocreation and collaboration o Design principles for engagement 0 Tell a Story 0 Empathize o Authenticity 0 Match Media Who customers are likesdislikes where on SNSs why those cites how intensely they use it 11 SOCIAL MEDIA amp HEALTH o Health information seeking online trends 72 look for health info online 0 o 77 began on search engines 0 13 on specialized websites 0 2 on general site 0 1 began on social media 0 most people went online for diagnosis of self and others 0 most people search for specific diseases or medical problems 0 Caregivers are more active in seeking health information online o Considerations for Effective social media health lst Uses and Gratifications Why do we use social media 2nd Organizational Commitment Affective attachment Continuance attachment Normative attachment 3rd Social Identity Theory 4 key concepts all contribute to development of cognative affective and evaluative social identity 1st Social categorization 2nd Social identity 3rd Social comparison 4th Psychological distinction 4th Social Network Threshold SNT Categorizes tech adopters into 1st Early adopters 2nd Early majority 3rd Late majority 4th Laggard 5th Common Identity amp Common Bond theory antecedents Common Identity theory Social categorization interdependence intergroup comparisons Common Bond theory Social Interaction with others personal knowledge of others personal attraction to others through similarities Definitions and explanations of health behavioral change theories and how they can be used on social media 0 Transtheoretical model 5 Stages of health behavior change lst Precontemplation 2nd Contemplation 3rd Preparation 4th Action 5th Maintenace 0 Health belief model behavior change is facilitated through 5 difference aspects of the behavior Perceived Susceptibility Perceived Severity Perceived Benefit Perceived Barriers Cues to Action symptoms or reminder 0 Social cognitive theory 4 aspects of Behavior change Expectation about the environmental cues Expectations about outcomes Expectations about selfefficacy personal ability to complete a task Incentives 0 Theory of reasoned action 4 step process to behavior change need first three for behavior change to happen positive Attitude towards subject Subjective norms What does society think about this behavior Behavior Intentions intention to change behavior These three lead to Behavior change 12 SOCIAL MEDIA amp POLITICS o Major trends in online political participation 0 O Contacted government officials Online 34 offline 39 Signed a petition Online 17 Offline 22 o Contacted government official about an important issue online 18 Offline 21 0 Online traditional political actives are most popular among the welleducated and the financially welloff 0 Liberals use SNSs the most o Public Sphere realm within social life in which public opinion can be formed and accessible to all o Public Sphererelating to online political and civic participation Access to information More opportunities to engage in public speech Enhance ability to undertake collective action Reliance on SNSs only predicted civic participation where O greater reliance on SNSs was associated with greater engagement in civic activities o Slacktivism coined by Malcolm Gladwel refers to the ways in which online participation decreases the chances of offline participation in civic and political actions o Differentiate the instrumental and environmental views on technology s role in social change 0 Environmental view positive change follow the development of a strong public sphere slowly developing public sphere relying on media and conversation 0 Instrumental View freedom of information freedom for anyone to produce public media freedom to converse 13 SOCIAL MEDIA 81 PRIVACY 0 Definitions of online privacy and how they relate to basic constitutional rights in the United States o Online Privacy The right to be left alone the most comprehensive right and most valued by civilized men Louis Brandeis o Constitutional rights protect Americans beliefs thoughts emotions and sensations o Major trends related to online privacy and privacy on social media 0 0 Increasing importance of online privacy Males more likely to choose public and partially private settings Females more likely to set settings to private Private settings are the norm regardless of age Young adults more aware of need to protect privacy by Clearing cookies Deleting or editing old posts Disableing cookies Not using site because it asked for real name Used temporary usernameemail o Major privacy concerns access use and control 0 Access to private information by hackers criminals advertisers companies and government agencies Use Unauthorized use of private information for advertising and marketing that hinders freedom of expression selling information to third parties Control Unauthorized exposure to advertising and marketing content fabrication of information especially in negative consequences Misusespying on SNS users as a part ofjob candidate evaluation or college applications Identity theft Saturday December 7 13 1292013 61400 AM
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